Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Science

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 90

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Piloting Brief, Just-In-Time Training Videos For Mentors: Expanding And Strengthening Motivational Interviewing For Youth, Mackenzie J. Hart Oct 2023

Piloting Brief, Just-In-Time Training Videos For Mentors: Expanding And Strengthening Motivational Interviewing For Youth, Mackenzie J. Hart

Theses and Dissertations

Having paraprofessional providers, such as youth mentors, deliver evidence-based services, has been posited to increase the reach of youth services given the affordability and ubiquity of mentors in school settings. Further, examinations of mentor-delivered Motivational Interviewing (MI) have shown promise in increasing youth mentees’ academic performance and wellbeing. Yet, traditional methods used for training mentors to use MI effectively and sustainably can be costly and time-consuming processes. Previous work has suggested the value of asynchronous, brief, just-in-time trainings (JITTs) to help offset these challenges; however, MI JITTs for mentors have not yet been formally evaluated. As such, the present study …


Exploring Students’ Epistemological Understanding Of Atomic Structure Models, Claire V. Ward, Morgan Balabanoff Sep 2023

Exploring Students’ Epistemological Understanding Of Atomic Structure Models, Claire V. Ward, Morgan Balabanoff

The Cardinal Edge

Developing a robust understanding of atomic structure and the nature of matter is foundational across chemistry and STEM courses. The development of this concept is challenging because it relies on models to illustrate something not directly observable. Scientific models are important tools used to explain phenomena, particularly phenomena that are not directly observable. In general chemistry, students are typically asked to consider four different models: (1) the particle model, (2) the nuclear model, (3) the Bohr model, and (4) the Quantum model. Each depiction has its own advantages and limitations, where instructors introduce each model to explain specific parts of …


Integrated Stem Learning Activity: Effect On Student Engagement And Learning, Leslie Deitrich Sauder Jan 2023

Integrated Stem Learning Activity: Effect On Student Engagement And Learning, Leslie Deitrich Sauder

Dissertations and Theses

Student engagement in math and science courses decreases starting in middle school and continues throughout high school (Museus et al., 2011). This lack of engagement results in students taking only the required math and science coursework and not advanced coursework that would help prepare them for future careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. Integrated STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) learning activities may be used to promote student engagement and learning. This experimental design study was conducted with students in grades 3-5 in one rural mid-sized school district in the upper mid-west. Student engagement was analyzed using a …


A New Direction For Public Understanding Of Science: Toward A Participant-Centered Model Of Science Engagement., Christopher Rickels Dec 2022

A New Direction For Public Understanding Of Science: Toward A Participant-Centered Model Of Science Engagement., Christopher Rickels

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Engaging the public with science is not an easy task. When presented, scientific findings, public health recommendations, and other scientific information filter through the personal values, beliefs, and biases of members of the public. Science communicators must contend with these differences in order to be effective in cultivating a public understanding of science. Given the importance of scientific understanding for living well in a complex world, increasing science understanding through science engagement is imperative. The field of public engagement with science is dichotomized by a public information deficit approach and a contextualist approach. The deficit approach prizes the factual content …


Research And The Replication Crisis: A Psychology Course Proposal, Kathryn Fassih Aug 2022

Research And The Replication Crisis: A Psychology Course Proposal, Kathryn Fassih

Honors Projects

For my project, I have created a course syllabus and lab manual for undergraduate students to learn more about the replication crisis in the field of psychology and learn how to conduct hands-on research through replicating carefully selected studies.


