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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Philosophical Psychopathology And Individuation: The Archetype Of The Self And Rediscovering Personality, Alyc Jordan-Crump Rideout Feb 2023

Philosophical Psychopathology And Individuation: The Archetype Of The Self And Rediscovering Personality, Alyc Jordan-Crump Rideout

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Psychopathology has been associated to personality in trait characteristics as a contributing factor to mental illness, but the degree to which personality development as an influence in mental pathologies remains under researched at a phenomenological level. Thus, leaving a significant gap in psychopathological clinical literature on the functional role personality development is associated with psychopathology. In the modern era, the medical symptomology model of mental illness set by the DSM serves as the justification for psychotropic medication prescription as well as the diagnostic criteria for mental pathology but, there is limitations to functional ideals of mental health based off diagnostic …


Using Workplace Personality To Guide Improvement Of Law Enforcement Selection, Chase A. Winterberg, Michael A. Tapia, Bradley J. Brummel Nov 2022

Using Workplace Personality To Guide Improvement Of Law Enforcement Selection, Chase A. Winterberg, Michael A. Tapia, Bradley J. Brummel

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

Recurrent police-public conflict suggests misalignment in desired police behavior between police and the public. We explored differences in desired police characteristics between police and members of the American public. Although racial minorities endorsed more negative attitudes of police overall, we found no meaningful differences in desired police characteristics between police and the public or between racial minority and majority participants. Second, we combined multiple criterion-related validation studies in similar jobs via meta-analyses and synthetic validity analyses to identify personality predictors of police performance dimensions. Third, we assessed base rates and adverse impact of these personality characteristics in police. Incumbent officers …


Reduced Social Contact And Attachment Insecurity As Predictors Of Loneliness During Covid-19: A Two-Month Experience Sampling Study, Katie C. Lewis, Michael J. Roche, Fiona Brown, Jane G. Tillman Sep 2022

Reduced Social Contact And Attachment Insecurity As Predictors Of Loneliness During Covid-19: A Two-Month Experience Sampling Study, Katie C. Lewis, Michael J. Roche, Fiona Brown, Jane G. Tillman

Psychology Faculty Publications

The impact of reduced social contact on mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic has been identified as a major public health concern. While personality factors such as attachment style have been associated with psychological distress during the pandemic, the longitudinal relevance of these factors and the role of daily social contact in mitigating distress remains poorly understood. This study evaluated the impact of social contact and attachment style on changes in loneliness over an 8-week experience sampling period during the COVID-19 pandemic. A general adult sample (n = 184) recruited online completed measures of psychological distress, attachment, and loneliness via …


Virtual Reality, Mindfulness And Their Associations To Personality Traits, Somer Schaffer Aug 2022

Virtual Reality, Mindfulness And Their Associations To Personality Traits, Somer Schaffer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mindfulness, conceptualized as actively noticing and engaging with oneself and one’s surroundings with a nonjudgmental mind, is associated with many positive outcomes such as healthy relationships, stress reduction, performance engagement, and increased well-being. Virtual reality (VR) technologies offer people immersive experiences to engage with novel environments for entertaining and therapeutic purposes. While in any VR environment, participants may perceive themselves as if they are in the scenes, that is, they experience moment-to-moment awareness and immersion in these virtual environments. Thus, practicing mindfulness meditation with technologies like smartphones and VR has become increasingly popular over the past decade. However, little research …


The Influence Of Personality Trait Variation On Curiosity Seeking Behaviours, Brian Krivoruk Aug 2022

The Influence Of Personality Trait Variation On Curiosity Seeking Behaviours, Brian Krivoruk

