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Motivation

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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Trial Spacing And The Conditioned Motivational Effects Of A Food-Predictive Cue, Gabrielle M. Sutton May 2023

Trial Spacing And The Conditioned Motivational Effects Of A Food-Predictive Cue, Gabrielle M. Sutton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stimuli in the environment can come to influence motivation and behavior through a process known as Pavlovian conditioning. During Pavlovian conditioning, stimuli in the environment come to predict the availability of a reward. Two different procedures are used to investigate how stimuli can modify ongoing behavior and reward consumption, known as Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and potentiated feeding, respectively. In other procedures that investigate how stimuli modify behavior, certain time intervals during Pavlovian training can influence how much a stimulus can modify behavior. One of those intervals is the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the associated reward. This interval …


Identity, Schemas, And Adaptive Change: Self-Affirmation For Use By Spirit-Empowered Christian Counselors, Angela L. Watson Dec 2022

Identity, Schemas, And Adaptive Change: Self-Affirmation For Use By Spirit-Empowered Christian Counselors, Angela L. Watson

Salubritas: International Journal of Spirit-Empowered Counseling

Recent dramatic events, coupled with increased connectivity via technology, have led to many shifts in global culture. These shifts have been accompanied by an increased awareness of mental health needs, including those of Christians. Although people may realize they need to make important life changes for their mental and behavioral health, it is not always clear where they should begin. Moreover, when they recognize a need for change, this experience is often perceived as threatening. People’s innate discomfort with uncertainty then requires that they fight both the temptation to avoid the truth about themselves and the practical obstacles that naturally …


A Triangulation Study Of Young Women’S Motivations For Sending Nudes To Men, Olivia R. Checkalski, Sarah Gervais, Kathryn Holland Nov 2022

A Triangulation Study Of Young Women’S Motivations For Sending Nudes To Men, Olivia R. Checkalski, Sarah Gervais, Kathryn Holland

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Women frequently send sexualized nude images to men (i.e., nudes), but women’s motivations for sending nudes are unclear because there are methodological limitations in the ways that cyber sexual activity has been defined and measured. To address these gaps in the literature, we employed a mixed method triangulation design to assess young women’s motivations for sending nudes to men, and how motivations compare when measured qualitatively and quantitatively. Across our qualitative and quantitative data, we found that women endorsed a plethora of motivations for sending nudes to men—far more than any one approach captured. The open-ended responses revealed positive sexual …


Assessing The Validity Of A Culturally Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire For Use In Aboriginal Communities, David Tucker, Martyn Symons, Elaine Clifton, Margaret Ramirez, James P. Fitzpatrick, Roz Walker, Glenn Pearson, Michelle Gray, Gary Kirby, Nyanda Mcbride Sep 2022

Assessing The Validity Of A Culturally Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire For Use In Aboriginal Communities, David Tucker, Martyn Symons, Elaine Clifton, Margaret Ramirez, James P. Fitzpatrick, Roz Walker, Glenn Pearson, Michelle Gray, Gary Kirby, Nyanda Mcbride

Journal of the Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet

Alcohol related harms disproportionately affect Aboriginal people in Australia. Motives to drink have been identified as the most proximal factor to alcohol consumption.The aim of this study is to assess the validity of a culturally modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R) (Cooper, 1994) with Aboriginal participants. The study was cross sectional, utilising data collected via face-to-face surveys with a sample of adult Aboriginal participants. A convenience sample of 135 Aboriginal men (n=41) and women (n=94) from the Pilbara Region of Western Australia, who had consumed alcohol in the preceding 12 months. The Culturally modified DMQ-R (CDMQ-R) developed in consultation with Aboriginal …


A Prescription Of Positive Psychology: Bridging The Intention-Behavior Gap In Social Prescribing In The Uk, Jill Rzym Aug 2022

A Prescription Of Positive Psychology: Bridging The Intention-Behavior Gap In Social Prescribing In The Uk, Jill Rzym

