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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Seeing And Unlearning Whiteness: A Mindfulness Workshop For Racial Justice, Emily Haranas Jan 2023

Seeing And Unlearning Whiteness: A Mindfulness Workshop For Racial Justice, Emily Haranas

Mindfulness Studies Theses

Racism is a deeply embedded, foundational aspect of American society. However, because the privilege of Whiteness insulates White individuals from the workings of systemic injustice and oppression and enables them to choose the conditions of their accountability in the movement for racial justice, many remain painfully blind to this fact. As such, there is a significant need for those who have been racialized White to develop a critical awareness of the powers and privileges ascribed to their racial identity. The working premise of this thesis is that mindfulness can assist White individuals in unlinking the socialized habits of mind that …


The Effects Of A Six-Week Mindfulness Intervention Designed For Adolescents On Emotion Regulation And Perceived Stress In College Students, Theodora Malinowski Jan 2023

The Effects Of A Six-Week Mindfulness Intervention Designed For Adolescents On Emotion Regulation And Perceived Stress In College Students, Theodora Malinowski

West Chester University Doctoral Projects

College students are a vulnerable population to developing mental health problems. Without adequate emotion regulation abilities and adaptive coping skills to manage stress, college students are at risk of experiencing negative mental and physical health outcomes. Mindfulness has been shown to improve mental and physical health. Unfortunately, many mindfulness interventions are developed with the needs of adults in mind. Some features of common mindfulness programs, such as cost and required length of daily practice, make the interventions difficult for most college students to access. The present study investigated the effects of a six-week mindfulness intervention (Learning to BREATHE) that was …


Coping Styles As Potential Mediators In The Relationships Between Morally Injurious Events, Moral Injury, And Meaning-Making, Marjorie A. Perkins Dec 2022

Coping Styles As Potential Mediators In The Relationships Between Morally Injurious Events, Moral Injury, And Meaning-Making, Marjorie A. Perkins

Doctoral Dissertations

Exposure to morally injurious events has consistently been correlated with negative mental health outcomes for military servicemembers and veterans (Bryan et al., 2014; Currier et al., 2015a; Currier et al., 2015b; Currier et al., 2017; Dennis et al., 2017; Jordan et al., 2017; Maguen et al., 2009, 2010; Maguen, Vogt et al., 2011; Nash et al., 2013). However, some servicemembers and veterans may experience a deeper sense of understanding of the event and/or growth after a potentially morally injurious experience through a process called meaning-making (Park, 2013). The present study seeks to examine the relationship between individual coping styles and …


Recognizing Roots And Not Just Leaves: The Use Of Integrative Mindfulness In Education, Research, And Practice, Naisargi (Ness) Mehta, Gitika Talwar Oct 2022

Recognizing Roots And Not Just Leaves: The Use Of Integrative Mindfulness In Education, Research, And Practice, Naisargi (Ness) Mehta, Gitika Talwar

Psychology from the Margins

Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have entered mainstream psychology practice and research over the last few decades. However, academic literature on MBIs reveals a focus on the European-American populations, and customization of mindfulness to the needs and values of mainstream western mental health. There has been an exclusion of the spiritual and cultural roots of mindfulness; mindfulness has been secularized in ways that undermine indigenous forms of mindfulness that originate from Asian countries such as India and China. While MBIs have been working well for their targeted audience, there need to be avenues for Asian and Asian American communities that follow Buddhist …


The Psychotherapeutic Effects Of Consumer-Grade Eeg Neurofeedback On Mental Health And Well-Being, Madeline Slack Sep 2022

The Psychotherapeutic Effects Of Consumer-Grade Eeg Neurofeedback On Mental Health And Well-Being, Madeline Slack

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The current study assessed whether pairing mindfulness meditation with consumer-grade neurofeedback (using Muse) would be a feasible and satisfying (i.e., fulfillment and pleasure) intervention for mental health and well-being. This was assessed via a four-day mindfulness program where participants (N=34) were assigned to mindfulness with neurofeedback (n=17) or guided meditation (control; n=17) group. On each day of the program, participants engaged in two mindful sessions (five minutes each) in the morning and afternoon. Participants were administered a series of affective measures before and after the program, as well as throughout. Upon completion, participants were asked to rate …