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Curiosity is defined as our desire to acquire new information and leads us to engage in information-seeking behaviours. The present study investigates how personality influences curiosity-based information-seeking behaviours during a state of curiosity induced by unsuccessful memory recall. Specifically, this study assessed the personality traits of deprivation-type (D-type), interest-type (I-type), and intolerance of uncertainty to explore their role in curiosity-based decisions making. Information-seeking choices were examined during unsuccessful recall in a paradigm using face-name pairs. The behaviour was correlated with responses from a series of questionnaires that looked at personality traits associated with curiosity and information-seeking. The findings suggested that …


A Latent Class Analysis Of Personality Traits With Educational Attainment, Tyler Minter Aug 2022

A Latent Class Analysis Of Personality Traits With Educational Attainment, Tyler Minter

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

The five-factor model of personality (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience) is an empirically based personality model that has been utilized in multiple psychological assessments. Recent works have found Block & Block’s (1980) three personality profiles (resilient, overcontrolled, undercontrolled) within the context of the five-factor model. This study performed a latent class analysis using a short FFM assessment from the SAPA project, a free online personality test. The intention of this study was to replicate the three personality profiles within the five-factor model. Four latent classes were included in the final solution. Two of the three personality profiles emerged …


Posttraumatic Growth And Primal World Beliefs Among People Who Have Caused Accidental Death Or Serious Injury, Mark L. O'Brien Aug 2022

Posttraumatic Growth And Primal World Beliefs Among People Who Have Caused Accidental Death Or Serious Injury, Mark L. O'Brien

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Background. Posttraumatic growth (PTG)—positive changes that people may experience in the aftermath of highly distressing experiences—has been observed in survivors of a variety of events but has not been previously studied among people who have caused accidental death or injury (PCADIs). In addition, questions remain about the role, in PTG, of changes in the assumptive world and the relationships between PTG and distress, personality, and social support. Methods. Participants (N = 528), included PCADIs (n = 44) and a non-trauma comparison group (n = 484), who completed the Primals Inventory and measures of personality, anxiety, and depression. …


Exploring The Divergent Social Dimensions Of Ceo Narcissism On Internal Firm Outcomes, Andrew Brandon Blake Aug 2022

Exploring The Divergent Social Dimensions Of Ceo Narcissism On Internal Firm Outcomes, Andrew Brandon Blake

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I move away from the common clinical conception of narcissism in management to a novel two-dimensional concept and measurement of narcissism. Because these dimensions are shown to have divergent motives, goals, social strategies, and behaviors, I theorize that these differences in narcissism will have diverging effects on the firm. Then, I shift the conceptual focus of CEO narcissism research from the CEO as an agentic decision-maker seeking external praise for firm consequences to an implicit social strategist who prioritizes short-term interpersonal interactions in service of narcissistic supply. I examine four internal outcomes likely to be influenced by …


Sociability Moderates The Negative Association Between Covid-Related Disruptions And Life Satisfaction, Amna Khan, Katherine L. Fiori Jun 2022

Sociability Moderates The Negative Association Between Covid-Related Disruptions And Life Satisfaction, Amna Khan, Katherine L. Fiori

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Disruptions in individuals’ lives during the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with increased mental health problems and decreases in life satisfaction, although recent research indicates that these effects are not uniform across individuals. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of sociability in moderating the association between COVID-related disruptions and life satisfaction in a sample of adults. Using data from an online survey given to N = 166 adults, COVID-19 disruptions related to conflicts with household members or roommates and disruptions in care during the pandemic were negatively associated with life satisfaction. Sociability was found to …


The Impact Of Personal Resources, Job Resources And Job Demands On Nurse Engagement, Michael J. Kern Jun 2022

The Impact Of Personal Resources, Job Resources And Job Demands On Nurse Engagement, Michael J. Kern

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In today’s VUCA (Volatile, Complex, Uncertain, and Ambiguous) world, the more we understand about how individual differences interact with the work environment to impact employee engagement the greater our chances are of making changes to lead to positive work outcomes regardless of the profession. There is no profession better suited for this type of investigation than that of nursing. Previous research has shown that more highly engaged nurses are able to provide better care and thus increase the chances of a more favorable outcome. There are many factors that can impact work engagement and one accepted model that helps to …