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Although people have intentions to change their behavior, many do not take any action, and this discrepancy is called the intention-behavior gap. Studies estimate the gap is as high as 50%, a figure of some significance in health behavior change. This paper explores the intention-behavior gap in the context of social prescribing in the UK. It looks at the current problems of measurement and evaluation within social prescribing and the potential impact of the intention-behavior gap. The paper also considers the current research addressing the gap and proposes an alternative solution based on a positive psychology framework and positive psychology …


Examining The Structure And Outcomes Of Work Motivation Profiles: A Mindset-Based Approach, Leonid V. Beletski Aug 2022

Examining The Structure And Outcomes Of Work Motivation Profiles: A Mindset-Based Approach, Leonid V. Beletski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Self-determination theory (SDT) distinguishes between both quality and quantity of motivation. Motivation within SDT has been treated both as a unidimensional (autonomy continuum) and multidimensional (motivation types) construct. Recently, Meyer et al. (2022) suggested that drawing a distinction between reasons for exerting effort and the mindset experienced while exerting effort may help reconcile the two approaches. Using profile analyses, Meyer and colleagues demonstrated that reasons for engaging in an activity combine in ways that are not unambiguously interpretable from an SDT standpoint. In the present study (N = 500), we replicate the results of Meyer et al. using reason-based motivation …


College Athletes’ Views On Academics: A Qualitative Assessment Of Perceptions Of Academic Success, Amanda M. Brouwer, John Johanson, Thomas Carlson Jul 2022

College Athletes’ Views On Academics: A Qualitative Assessment Of Perceptions Of Academic Success, Amanda M. Brouwer, John Johanson, Thomas Carlson

Journal of Athlete Development and Experience

The primary purpose of the current study was to give “voice” to college athletes regarding their views on academics. Given their perspectives, means of promoting their academic achievement were suggested. Research describing athletes’ experiences and the impact of socio-emotional stressors on academic success, especially for those not at a Division I school, is needed. Therefore, a qualitative study exploring the academic experiences of college athletes was conducted. Twelve focus groups of college athletes (N = 62) from six teams were held. Results revealed that college athletes are motivated to achieve by external factors and see grades as an external …


Overcoming Procrastination: Time Pressure And Positive Affect As Compensatory Routes To Action, Jana Kuhnel, Ronald Bledow, Angela Kuonath Jun 2022

Overcoming Procrastination: Time Pressure And Positive Affect As Compensatory Routes To Action, Jana Kuhnel, Ronald Bledow, Angela Kuonath

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

The current work seeks to identify factors that support action initiation from the theoretical lens of self-regulation. Specifically, we focus on factors that reduce procrastination, the delay of the initiation or completion of activities. We draw from action control theory and propose that positive affect operates as a personal and time pressure as a situational factor that unblock routes to action. High positive affect makes people less prone to procrastination because positive affect reduces behavioral inhibition and facilitates the enactment of intentions. By contrast, when positive affect is low, people depend on time pressure as an action facilitating stimulus. We …


The Effect Of Brief Exposures To Fitspiration Images On Motivation To Exercise And Body Image Concerns In Latinx College Students, Roberto Sagaribay May 2022

The Effect Of Brief Exposures To Fitspiration Images On Motivation To Exercise And Body Image Concerns In Latinx College Students, Roberto Sagaribay

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Social media is used by three quarters of the population; however, the literature has suggested its potential adverse impact on mental health. Social media behaviors are associated with body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. Fitspiration is an extension of social media that consists of photos and messaging aimed toward motivating users to exercise. Studies have demonstrated how these posts impact body image concerns and unhealthy weight management behaviors to achieve the thin and toned body ideal. Thus, the aim of this study was to experimentally assess motivations to exercise, body image concerns, and negative mood after brief exposures to …


The Influence Of Tetrabenazine On Operant Behavior And Binge-Like Eating Model In Rats, Reileigh Fleeher May 2022

The Influence Of Tetrabenazine On Operant Behavior And Binge-Like Eating Model In Rats, Reileigh Fleeher