Effects Of Religious And Science Identity On Compatibility, Darby C. Casey Apr 2022

Effects Of Religious And Science Identity On Compatibility, Darby C. Casey

Honors College

Science and religion sometimes appear to clash; for example, some religious organizations reject COVID-19 restrictions on religious grounds. However, many people, like millions of religious scientists, see science and religion as perfectly compatible. The purpose of this study is to examine how people who identify as religious and people who identify as scientists think about science and religion as either compatible or in conflict. The study was conducted with psychology and honors undergraduate students at the University of Maine and consisted of surveys asking about students’ religious and science commitment, as well as their perceptions of the science-religion relationship. We …


The Future Of Women In Psychological Science, June Gruber, Jane Mendle, Kristen A. Lindquist, Toni Schmader, Lee Anna Clark, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Modupe Akinola, Lauren Atlas, Deanna M. Barch, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Jessica L. Borelli, Tiffany N. Brannon, Silvia A. Bunge, Belinda Campos, Jessica Cantlon, Rona Carter, Adrienne R. Carter-Sowell, Serena Chen, Michelle G. Craske, Amy J. C. Cuddy, Alia Crum, Lila Davachi, Angela L. Duckworth, Sunny J. Dutra, Naomi I. Eisenberger, Melissa Ferguson, Brett Q. Ford, Barbara L. Fredrickson, Sherryl H. Goodman, Alison Gopnik, Valerie Purdie Greenaway, Kate L. Harkness, Mikki Hebl, Wendy Heller, Jill Hooley, Lily Jampol, Sheri L. Johnson, Jutta Joormann, Katherine D. Kinzler, Hedy Kober, Ann M. Kring, Elizabeth Levy Paluck, Tania Lombrozo, Stella F. Lourenco, Kateri Mcrae, Joan K. Monin, Judith T. Moskowitz, Misaki N. Natsuaki, Gabriele Oettingen, Jennifer H. Pfeifer, Nicole Prause, Darby Saxbe, Pamela K. Smith, Barbara A. Spellman, Virginia Sturm, Bethany A. Teachman, Renee J. Thompson, Lauren M. Weinstock, Lisa A. Williams May 2021

The Future Of Women In Psychological Science, June Gruber, Jane Mendle, Kristen A. Lindquist, Toni Schmader, Lee Anna Clark, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Modupe Akinola, Lauren Atlas, Deanna M. Barch, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Jessica L. Borelli, Tiffany N. Brannon, Silvia A. Bunge, Belinda Campos, Jessica Cantlon, Rona Carter, Adrienne R. Carter-Sowell, Serena Chen, Michelle G. Craske, Amy J. C. Cuddy, Alia Crum, Lila Davachi, Angela L. Duckworth, Sunny J. Dutra, Naomi I. Eisenberger, Melissa Ferguson, Brett Q. Ford, Barbara L. Fredrickson, Sherryl H. Goodman, Alison Gopnik, Valerie Purdie Greenaway, Kate L. Harkness, Mikki Hebl, Wendy Heller, Jill Hooley, Lily Jampol, Sheri L. Johnson, Jutta Joormann, Katherine D. Kinzler, Hedy Kober, Ann M. Kring, Elizabeth Levy Paluck, Tania Lombrozo, Stella F. Lourenco, Kateri Mcrae, Joan K. Monin, Judith T. Moskowitz, Misaki N. Natsuaki, Gabriele Oettingen, Jennifer H. Pfeifer, Nicole Prause, Darby Saxbe, Pamela K. Smith, Barbara A. Spellman, Virginia Sturm, Bethany A. Teachman, Renee J. Thompson, Lauren M. Weinstock, Lisa A. Williams

Psychology: Faculty Scholarship

There has been extensive discussion about gender gaps in representation and career advancement in the sciences. However, psychological science itself has yet to be the focus of discussion or systematic review, despite our field’s investment in questions of equity, status, well-being, gender bias, and gender disparities. In the present article, we consider 10 topics relevant for women’s career advancement in psychological science. We focus on issues that have been the subject of empirical study, discuss relevant evidence within and outside of psychological science, and draw on established psychological theory and social-science research to begin to chart a path forward. We …


The Effects Of Acute Exercise On Retrieval Induced Forgetting, Walter Simpson Apr 2021

The Effects Of Acute Exercise On Retrieval Induced Forgetting, Walter Simpson

Honors Theses

Retrieval Induced Forgetting (RIF) is a type of active forgetting that may play beneficial and detrimental roles in long-term memory. The benefit of the retrieval of certain information is that information will become more readily available following subsequent retrieval; a concept termed the retrieval practice effect (RP). The detrimental effect of RIF may be that, upon the subsequent recall of certain information, related information may be inhibited from recall. The effects and mechanisms of RIF have remained a topic of debate among neuroscientists, psychologists, and other related scholars. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute …


Teacher Questioning Practices In Early Childhood Science Activities, Erin Hamel, Yuenjung Joo, Soo-Young Hong, Anna Burton Jan 2021

Teacher Questioning Practices In Early Childhood Science Activities, Erin Hamel, Yuenjung Joo, Soo-Young Hong, Anna Burton

Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies: Faculty Publications

This study explores teachers’ use of questioning during collaborative science exploratory activities. We classified a total of 755 questions across 14 preschool science lessons implemented by four teachers by type (open- or closed-ended) and content (science- or non-science-related) while also recording the intended recipient. Results revealed that, overall, teachers primarily asked closed-ended questions to children during preschool science activities. While closed-ended questions outnumbered open-ended, science-related questions were more likely to be open-ended questions. We noticed this trend whether the teacher directed the question to a group of children or an individual child. Gender of the child recipient was also explored …


The Queer Agenda: A Fluid Education, Charlee Corra Oct 2020

The Queer Agenda: A Fluid Education, Charlee Corra

Summit to Salish Sea: Inquiries and Essays

Throughout this paper, I weave together various aspects of my identity in order to investigate how fluidity and questioning form an undercurrent of my being and therefore of the way I teach. Through metaphors and narratives of my experiences within environmental education and experiential learning I seek clarity and expansiveness rather than definitive answers, leaning into the certainty that change is inevitable and there are rarely any static answers. Using queerness, Judaism, and my scientific background as the layers of my unique identity lens and positionality, I explore the ways in which the power of questioning, critical thinking, democratic education …


Book Review: The Intelligence Of The Cosmos: Why Are We Here? By Ervin Laszlo, Elizabeth W. Szatmari Krasnoff Aug 2020

Book Review: The Intelligence Of The Cosmos: Why Are We Here? By Ervin Laszlo, Elizabeth W. Szatmari Krasnoff

Journal of Conscious Evolution

Ervin Laszlo breaks down his theory of everything into a credo of 8 statements. This review looks in some detail at Laszlo’s theories and also touches on the other writers who have been invited to participate. It is noteworthy that Laszlo breaks with the current scientific belief that we are without purpose, and that evolution has no purpose. He believes that compassion, love, and expansion are our purposes for being here.


Animal Pain And The Social Role Of Science, Leslie Irvine Sep 2019

Animal Pain And The Social Role Of Science, Leslie Irvine

Leslie Irvine, PhD

Assuming that all animals are sentient would mean ending their use in most scientific research. This does not necessarily imply an unscientific or anti-scientific stance. Examining the social role of science reveals its considerable investment in preserving the status quo, including the continued use of animal subjects. From this perspective, the use of animal subjects is a custom that science could move beyond, rather than a methodological requirement that it must defend.


Negative Appraisal Correlation To Ptsd Symptoms Among Law Enforcement Officers, Ginger Lee Jenkins Jan 2019

Negative Appraisal Correlation To Ptsd Symptoms Among Law Enforcement Officers, Ginger Lee Jenkins

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Law enforcement officers are exposed to traumatic events through their daily work responsibilities. Traumatic events have increased within recent decades and can have long-term and critical outcomes on officers such as health concerns, long-term psychological issues, social impairment, and work performance. Thus, this quantitative study was conducted to explore negative appraisals of cumulative traumatic events and their relation to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in law enforcement officers. Based on the theoretical framework for the study, Ehlers and Clark's cognitive model, negative appraisals involve how an individual interprets a situation, negative appraisals of traumatic events lead to maladaptive behavior and …


An Explication Of All Cogent Scientific Conceptualizations Regarding The Non-Dual: Finding Nothing To Write, Harris L. Friedman Sep 2018

An Explication Of All Cogent Scientific Conceptualizations Regarding The Non-Dual: Finding Nothing To Write, Harris L. Friedman