Belonging Amidst Bias: Embracing Difference On The Path To Common Humanity, Alyssia Sheikh Sep 2022

Belonging Amidst Bias: Embracing Difference On The Path To Common Humanity, Alyssia Sheikh

Mindfulness Studies Theses

The mindfulness community prioritizes self-awareness and common humanity, but is often entrapped by the idea that oneness is equivalent to sameness. This inclination for objectivity is rooted in the same neural propensities that facilitate bias; the brain is a subjective organ, however, and so neurologically speaking, bias is inevitable. This paper asks: Is striving for sameness separating us from interconnectedness? A human experience is a subjective, diverse, and variable one. The path to shared humanity and social justice co-occurs with increasing cultural humility through mindful awareness and acknowledging our subjective nature. Exploring our neurological tendency to make assumptions, we …


A Pilot Feasibility Trial Of Mindfulness And Modification Therapy For Males Who Use Aggression, Jenny Mitchell Sep 2022

A Pilot Feasibility Trial Of Mindfulness And Modification Therapy For Males Who Use Aggression, Jenny Mitchell

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Physical aggression incurs substantial harm to victims and witnesses, particularly when it occurs within close relationships such as family, friendships, or intimate partnerships. Men who use aggression against partners and other adults frequently experience high levels of psychopathology, including depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxious/insecure attachment, paranoia, bipolar disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, personality disorders, and substance abuse, which contribute to use of aggressive behaviors. However, existing treatments for aggression often do not address these symptoms. It is important that treatments for aggression are grounded in theoretical literature and backed by empirical support in order to increase treatment engagement and effectiveness. Treatments …


Virtual Reality, Mindfulness And Their Associations To Personality Traits, Somer Schaffer Aug 2022

Virtual Reality, Mindfulness And Their Associations To Personality Traits, Somer Schaffer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mindfulness, conceptualized as actively noticing and engaging with oneself and one’s surroundings with a nonjudgmental mind, is associated with many positive outcomes such as healthy relationships, stress reduction, performance engagement, and increased well-being. Virtual reality (VR) technologies offer people immersive experiences to engage with novel environments for entertaining and therapeutic purposes. While in any VR environment, participants may perceive themselves as if they are in the scenes, that is, they experience moment-to-moment awareness and immersion in these virtual environments. Thus, practicing mindfulness meditation with technologies like smartphones and VR has become increasingly popular over the past decade. However, little research …


A Prescription Of Positive Psychology: Bridging The Intention-Behavior Gap In Social Prescribing In The Uk, Jill Rzym Aug 2022

A Prescription Of Positive Psychology: Bridging The Intention-Behavior Gap In Social Prescribing In The Uk, Jill Rzym

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Although people have intentions to change their behavior, many do not take any action, and this discrepancy is called the intention-behavior gap. Studies estimate the gap is as high as 50%, a figure of some significance in health behavior change. This paper explores the intention-behavior gap in the context of social prescribing in the UK. It looks at the current problems of measurement and evaluation within social prescribing and the potential impact of the intention-behavior gap. The paper also considers the current research addressing the gap and proposes an alternative solution based on a positive psychology framework and positive psychology …


Assessing Stress In College Students After Breathing Meditation With And Without Music, Joshua L. Le Clerg Aug 2022

Assessing Stress In College Students After Breathing Meditation With And Without Music, Joshua L. Le Clerg

Graduate Theses

College students face increased levels of stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can adversely affect their academic performance. Therefore, it is critical for students to have access to practices that reduce stress, such as breathing meditations and listening to calming music, which are cost effective and require minimal time commitment. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of combining breathing meditation and listening to music for five minutes a day, five days a week, for two weeks. Fifteen undergraduate students completed the study and were randomly assigned to a control group who completed the breathing meditation without music (n=8) …


Impact Of A Recreational Outdoor And Adventure Program On Adolescent Well-Being, Mitchell J. Fritz Aug 2022