Honors Scholar Theses

Tetrabenazine (TBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) inhibitor that preferentially depletes dopamine (DA), produces depressive symptoms including motivational symptoms in humans. In rodents, it reduces selection of high-effort effort alternatives in effort-based choice tasks, but does not affect food intake or preference (Nunes et al. 2013; Yang et al. 2020). However, no studies have focused on the effects of TBZ on binge-like eating to determine if it would influence “hedonic eating”. The current study used both binge-like eating and effort-based operant tasks in rats. To assess effects on binge-like eating, non-food restricted rats (n=8) were exposed to chocolate over 12 …


A Global Experiment On Motivating Social Distancing During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Nicole Legate, Thuy-Vy Nguyen, Et Al. May 2022

A Global Experiment On Motivating Social Distancing During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Nicole Legate, Thuy-Vy Nguyen, Et Al.

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Finding communication strategies that effectively motivate social distancing continues to be a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This crosscountry, preregistered experiment (n = 25,718 from 89 countries) tested hypotheses concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of social distancing messages that promoted personal agency and reflective choices (i.e., an autonomy-supportive message) or were restrictive and shaming (i.e., a controlling message) compared with no message at all. Results partially supported experimental hypotheses in that the controlling message increased controlled motivation (a poorly internalized form of motivation relying on shame, guilt, and fear of social consequences) relative to no message. …


Measuring Changes In Motivation In Response To An Online Repeated Reading Intervention With Self-Monitoring, David N. Longhurst May 2022

Measuring Changes In Motivation In Response To An Online Repeated Reading Intervention With Self-Monitoring, David N. Longhurst

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reading is a complex cognitive process that is integral to learning, achievement, and future life outcomes. Students with reading disabilities struggle to obtain information and develop specific interests. Unfortunately, many students in the United States do not meet expected reading benchmarks. Also due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, has presented multiple challenges for student academic reading growth. Motivation beliefs, such as self-efficacy, interest, and goal-directed behavior, play an important role in students’ education and development. This study examined whether motivational constructs change throughout the course of an online repeated reading intervention with self-monitoring. Five elementary students were selected …


The Role Of Motivation In Employee Disposition And Choosing To Act Among Manufacturing Employees: A Grounded Theory Of Discretionary Effort, Shawn Michael Andrews Apr 2022

The Role Of Motivation In Employee Disposition And Choosing To Act Among Manufacturing Employees: A Grounded Theory Of Discretionary Effort, Shawn Michael Andrews

Dissertations

Managers are often tasked to accomplish more with the resources at their disposal. Doing more with less is especially associated with the manufacturing industry providing a rich and relevant backdrop for study. Understanding discretionary effort as a resource, how it manifests, and when and how manufacturing employees choose to do more than is required is key to achieving results in an increasingly competitive and evolving industry. This constructive grounded research study investigated how 25 non-salaried manufacturing employees conceptualized how and why they chose to engage in activities that were considered above and beyond job role expectations. Extant literature was considered …


An Analysis Of Most Important Values Among Low-Income, High-Ability Middle School Students, Jennifer Riedl Cross Mar 2022

An Analysis Of Most Important Values Among Low-Income, High-Ability Middle School Students, Jennifer Riedl Cross

SENG Journal: Exploring the Psychology of Giftedness

Value orientations, based on Schwartz’s theory of human values, were collected from low-income, high-ability middle school students (N = 215; 87.4% Black, Hispanic, or Mixed) through a values affirmation activity in the 7th and again in the 8th grade. Students ranked “Being successful” highest in 7th grade, “Being safe and secure” highest in 8thgrade. Most important values in the Conservation and Self-Transcendent quadrants predominated and were most stable from 7th to 8th grade. Analysis of essays on their most important values identified the significance of Others in their lives, including the desire …