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Sometimes more is less, even within scholarly writing, known for its all too frequent verbosity. This paper follows approaches that sparingly used words, even to the point of using no words at all. One example of this strategy is a renowned psychology article describing its author’s unsuccessful self-treatment of his own writer’s block, which led to a blank paper (Upper, 1974). Another, in the area of interventions, which are commonly seen as demanding empirical support to evaluate risk-benefit analyses, involved a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of parachutes in preventing deaths. This research was presented, but never conducted—as no controlled trials …


A Neurotheological Approach To Spiritual Awakening, Andrew B. Newberg, Mark R. Waldman Sep 2018

A Neurotheological Approach To Spiritual Awakening, Andrew B. Newberg, Mark R. Waldman

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

A neurotheological approach suggests an analysis of spiritual awakening experiences by combining phenomenological data with neuroscience. This paper presents a synthesis combining information on the thoughts, feelings, and experiences associated with spiritual awakening experiences and neurophysiological data, primarily from neuroimaging studies, to help assess which brain structures might be associated with these experiences. Brain structures involved with emotions correlate with emotional responses while areas of the brain associated with the sense of self appear to correlate with the key feature of these experiences in which an individual loses the sense of self and feels intimately connected with God, universal consciousness, …


Confronting Sexism In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Math (Stem): What Are The Consequences?, Eden J.V. Hennessey Jan 2018

Confronting Sexism In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Math (Stem): What Are The Consequences?, Eden J.V. Hennessey

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Disparaging remarks that female scientists are ‘Distractingly Sexy’ (Waxman, 2015) and ‘Too Pretty to Do Math’ t-shirts (Amazon.com) highlight the common belief that women in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) violate perceived gender norms. However, by confronting these beliefs, women may incur a ‘double-dose’ of hostility; once for being present in science, and again because of the confrontation itself (Kaiser & Miller, 2001). Across three studies, this research tested how women confronting sexism in STEM contexts would elicit and anticipate social costs. Study 1 showed that male participants rated a hypothetical female confronter in STEM higher in bossiness and …


Peace Guardians, Watts Bears And The Maori Haka, Zachariah Fisher Dec 2017

Peace Guardians, Watts Bears And The Maori Haka, Zachariah Fisher

The STEAM Journal

In the summer of 2017, Peace Guardians carried out a summer school program for twenty inner city kids ranging from 8-13 years old in Watts Los Angeles. The program was part of the annual Watts Bears summer school. The Watts Bears are group of student football and track athletes coached by the Los Angeles Police Department. Working in conjunction with the Watts officers and coaches, Peace Guardians and guest teachers spent four hours a day with the students facilitating mindfulness exercises and the Haka as wellness tools to incorporate into their lives in and out of the classroom and football …


The Return Of Perennial Perspectives? Why Transpersonal Psychology Should Remain Open To Essentialism, Steve Taylor Sep 2017

The Return Of Perennial Perspectives? Why Transpersonal Psychology Should Remain Open To Essentialism, Steve Taylor

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

In reply to Hartelius’s (2016) response to my paper “From Philosophy to Phenomenology: The Argument for a ‘Soft’ Perennialism” (Taylor, 2016a), I provide arguments in support of my model from contemporary scholars of mysticism, who advocate a move from a philosophically-based perennialism to a phenomenologically-based essentialism. This discussion illustrates that perennialist perspectives are far from outmoded. I discuss the metaphysical aspects of my model, suggesting that there is no reason why transpersonal psychology should not address metaphysical issues, as long as they are secondary to phenomenological issues, and as long as they are based on evidence rather than wholly speculative. …


Keeping The Account Open: On Metaphysical Mistrust In Transpersonal Psychology (A Response To Hartelius, 2017), Steve Taylor Sep 2017

Keeping The Account Open: On Metaphysical Mistrust In Transpersonal Psychology (A Response To Hartelius, 2017), Steve Taylor