The Reliability And Validity Of The Open Enneagram Of Personality Scales, Kayleigh Kastelein May 2022

The Reliability And Validity Of The Open Enneagram Of Personality Scales, Kayleigh Kastelein

ELAIA

The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of the thirty-six-item Open Enneagram of Personality Scales (OEPS). Our general hypothesis was that the OEPS would show adequate reliability evidence but not validity evidence. Participants were acquired through a small denominationally affiliated Midwest university, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and social media. Test-retest reliability was done with 249 participants, whereas internal consistency reliability, factor analysis, and correlations with the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) were done using 1,039 participants. An average Pearson’s correlation of .68 (range: 0.54 - 0.75) showed inadequate test-retest reliability for the …


“I Can See The Forest For The Trees”: Examining Personality Traits With Trasformers, Alexander Moore May 2022

“I Can See The Forest For The Trees”: Examining Personality Traits With Trasformers, Alexander Moore

All Dissertations

Our understanding of Personality and its structure is rooted in linguistic studies operating under the assumptions made by the Lexical Hypothesis: personality characteristics that are important to a group of people will at some point be codified in their language, with the number of encoded representations of a personality characteristic indicating their importance. Qualitative and quantitative efforts in the dimension reduction of our lexicon throughout the mid-20th century have played a vital role in the field’s eventual arrival at the widely accepted Five Factor Model (FFM). However, there are a number of presently unresolved conflicts regarding the breadth and …


The Impact Of The Covid Pandemic On First Year Students' Locus Of Control, Self-Efficacy And Well-Being, Alexandra E. Bishop Apr 2022

The Impact Of The Covid Pandemic On First Year Students' Locus Of Control, Self-Efficacy And Well-Being, Alexandra E. Bishop

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

Locus of control, self-efficacy, and well-being are well-studied personality concepts, but the change in these variables, and their relationships, over extremely stressful and uncontrollable periods, such as the Covid-19 pandemic, has not been assessed. The current study evaluated change in locus of control, self-efficacy, and well-being, as well as their relationships with one another, in a sample of students by comparing current data to data collected before the Covid-19 pandemic. It was hypothesized that locus of control would become more external, self-efficacy would increase slightly, and well-being would decrease. Results revealed that locus of control became significantly more external, while …


Exploring The Impacts Of Student Classification On Perceptions Of Success, Mackenzie Richmond Apr 2022

Exploring The Impacts Of Student Classification On Perceptions Of Success, Mackenzie Richmond

Honors Theses

There are several definitions of success, and everyone has their own personal take. Some define success as receiving honors, rewards, or having good relationships, while researchers have their own success vocabulary. Although there is a battle between logic and sociality for perceptions of success, it is commonly agreed that success is linear and multifaceted. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of student classification (undergraduate and graduate/professional students) on perceptions of success. Knowing how someone perceives success offers insight into that person. Such insight can equip therapists on ways to personalize a therapeutic approach, including goals and …


Race, Masculinity, And Personality Development: Understanding The Black Male Experience In America, Veronica High Apr 2022

Race, Masculinity, And Personality Development: Understanding The Black Male Experience In America, Veronica High

Dissertations

Although men from all racial backgrounds have several poor health outcomes, most of the research suggests that Black men have even worse health outcomes compared to White men (Bowman, 1989; Watkins & Neighbors, 2007; Williams, 2003). The majority of published research on masculinity, however, has primarily focused on samples of White men. The issue of how racism intersects with masculinity and its impact on Black men remains understudied and is a current area of focus in the field. The present study examined relationships between Black men on the cultural measures of masculinity and self-esteem, Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism), …


Two Peas In A Pod? An Investigation Of Friendship And Personality Perception, Josephine N. Collins Apr 2022

Two Peas In A Pod? An Investigation Of Friendship And Personality Perception, Josephine N. Collins

Honors Theses

This study investigated whether we can tell people are friends by looking at them. Participants viewed sets of four photos, two of which are friends, and rated personality, appearance, and friendship likelihood. I expected real friends to have higher friendship likelihood ratings and personality similarity. The results indicated self-other agreement among ratings of personality by real friends, but there were not significant patterns among the other variables.