The Development And Validation Of A Universal Enjoyment Measure: The Enjoy Scale, Joseph Keebler, Tianxin Zhang, Barbara Chaparro, Christina M. Frederick, Shayn S. Davidson, James Szalma Mar 2022

The Development And Validation Of A Universal Enjoyment Measure: The Enjoy Scale, Joseph Keebler, Tianxin Zhang, Barbara Chaparro, Christina M. Frederick, Shayn S. Davidson, James Szalma

Publications

For decades, the concept of enjoyment has been used to measure the psychological benefits of activities and has been shown to determine future behavior toward activities and objects of interest. However, there has been little consensus on the definition and dimensionality of enjoyment. This study introduced a new measure of enjoyment with scale development and validation reported. CFA and EFA findings from 1466 participants across 739 different activities were reported. The instrument developed measured enjoyment across activities, with demonstrated content validity, internal consistency, discriminant and convergent validity. The final 25-item version of the ENJOY scale is composed of 5 factors: …


The Motivational Role Of Feedback On Working Memory, Danielle Wilson Jan 2022

The Motivational Role Of Feedback On Working Memory, Danielle Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that motivation plays a vital role in what we remember. Motivation can be either extrinsic (e.g., a reward for doing well) or intrinsic (e.g., wanting to do well). Here we test if intrinsic motivation improves Working Memory (WM) performance. In an online study, undergraduate students (N=358, 334 after excluding participants that did not complete at least 25% of the survey) completed reverse letter span tasks, recalling 42 sets of 4-9 letters that were shown for one second in reverse order. We manipulate intrinsic motivation via feedback. Participants were randomly assigned to feedback (FB) and no-feedback (NFB) …


The Internal And External Expectancies Scale: Development And Validation., Joanne Raptis Jan 2022

The Internal And External Expectancies Scale: Development And Validation., Joanne Raptis

Theses and Dissertations

Healthy lifestyle habits are widely known to improve physical and psychological wellbeing, but many struggle to regularly practice these behaviors. As an overarching solution has yet to emerge, it may prove more fruitful to instead personalize behavior change recommendations and interventions. The present study examined whether individual responsiveness to internal and external expectations can be measured, as it could be a useful behavioral factor to target with tailored treatment recommendations. This construct was first postulated by popular author Gretchen Rubin (2015) but has yet to be studied empirically. For the current project, the Internal and External Expectancies Scale (IEES) was …


Self-Actualized Leaders’ Relationships With Dynamic Teams, Joseph Walter Pieri Jan 2022

Self-Actualized Leaders’ Relationships With Dynamic Teams, Joseph Walter Pieri

Theses and Dissertations

A recent study of 831 companies around the world found that employees on average tend to spend 54% of their time working within teams (Frey et al., 2013). Today, this number is estimated to be an additional four to six percent higher (Gallup, 2020). Despite the upward trend of increased reliance on team-based structures in effort to improve productivity and boost morale, research reveals approximately two-thirds of U.S. employees are not engaged in their workplace (Gallup, 2020). More than half (51%) of workers merely go through the motions of their job, barely meeting minimum position responsibilities. However, leadership is essential …


Stem Inqueery: How Communion And Feminine Gender Expression Affects Lgbtq Individuals Pursuing Stem, Jasmine Elise Graham Jan 2022

Stem Inqueery: How Communion And Feminine Gender Expression Affects Lgbtq Individuals Pursuing Stem, Jasmine Elise Graham

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has examined why some US students, Black, Latinx, and women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). However, at least 7.1% lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals live in the US, so what about the LGBTQ community pursuing STEM? We know that STEM careers are stereotypically seen as agentic and masculine instead of communal and feminine although LGBTQ individuals desire community within STEM and want to express their femininity. The current study examines how perceived communal opportunities in STEM and feminine gender expression are related to feelings of belonging and motivation to pursue STEM. …


Investigating The Impact Of Unlimited Sucrose During Adolescence On Flex Maze Performance In Rats, Emma Klopatek, Emily Tobolski, Bailey Harvey, Danielle Frances, Taylor Garrels, Gillian Lado Jan 2022