Impact Of A Recreational Outdoor And Adventure Program On Adolescent Well-Being, Mitchell J. Fritz

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

This study used an archival dataset to investigate the effects of a recreational outdoor and adventure program (ROAP) on overall adolescent well-being. Successful ROAPs have been found to increase overall well-being as well as other factors such as increased self-efficacy, peer involvement, connectedness to nature, and decreased stress. This study examined 34 high school to college age individuals who participated in a summer ROAP. Five crews completed a 28-day canoe trip in northern Minnesota, and one crew completed a 37-day canoe trip near the Brooks Range in Alaska. Participants completed pre-trip, post-trip, and 45-day follow-up surveys measuring overall well-being, self-efficacy, …


Mindfulness To Promote Healthy Aging In Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment And Their Caregivers: A Mixed Methods Feasibility And Acceptability Study, Emma Mcbride Jun 2022

Mindfulness To Promote Healthy Aging In Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment And Their Caregivers: A Mixed Methods Feasibility And Acceptability Study, Emma Mcbride

Theses and Dissertations

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), thought be a precursor to dementia, is characterized by cognitive decline without functional impairment. As the population ages and the prevalence of MCI increases, non-pharmacologic interventions are needed to address well-being and disease progression in this population of older adults and their caregivers. In response to growing interest in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) as an adjunct to integrated care for this population, this single arm, mixed methods pilot study trialed a lightly adapted, 6-week MBI for both MCI patients and their caregivers (n=24). The intervention was feasible and acceptable in both groups. There was a trend toward …


Rumination And The Gut Microbiome:Effects Of A Brief Mindfulness Intervention, Moeka Kamiya Jun 2022

Rumination And The Gut Microbiome:Effects Of A Brief Mindfulness Intervention, Moeka Kamiya

Lawrence University Honors Projects

Recent work has found relationships between the gut microbiota—the community of organisms that inhabit an animal’s digestive tract—and psychological health. In particular, the gut microbiota of individuals with depression shows a different genetic composition to those without depression. Thus, this study explored how rumination, a predictor of depression, and gut microbiota composition are correlated to detect possible gut microbiota alterations present before depression develops. This study also examined whether a brief mindfulness mobile application intervention, which has been shown to reduce rumination, can increase beneficial bacteria abundance and decrease pathogenic bacteria abundance. Participants were 16 first-year students. They engaged in …


Evaluating The Effects Of Mindfulness Practice On Attentional Control And Episodic Memory, Jacob M. M. Namias Jun 2022

Evaluating The Effects Of Mindfulness Practice On Attentional Control And Episodic Memory, Jacob M. M. Namias

Master's Theses

Mindfulness refers to a mental state of being that involves nonjudgmental acceptance of current cognitions and emotions with awareness of the present moment. Researchers and clinicians have shown the efficacy of mindfulness as a treatment for psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression and have found reductions in reported stress. Building on clinical benefits, mindfulness practice may also facilitate attentional processes as practitioners are required to inhibit distracting thoughts and re-direct their focus to the present moment. My thesis examined the relationship between mindfulness practice and attentional control and potential spillovers to episodic memory. Experiment 1 gauged the relationship between …


Memory, Mindfulness, And Perfectionism: Is There A Relationship Between Memory And Perfectionism, And Can Mindfulness Reduce False Alarms?, Stefani Morgan May 2022

Memory, Mindfulness, And Perfectionism: Is There A Relationship Between Memory And Perfectionism, And Can Mindfulness Reduce False Alarms?, Stefani Morgan

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Memory has been found to improve with experience of mindfulness training. However, it has also been found to be impaired after mindfulness training. These mixed results are interesting and warrant further investigation into the relationship between memory and mindfulness. Additionally, perfectionism has been seen to play a role in task performance, making its role in memory task performance of interest to the current study. Perfectionism has been framed in a two-dimensional view, dividing it into two types. Perfectionistic concerns occurs when an individual is preoccupied with worry and concern over their performance, and perfectionistic striving occurs when an individual sets …