The Connection Between Body Modification And Personality, Taylor Shoemaker Apr 2022

The Connection Between Body Modification And Personality, Taylor Shoemaker

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

Previous research has been inconsistent in its findings regarding the associations between body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, augmentation, scarification, split tongue) and the Big Five personality traits (i.e., openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism). All traits have been found to be significantly correlated with body modification in at least one study, but their significance differed from study to study. The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations between body modification and each domain of personality concurrently to add to the literature surrounding differences between modified and unmodified individuals. To participate in this study, participants were asked …


The Mental Noise Hypothesis: A Relation Between Neuroticism And P3 Latency Variance In A Stroop-Style Reaction Time Task, Jeremy Lawrence Apr 2022

The Mental Noise Hypothesis: A Relation Between Neuroticism And P3 Latency Variance In A Stroop-Style Reaction Time Task, Jeremy Lawrence

All NMU Master's Theses

Neuroticism is a relatively stable personality dimension characterized by tendencies to experience negative thoughts and affect. Its empirically related outcome measures range from anxiety and mood disorders to increases in mortality. Traditional theories of neuroticism, link the construct to greater threat sensitivity, however, these conceptions fail to account for certain salient features of neuroticism, such as negative affect in threat benign environments. The mental noise hypothesis posits that neuroticism results from a more variable mental control system, with support coming from behavioral, psychometric, and neuroimaging paradigms. To assess whether this more chaotic mental control system would variably disrupt the stimulus …


From An Ambivert's Perspective: The Relationships Between Personality Types, Attachment Styles, And Behavioral Tendencies Of Introverts And Extroverts, Andrew Chang Apr 2022

From An Ambivert's Perspective: The Relationships Between Personality Types, Attachment Styles, And Behavioral Tendencies Of Introverts And Extroverts, Andrew Chang

Senior Theses

Over the years, there has been continuous discussion around the idea that extroverts dominate the business workplace over introverts and vice versa. However, depending on the work setting and skillsets needed, it is imperative to realize how certain business practices, personality styles, and relationship approaches are different in every scenario. For this research thesis, the goal was to compare the personality and attachment styles of students who study in two different cultural environments, seeing if there were any apparent relationships between the two variables and student behavioral tendencies. Previous studies have shown that personality, behaviors, and attachment levels can predict …


Dispositional Gratitude, Health-Related Factors, And Lipid Profiles In Midlife: A Biomarker Study, Andree Hartanto, Nadyanna M. Majeed, Verity Y. Q. Lua, Joax Wong, Nicole R.Y. Chen Apr 2022

Dispositional Gratitude, Health-Related Factors, And Lipid Profiles In Midlife: A Biomarker Study, Andree Hartanto, Nadyanna M. Majeed, Verity Y. Q. Lua, Joax Wong, Nicole R.Y. Chen

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Dispositional gratitude has emerged in the literature to be associated with many health benefits in measures ranging from self-reported health to biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. However, little is known about the link between dispositional gratitude and lipid profiles. Drawing from the Gratitude and Self-improvement Model that grateful individuals are more likely to strive for actual self-improvement such as engaging in healthy lifestyles, we investigated the relation between dispositional gratitude and serum lipid levels. Participants consisted of 1800 adults from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) 2: Biomarker Project (N= 1054) and MIDUS Refresher: Biomarker Project …


Psychological Factors That Interfere With Provider Use Of Medication Assisted Treatment For Opioid Use Disorder, Courtney Spencer Apr 2022