Investigating The Impact Of Unlimited Sucrose During Adolescence On Flex Maze Performance In Rats, Emma Klopatek, Emily Tobolski, Bailey Harvey, Danielle Frances, Taylor Garrels, Gillian Lado

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

As depression continues to impact many people, there are important considerations to be taken in how depression impacts people's learning and motivations. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of unlimited sucrose consumption during adolescence, which can mimic symptoms of depression, on spatial memory and motivation in rats. The flex maze is used in the present study to assess these behaviors. Before initial training on the flex maze, 6 male rats were separated into two groups: an experimental group with unlimited access to 5% sucrose (and water) for approximately 3 weeks and a control group with free …


The Relationship Between Online Learning And Student Motivation And Engagement, Sarah Mieczkowski Jan 2022

The Relationship Between Online Learning And Student Motivation And Engagement, Sarah Mieczkowski

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The switch to online learning during the 2020 Coronavirus pandemic impacted the educational world in many ways. University students were moved from traditional in person classroom settings to an online format. This change may have been accompanied by stress, anxiety, and social isolation. Research suggests that a student’s learning environment can either generate success by contributing to motivational strategies through quality of educational support or a learning environment can generate boredom, stress, and confusion. In addition, research demonstrates that personality plays a factor in many outcomes such as education and mental health. There is a lack of research on connecting …


Lessons From Psychology For Law Practice Management, Peter G. Glenn Jan 2022

Lessons From Psychology For Law Practice Management, Peter G. Glenn

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

No abstract provided.


Exploring Long-Term Impacts Of Self-Regulated Learning Interventions In K-12 Contexts: A Systematic Review, Erin Cousins, Linda Bol, Tian Luo Jan 2022

Exploring Long-Term Impacts Of Self-Regulated Learning Interventions In K-12 Contexts: A Systematic Review, Erin Cousins, Linda Bol, Tian Luo

Educational Foundations & Leadership Faculty Publications

While research illustrates the benefits of interventions designed to improve self-regulated learning (SRL) and academic achievement, far fewer studies have examined the durability of these effects. This review synthesizes research on the lasting effects of 17 comprehensive SRL interventions on variables related to metacognition, cognition, motivation, and achievement in K-12 populations. Results reveal common patterns of design, domain-specificity, intervention complexity, and style of measurement instrument. Intervention effects tend to be durable regarding achievement and SRL but were mixed when presented across multiple measures of SRL. Overall findings imply that SRL interventions can lead to enduring effects on achievement and better …


The Effect Of Email Communications On Professor-Student Rapport, Academic Self-Efficacy, Resiliency, Motivation, And Student-Rapport, David J. Heim Jan 2022

The Effect Of Email Communications On Professor-Student Rapport, Academic Self-Efficacy, Resiliency, Motivation, And Student-Rapport, David J. Heim

MSU Graduate Theses

Student retention and success rates are an increasing concern among collegiate administrators and educators. This study examined the influence of a college instructor’s email communications on professor-student rapport, student academic self-efficacy, resilience, motivation, and success. Researchers hypothesized that the student participants who received the encouraging email communications from their professor would demonstrate higher levels of professor-student rapport, higher levels of academic self-efficacy, resiliency, and success compared to the students who receive standard email communications from their professor. Five scales were utilized in this study including Professor-Student Rapport Scale, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30), Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), …


Willingness To Enhance Employability, Eszter Kiss, Jami Cotler, Eben Afrifa Yamoah Jan 2022

Willingness To Enhance Employability, Eszter Kiss, Jami Cotler, Eben Afrifa Yamoah

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

This exploratory study was conducted across two different institutions in the United States and in Australia. The online surveys applied two instruments: The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and the Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale to investigate the correlations between the constructs of employability, emotional intelligence, and motivation. The results showed a positive significant relationship between campus program internship and perceived employability. Further, emotional intelligence was significantly positively correlated with motivation. These results may reinforce institutions in their effort to design or refresh teaching intervention programs improving students employability. Beyond focusing on skills acquisition, these programs could also aim for enhancing students …