Toward Holistic Mental Wellness: A Literature Review Of Mindfulness-Based And Focusing-Oriented Art Therapies, Lesley Vernon May 2022

Toward Holistic Mental Wellness: A Literature Review Of Mindfulness-Based And Focusing-Oriented Art Therapies, Lesley Vernon

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Modern day living, for all its benefits, is synonymous with record levels of stress. The mental health clinician’s role is to assist clients in accessing the skills and tools necessary to reduce and alleviate the symptoms of stress-induced anxiety. Mindfulness is emerging as a potent and effective tool to restore one’s state of well-being. Likewise, engaging in art therapy has been shown to reduce stress and foster resilience. Grounded in humanistic and existential theories, this literature review aimed to assess the impact and effectiveness of two intermodal holistic therapies, specifically mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) and focusing-oriented art therapy (FOAT). A …


Mindful Resources: A Guide To Mindfulness-Based Interventions, Lexi Marie Vogel May 2022

Mindful Resources: A Guide To Mindfulness-Based Interventions, Lexi Marie Vogel

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

Although mindfulness is often associated with wellness, relaxation, and simplicity, the literature surrounding it is extensive and often complex. The abundance of mindfulness research and resources presents a challenge for educators, parents, and other individuals interested in mindfulness-based intervention. This project examines the literature surrounding mindfulness with emphasis on interventions, targeted benefits, potential barriers, and key considerations to aid in the development of the resource guide, Mindful Resources: A Guide to Mindfulness-Based Interventions. Translating the information from the comprehensive literature review into this resource guide will simplify the process of selecting appropriate interventions and provide users with a sample …


The Feasibility Of Remote Brief Mindfulness Training And Impact On Anxiety-Related Attention Bias, Hanna Culang May 2022

The Feasibility Of Remote Brief Mindfulness Training And Impact On Anxiety-Related Attention Bias, Hanna Culang

Theses and Dissertations

Brief mindfulness training (BMT) improves anxiety and the allocation of attentional resources. Whether BMT can remediate disruptions in attention associated with anxiety, such as anxiety-related attention bias (AB), remains unclear. This experimental study revealed that BMT significantly improved subjective state mindfulness and state anxiety, but did not influence AB.


Impact Of Mindfulness On Test Anxiety In College Students, Lindsay Alcock May 2022

Impact Of Mindfulness On Test Anxiety In College Students, Lindsay Alcock

Honors Program Projects

Background

Mindfulness is defined as the state of giving full attention to a stimulus, internal or external, without inducing judgment or becoming reactional about the feelings experienced, positive or negative (Davis & Hayes, 2012). Previous studies have investigated the relationship between mindfulness techniques and the reduction of anxiety (Chambers et al., 2008; Macdonald & Olsen, 2020); a smaller number of studies have considered test anxiety (Cho et al., 2016; Sparks, 2017). Prior research has used multiple mindfulness techniques to measure the impact on test anxiety, but few have isolated mindfulness trainings to compare the relative impact of each type on …


The Protective Influence Of Mindfulness Facets On The Relationship Between Negative Core Beliefs And Social Media Addiction Among Latinx College Students, Mariany Gainza Perez May 2022

The Protective Influence Of Mindfulness Facets On The Relationship Between Negative Core Beliefs And Social Media Addiction Among Latinx College Students, Mariany Gainza Perez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Social media use has continued to rise over the last decade. This behavioral addiction shares essential components with substance addictions (e.g., mood modification, withdrawal). Dysfunctional core beliefs have recently been investigated in relation to Internet addiction and problematic Facebook use, but not with social media addiction specifically. Similarly, mindfulness-based interventions have been developed for various types of technology-related behavioral addictions, yet the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and social media addiction remains unexplored. This study investigated the relationships between these constructs among Latinx undergraduates within the context of social cognitive theory. Participants (n=386; 80.3% female) completed an online survey that assessed …


Can State Gratitude Be Increased Through Mindfulness Practice And A Gratitude Story?, Grace Gray, Grace Harris, Gabrielle Givers, Caroline Hopper, Grabriella Gonzalez Apr 2022