Psychological Factors That Interfere With Provider Use Of Medication Assisted Treatment For Opioid Use Disorder, Courtney Spencer

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Since the implementation of Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT) for treatment of Opioid Use Disorder (OUD), providers have struggled to obtain the necessary waiver (X-waiver) due to required federal applications, training, and guidelines around prescribing. Nevertheless, prescribers have gone through this arduous process to gain their X-waiver, but a unique phenomenon has occurred where some providers with an X-waiver are not utilizing their ability to prescribe MAT. The current study sought to uncover trends in providers prescribing practices while assessing possible factors involved including personality, compassion, compassion fatigue, personal connection, and confidence factors that may be associated with a willingness to …


Individual Differences In Response To Hostile And Benevolent Sexism In A Stem Interview Context: The Moderating Role Of Behavioral Activation, Elizabeth Kiebel Mar 2022

Individual Differences In Response To Hostile And Benevolent Sexism In A Stem Interview Context: The Moderating Role Of Behavioral Activation, Elizabeth Kiebel

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Women continue to face sexism in workplace contexts, especially those that are male dominated, such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Yet, women often fail to confront the sexism they experience, despite confrontation being an effective way to cope with and prevent future harassment (Fitzgerald et al., 1995; Magley, 2002). To date, no one has assessed the potential moderating role of personality differences related to approach motivation on women’s confrontation of sexism. In this study, women were exposed to either a hostilely sexist or benevolently sexist question during a mock job interview that was purportedly being conducted as part …


The Effect Of English Language Proficiency And Glossary Provision On Personality Measurement, Damian Canagasuriam, Sharmili Jong, Wendy Darr Mar 2022

The Effect Of English Language Proficiency And Glossary Provision On Personality Measurement, Damian Canagasuriam, Sharmili Jong, Wendy Darr

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

Research on English language learners suggests that language proficiency can affect the validity of standardized test scores. This study examined whether the provision of a glossary as a test accommodation during personality test completion influences the measurement of personality. Using an experimental research design, participants recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk and Prime Panels (n = 206) were first categorized as having limited or high English language proficiency and then randomly assigned to a glossary condition. The results indicate that providing a within-text glossary does not impact the construct validity and reliability of personality measures. The results also suggest that …


The Role Of Personality In Early Alliance Formation In The Context Of Clinical Supervision Of Psychotherapists In Training, Cynthia Bilodeau, Stéphanie Lalande, Andréanne Kyle Jan 2022

The Role Of Personality In Early Alliance Formation In The Context Of Clinical Supervision Of Psychotherapists In Training, Cynthia Bilodeau, Stéphanie Lalande, Andréanne Kyle

Journal of Educational Supervision

The literature suggests that working alliance is an important predictor of clinical supervision outcomes. However, little is known about the individual factors that influence the development and maintenance of the working alliance. This study aims to explore the role of supervisor and trainee personality traits in the development of early working alliances, as well as supervisor and trainee concordance rates in the context of clinical supervision. This study used the NEO-PI-3 measure to assess personality traits and the Working Alliance Inventory-Supervisor and Trainee Versions (WAI) measures to assess working alliance ratings. Results suggest that supervisors rate the strength of their …


The Relationship Between Neuroticism And Situation Perception, Elizabeth G. Lester, Gigi Emiliani, Keeley Trainer, Kaylianna Mccormick Jan 2022

The Relationship Between Neuroticism And Situation Perception, Elizabeth G. Lester, Gigi Emiliani, Keeley Trainer, Kaylianna Mccormick

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

Personality traits, in particular neuroticism, can influence the way individuals perceive situations as seen in Rauthmann’s study (2015) that saw consistent perceptions within the same traits. A study by Thomson (2016) found evidence for a relationship between negative perspectives and neuroticism. Additionally, McNulty (2008) saw that neurotic couples tended to have more relationship difficulties due to the negative assumptions. These negative viewpoints and assumptions translate to situation perception. The participants were recruited from Belmont University’s Introduction to Psychological courses. The subjects took two self-reported surveys regarding their personality, particularly anxiety and neuroticism, and were presented with hypothetical situations to see …