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

In response to Hartelius (2017), I suggest that the evidence for perennialism or essentialism can be tested, and is publicly accessible, through engagement with the spiritual practices that have given rise to cross-cultural mystical experiences with common characteristics. This suggests that essentialism could be included in transpersonal psychology (and psychology in general). I suggest that there is no reason why transpersonal psychology should exclude metaphysical claims, as long as they are inferred or implied by research and evidence, explicitly stated and viewed as secondary. It is impossible to avoid metaphysics, and it is important for transpersonal psychologists (and all psychologists …


Moving Beyond Materialism: Can Transpersonal Psychology Contribute To Cultural Transformation?, Steve Taylor Sep 2017

Moving Beyond Materialism: Can Transpersonal Psychology Contribute To Cultural Transformation?, Steve Taylor

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

The issue of whether it is possible to separate science and metaphysics is discussed, with reference to William James and the writings of quantum physicists. The metaphysical framework of scientific materialism is analysed and some of its key assumptions are identified. It is suggested that these assumptions are becoming increasingly untenable, as is evident by the advocacy of post-materialist science by some contemporary scientists. The main appeal of transpersonal psychology to students and practitioners is arguably its lack of allegiance to a materialist metaphysics. Rather than allying itself to the metaphysical paradigm of naturalistic science or attempting to bracket out …


Relational Cultural Theory And Mentoring In A Science Support Program, Kathleen Buehler Jun 2017

Relational Cultural Theory And Mentoring In A Science Support Program, Kathleen Buehler

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Increasing the number of Latinx students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a national priority, but statistics show that Latinx students are still underrepresented in these fields (U.S. Department of Education, 2014). Mentoring interactions are thought to be integral to the retention and success of STEM students (George & Neale, 2006) and a contextualized mentoring model that both supports growth in STEM fields and also meets the needs of underrepresented groups is essential. This study used relational cultural theory (RCT; Ragins & Fletcher, 2007) to examine non-hierarchical relational mentoring approaches within STEM contexts. Using qualitative data from …


Unreplicable: The Unscientific Nature Of Science Journals, Ernest M. Oleksy May 2017

Unreplicable: The Unscientific Nature Of Science Journals, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Academia shapes the way our species looks at veracity and defines what is deemed as well-founded science. The platform for researchers to make their work known is academic journals. The prerogative of these journals is to disseminate technically sound work so that the public may be informed of up-to-date advances in scientific fields. However, these journals are products on the market whose ultimate purpose is to garner a following that will make the producers money. This results in research that does not have statistically significant findings, or replications of past experiments which are integral to supporting the findings of the …


A Comprehensive Computer Aided Tool For Evaluating Mid-Level Managers, Ryan Hankins Apr 2017

A Comprehensive Computer Aided Tool For Evaluating Mid-Level Managers, Ryan Hankins

Honors Projects

This project is a case study for a tool which would test and evaluate users on managerial skills and industrial-organizational psychology concepts. The tool developed during this project is a proto-type for a virtual assessment center which would offer a lower cost alternative to in-person assessment centers. The virtual assessment center evaluates users on process skills and soft skills that have been shown to be associated with successful mid-level managers. The proto-type has a business game to measure process skills and two situational judgment tests to measure two dimensions related to soft skills. To implement the business game, the proto-type …


Animal Pain And The Social Role Of Science, Leslie Irvine Jan 2017

Animal Pain And The Social Role Of Science, Leslie Irvine

Animal Sentience

Assuming that all animals are sentient would mean ending their use in most scientific research. This does not necessarily imply an unscientific or anti-scientific stance. Examining the social role of science reveals its considerable investment in preserving the status quo, including the continued use of animal subjects. From this perspective, the use of animal subjects is a custom that science could move beyond, rather than a methodological requirement that it must defend.