Can State Gratitude Be Increased Through Mindfulness Practice And A Gratitude Story?, Grace Gray, Grace Harris, Gabrielle Givers, Caroline Hopper, Grabriella Gonzalez

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

Abstract

Gratitude is the quality of being thankful and readily showing appreciation for opportunities in life. Gratitude in an individual can be experienced on two levels: trait and state. Trait gratitude involves a predisposition, interpersonal experience that an individual holds on a daily basis. State gratitude is context based and is experienced during specific events. In past research there seems to be a relationship between meditation practice and levels of trait gratitude, but there is little literature investigating this same connection with state gratitude (Chen et al., 2017). For our research, we wanted to expand on this research and test …


Psychology: The Effect Of Guided Meditation And Meditation History On False Memory Susceptibility, Caroline G. Firmin, Jessica Dahm, Khalil Dabdoub, Benjamin Brown Apr 2022

Psychology: The Effect Of Guided Meditation And Meditation History On False Memory Susceptibility, Caroline G. Firmin, Jessica Dahm, Khalil Dabdoub, Benjamin Brown

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

Meditation is a practice that has been around for thousands of years with numerous benefits ranging from stress reduction to decreases in stress and anxiety. Research also suggests there may potentially be negative consequences of meditation. However, research has not assessed how long-term practitioners of meditation differ from those with less experience. Our study looks at long-term and short-term practitioners’ susceptibility to false memories. To do this, participants were randomly assigned to either a guided meditation or a mind-wandering condition and then tested on the DRM paradigm. Meditation history was also recorded through a questionnaire.


Material World: The Effects Of Meditation Content On Materialistic Values, Azalia White, Katie Young, Hannah Wright, Nicole Walheim, Samantha Urban Mar 2022

Material World: The Effects Of Meditation Content On Materialistic Values, Azalia White, Katie Young, Hannah Wright, Nicole Walheim, Samantha Urban

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

In the twenty-first century, Western cultures are highly materialistic and defined by consumeristic goals to garner as much “stuff” as possible (Berger, 2015). This constant pursuit has demonstrable adverse effects on personal and social well being (Bahl et al., 2016; Wang, et al., 2017), while overconsumption also has devastating impacts on the global environment. Previous studies found a negative relationship between levels of mindfulness and levels of materialism (Nagpaul & Pang, 2015; Watson, 2019), indicating the potential for mindfulness to combat otherwise materialistic behaviors. Furthermore, previous research demonstrated gratitude interventions led to lower scores on materialism (Chaplin, et al., 2018), …


“I Can Math, Too!”: Reducing Math Anxiety In Stem-Related Courses Using A Combined Mindfulness And Growth Mindset Approach (Magma) In The Classroom, Tashana S. Samuel, Sebastien Buttet, Jared Warner Mar 2022

“I Can Math, Too!”: Reducing Math Anxiety In Stem-Related Courses Using A Combined Mindfulness And Growth Mindset Approach (Magma) In The Classroom, Tashana S. Samuel, Sebastien Buttet, Jared Warner

Publications and Research

Math anxiety has become an alarming social justice concern, as it results in negative academic consequences, contributes to disinterest and lack of persistence in STEM programs for underrepresented students, and limits their opportunities in STEM careers. According to research, this fear of math occurs long before students begin working on math problems. When high-math anxious students encounter math situations, anticipation anxiety consumes working memory capacity, inhibits learning, and causes them to severely underperform on mathematical tasks. However, very few studies have been conducted to embed psychological interventions in the classroom in an effort to mitigate both anticipation and execution anxiety. …


The Impact Of Mindfulness Practices In Teachers, Shawn M. Martin Hettinga Mar 2022

The Impact Of Mindfulness Practices In Teachers, Shawn M. Martin Hettinga

ATU Theses and Dissertations

Mindfulness training has been identified as a promising means for cultivating social and emotional competencies and reducing stress. The purpose of the quantitative pre-post study using convenience sampling of educators in a rural K-12 in the Arkansas River Valley was to examine whether teachers’ participation in mindfulness activities were associated with changes in levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and job satisfaction. The study used the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and measured the responses from novice (0-3 years) and experienced (4+ years) teachers. The findings revealed that there was no difference between the …