The Internal And External Expectancies Scale: Development And Validation., Joanne Raptis Jan 2022

The Internal And External Expectancies Scale: Development And Validation., Joanne Raptis

Theses and Dissertations

Healthy lifestyle habits are widely known to improve physical and psychological wellbeing, but many struggle to regularly practice these behaviors. As an overarching solution has yet to emerge, it may prove more fruitful to instead personalize behavior change recommendations and interventions. The present study examined whether individual responsiveness to internal and external expectations can be measured, as it could be a useful behavioral factor to target with tailored treatment recommendations. This construct was first postulated by popular author Gretchen Rubin (2015) but has yet to be studied empirically. For the current project, the Internal and External Expectancies Scale (IEES) was …


Understanding How Different Personality Models Can Predict Non-Suicidal Self-Injurious Behaviors, Rachel Chavin Jan 2022

Understanding How Different Personality Models Can Predict Non-Suicidal Self-Injurious Behaviors, Rachel Chavin

Dissertations and Theses

The current study seeks to examine the role of maladaptive personality traits and personality functioning’s relationship with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) engagement and suicidal behavior. Specifically, this study examined the validity of the Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) in predicting historical and prospective self-harm behavior in comparison to the Five Factor Model. This study recruited 400 female participants, ages 18-24, who completed a battery of measures about personality functioning, traits, self-harm, and suicidal history. Two weeks after the initial assessment, participants completed a follow-up survey to assess their NSSI behavior over the past two weeks. Through point-biserial correlations, this study …


Personality And Coping In Response To Traumatic Experiences In Emerging Adult Women, Julia J. Beier Jan 2022

Personality And Coping In Response To Traumatic Experiences In Emerging Adult Women, Julia J. Beier

Theses and Dissertations--Family Sciences

Intimate dating violence is a common occurrence, especially among women (CDC, 2019). Because this type of trauma is so prevalent, it is important to explore how experiences of it impact women and how they cope with its effects. This study explored how individual differences impact the ways in which young women cope with trauma, as well as whether the type of trauma moderate the link between individual differences and coping strategies. Participants were 304 college-age women from a large university in the southeastern United States. Trauma was select items from the Trauma History Questionnaire, while coping was measured using the …


Early Maturing Out Of Problematic Alcohol Use, Sarah J. Peterson Jan 2022

Early Maturing Out Of Problematic Alcohol Use, Sarah J. Peterson

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Most research suggests that alcohol use peaks in the college years then declines into the mid-thirties (Jochman & Fromme, 2010). However, there is evidence that some individuals mature out earlier: downward trends for some individuals begin in college, with as many as one third of students decreasing their drinking (Baer et al., 2001). It is crucial to identify factors that differentiate those who decrease their drinking early from those who persist in high levels of consumption; doing so would clarify risk for college-related alcohol problems and perhaps subsequent alcohol use disorder, and aid in earlier targeted prevention and intervention. This …


Using Metaperceptions To Evaluate Conscientiousness And Predict Gpa, Montana R. Woolley Jan 2022

Using Metaperceptions To Evaluate Conscientiousness And Predict Gpa, Montana R. Woolley

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Personality measures have been used for decades to predict many important workplace outcomes, however, the literature reveals weak predictive validities (Barrick et al., 2001; Morgeson et al., 2007). This study investigates metaperceptions, or an individual’s belief about how others perceive them (Laing et al., 1966), to determine if they are a more effective predictor of behavioral outcomes than the typical self-report measures used today. Metaperceptions capture a different perspective than classic self-reports and other-reports, and therefore may measure a different source of construct relevant variance. Using a student sample (N = 181), we tested three main hypotheses: (1) combining self-ratings, …