An Examination Of Accessible Hands-On Science Learning Experiences, Self-Confidence In One’S Capacity To Function In The Sciences, And Motivation And Interest In Scientific Studies And Careers., Mick D. Isaacson, Cary Supalo, Michelle Michaels, Alan Roth Nov 2016

An Examination Of Accessible Hands-On Science Learning Experiences, Self-Confidence In One’S Capacity To Function In The Sciences, And Motivation And Interest In Scientific Studies And Careers., Mick D. Isaacson, Cary Supalo, Michelle Michaels, Alan Roth

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

This study examined the potential relationship of accessible hands-on science learning experiences to the development of positive beliefs concerning one’s capacity to function in the sciences and motivation to consider science as a college major and career. Findings from Likert survey items given before and after engaging in accessible hands-on science laboratories show that students who were blind or had low vision (BLV) were more likely to agree with the following items after engaging in accessible science experiences: 1) I plan on enrolling as a science major in college; 2) My educational experiences, so far, have given me the …


What Does Motivated Mean? Re-Presenting Learning, Technology, And Motivation In Middle Schools Via New Ethnographic Writing, Justin Olmanson Oct 2016

What Does Motivated Mean? Re-Presenting Learning, Technology, And Motivation In Middle Schools Via New Ethnographic Writing, Justin Olmanson

Middle Grades Review

This article offers a critique of the way middle schoolers are often positioned as generalizable objects that can be acted upon to produce measurable increases in motivation and learning. The critique invites a reconsideration and cultural analysis of some of the dominant discourses and perceptions of technology, young adolescence, and the study of motivation. The use of New Ethnographic Writing—a method that performs a cultural critique via extended scenes connects to the roles and status of motivation, technology, and educational research methods deployed within public schools. Coupled with weak theory, this approach offers a way to understand young adolescents as …


Animal Minds, Cognitive Ethology, And Ethics, Colin Allen, Marc Bekoff Sep 2016

Animal Minds, Cognitive Ethology, And Ethics, Colin Allen, Marc Bekoff

Marc Bekoff, PhD

Our goal in this paper is to provide enough of an account of the origins of cognitive ethology and the controversy surrounding it to help ethicists to gauge for themselves how to balance skepticism and credulity about animal minds when communicating with scientists. We believe that ethicists’ arguments would benefit from better understanding of the historical roots of ongoing controversies. It is not appropriate to treat some widely reported results in animal cognition as if their interpretations are a matter of scientific consensus. It is especially important to understand why loose references to ‘‘cognitive ethology’’ by philosophers can signal ignorance …


Enhancing Scientific Comprehension Through Content Acquisition Podcasts, Caroline Elizabeth Williams Sep 2016

Enhancing Scientific Comprehension Through Content Acquisition Podcasts, Caroline Elizabeth Williams

Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to determine the effectiveness of using Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs) to teach children with learning disabilities scientific vocabulary. CAPs are multimedia instructional podcasts that combine images and sound to teach supplemental vocabulary. Four children ages 9 to 10 with learning disabilities were taught vocabulary words to prepare them for end-of-year testing. Words were taken from units about rocks, soil and fossils. This study used a multiple probe multiple baseline across units design. Data analysis showed that three of four participants experienced significant improvement in at least one of three units. Social validity questionnaires showed that all four …


Using Systematic Instruction To Teach Science To Students With Severe Disabilities, Anna E. Greene May 2016

Using Systematic Instruction To Teach Science To Students With Severe Disabilities, Anna E. Greene

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

Science content is still a commonly over-looked academic content area for students with severe disabilities despite recent research. The purpose of this study was to show that students with severe disabilities can learn science content in a whole group setting when taught using applied behavior analytic principles, such as prompting and fading techniques. Four elementary-aged students with severe disabilities between 1st and 5th grade were taught science content using group lessons and effects were measured by a multiple baseline design across units. Participants were taught content from three different units: Energy, weather, and plants; the science content selected …


Premises Of A Natural Science Of Consciousness, Ervin Laszlo Mar 2016

Premises Of A Natural Science Of Consciousness, Ervin Laszlo

CONSCIOUSNESS: Ideas and Research for the Twenty-First Century

According to the mainstream of modern science, there cannot be a natural science of consciousness because consciousness does not actually exist in nature. It is a product or by-product of the workings of the brain. There is a natural science of brain and the nervous system, for these are bona fide elements of the world, but there cannot be a natural science of a phenomenon of which the very existence is in question. In the prevalent view con2sciousness is something that happens when neurons fire in the brain. This is said to be confirmed by experience. There is no consciousness …