Taking Time To B.R.E.A.T.H.E.: Strategies For Strengthening Staff And Student Well-Being, Joelle Hood Mar 2022

Taking Time To B.R.E.A.T.H.E.: Strategies For Strengthening Staff And Student Well-Being, Joelle Hood

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

When students and staff experience chronic stress, it negatively impacts their motivation, performance, and wellbeing, Participants in this engaging workshop will walk away with simple research-based practices from the fields of Mindfulness and Positive Psychology, that they can utilize with both themselves and students to reduce stress and anxiety, improve attention and performance, and strengthen overall physical and psychological well-being.


Implementation Of Community-Based Trauma-Sensitive Yoga Program For Youth With Complex Trauma, Vira Salzburn, Kierstin Graham Mar 2022

Implementation Of Community-Based Trauma-Sensitive Yoga Program For Youth With Complex Trauma, Vira Salzburn, Kierstin Graham

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will discuss the implementation and scale-up of an evidence-based Trauma-Sensitive Yoga (TSY) program as a part of a larger community-wide safety and resilience-building effort. It will explain the effectiveness of TSY interventions for both clinical and non-clinical populations and highlight the physical, mental, emotional, and social benefits of a modified yoga practice for youth and young adults with complex trauma.


An Exploratory Analysis Of Mindfulness And Work-Life Balance During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Christine Bush Mar 2022

An Exploratory Analysis Of Mindfulness And Work-Life Balance During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Christine Bush

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have created a need for change in both personal and professional lives; however, due to the abrupt newness of the virus, there has been limited research. The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine mindfulness (via FFMQ), work-life balance (via WLB survey) and potential stressors among employees who have been affected by the COVID-19 global pandemic. An exploratory analysis of how mindfulness and work-life balance has played a role in employees’ adaptation to working during a pandemic will be conducted. An in-depth literature analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between mindfulness …


Reply To Nielsen Et Al.: Social Mindfulness Associated With Countries' Environmental Performance And Individual Environmental Concern, N. J. Van Doesum, R. O. Murphy, M. Gallucci, Norman P. Li, U. Athenstaedt, W. T. Au, L. Bai, R. Böhm, I. Bovina, N. R. Buchan, X. P. Chen, K. B. Dumont, J. B. Engelmann, K. Eriksson, H. Euh, S. Fiedler, J. Friesen, S. Gächter, C. Garcia, R. González Feb 2022

Reply To Nielsen Et Al.: Social Mindfulness Associated With Countries' Environmental Performance And Individual Environmental Concern, N. J. Van Doesum, R. O. Murphy, M. Gallucci, Norman P. Li, U. Athenstaedt, W. T. Au, L. Bai, R. Böhm, I. Bovina, N. R. Buchan, X. P. Chen, K. B. Dumont, J. B. Engelmann, K. Eriksson, H. Euh, S. Fiedler, J. Friesen, S. Gächter, C. Garcia, R. González

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Nielsen et al. (1) argues that Van Doesum et al (2) need to consider three points for their interpretation of a positive association between individual-level social mindfulness (SoMi) and environmental performance (EPI) at the country level (3).


Healing Racial Injustice With Mindfulness Research, Training, & Practice, Danielle "Danae" Laura Jan 2022

Healing Racial Injustice With Mindfulness Research, Training, & Practice, Danielle "Danae" Laura

Mindfulness Studies Theses

This thesis offers a collection of authors and studies in support of improved research, training, and practice connecting mindfulness with racial justice through intergroup applications. The paper identifies barriers at work (e.g., colorblindness, spiritual bypass, white fragility, and implicit bias) in contemplative science, Western Buddhist communities, and secular mindfulness centers, which block the sizeable contributions possible in studying the intergroup application of mindfulness practice—specifically Lovingkindness Meditation, among others—when used as an intervention with anti-racist aims. Through secondary qualitative research, I reviewed six key works from Black authors on mindfulness and race, as well as six sample studies on the prosocial …