The Desire To Train: A Motivational Profile Of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Players, Terrance Tarver Dec 2021

The Desire To Train: A Motivational Profile Of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Players, Terrance Tarver

Masters Theses

Combat sports, such as Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, require intense physical, mental, and emotional tasking within its training. With the degree of difficulty ingrained within the sport, as well as the performance-focused climate that this sport may be practiced within, many participants that once were intrigued by the sport may lose this interest and enjoyment if their goals are not met. This leads to much interest into what factors drive the motivation of those that continue to participate within Brazilian Jiu Jitsu. The purpose of this study is to develop a motivational profile of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu players. 216 participants from …


Development And Validation Of A Scale To Measure Songwriting Self-Efficacy (Sses) With Secondary Music Students, Patrick K. Cooper Jul 2021

Development And Validation Of A Scale To Measure Songwriting Self-Efficacy (Sses) With Secondary Music Students, Patrick K. Cooper

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Social cognitive theory was developed to explain how individuals learn, in part, by witnessing the behavior of others. Self-efficacy is a construct within social cognitive theory which indicates the beliefs that an individual can be successful at a task under specific situational demands. The sources of self-efficacy include self-evaluating past experiences to predict future success, comparing our abilities to those around us, the verbal and social feedback we get from others, and the physiological feelings we experience when engaged in or thinking about the task. Measures of self-efficacy have been shown to be accurate predictors of successful learning outcomes, achievement, …


Influence Of Drd4 Receptor Gene Polymorphism On Aspirational Quality And Approach Motivation, Harry Henry-Ojo Jun 2021

Influence Of Drd4 Receptor Gene Polymorphism On Aspirational Quality And Approach Motivation, Harry Henry-Ojo

ATU Theses and Dissertations

The present study investigates the presence of a molecular genetic basis of the quality of aspiration and motivation for behavior described by Ryan and Deci’s self-determination theory and Gray’s biopsychological theory of personality respectively. In this study, investigation was carried out to determine the impact of DRD4 receptor gene polymorphism on intrinsic and extrinsic aspiration as well as approach motivation using the Aspiration Index scales and Behavioral Inhibition and Activation (BIS/BAS) scales as our psychometric instrument of evaluation. In a pilot study consisting of 9 healthy subjects, the 7R allele of DRD4 receptor gene was associated with higher mean score …


Assessing The Role Of Motivational Factors In Facilitating Artists’ Personal And Professional Development, Ece Gurler May 2021

Assessing The Role Of Motivational Factors In Facilitating Artists’ Personal And Professional Development, Ece Gurler

Critical and Creative Thinking Capstones Collection

Various factors exert influence on an artist’s impetus. If artists can learn about different ways to use these both external and internal factors to facilitate their personal and professional development, their creative process and productivity will be affected positively. According to the research, individuals display three types of orientation during the exploration and development process -and so creative process: The desire to be effective (White, 1959), autonomous (DeCharms, 1968), and related to significant others (Deci & Ryan, 1991). Effective-oriented personalities tend to be motivated by extrinsic rewards or punishment, whereas autonomously oriented people are more intrinsically motivated. However, understanding the …


Influencing Motivation For Alcohol Through Social Bonding, Bryan Benitez May 2021

Influencing Motivation For Alcohol Through Social Bonding, Bryan Benitez

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human survival depends upon the ability to cooperate by forming affiliative social bonds. Social bonding should therefore be a powerful motivating force in practically all human decision making. Past research demonstrates that social bonding and motivation for alcohol consumption share similar psychological and neurobiological pathways. In this study, we attempted to reduce alcohol motivation by enhancing perceptions of social bonding prior to and during the hours and days when alcohol consumption was most likely. In a predominantly female college student sample, we found mixed support for our hypotheses that a novel social bonding manipulation delivered through mobile technology would satiate …