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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Foreign Language Anxiety: A Review On Theories, Causes, Consequences And Implications For Educators, Padideh Fattahi Marnani, Sophie Cuocci Dec 2022

Foreign Language Anxiety: A Review On Theories, Causes, Consequences And Implications For Educators, Padideh Fattahi Marnani, Sophie Cuocci

Journal of English Learner Education

Anxiety has been considered one of the main obstacles in second language learning in instruction-based contexts. During the last few decades, many scholars have tried to shed light on different aspects of this phenomenon. This literature review clarifies previous scholarly works and covers some of the most significant empirical studies conducted in this field. The purpose of this literature review is to review various aspects of foreign language anxiety, its corresponding theoretical frameworks and models, causes, consequences, gender differences, class modalities (face-to-face and online) and lastly, implications for educators. Foreign language anxiety is a significant barrier that hinders the learning …


Latent Profiles Of Psychopathic Traits Among Emerging Adult College Students: Functional And Dysfunctional Psychopathy And Related Outcomes, Lydia J. Stanhope Dec 2022

Latent Profiles Of Psychopathic Traits Among Emerging Adult College Students: Functional And Dysfunctional Psychopathy And Related Outcomes, Lydia J. Stanhope

Theses and Dissertations

Psychopathy research continues to study the adaptability of psychopathic characteristics and differentiate between functional and dysfunctional features. The current study identified latent profiles in emerging adults and compared them across behavioral/cognitive correlates, functional outcomes, aggression types, and also examined gender differences. Results demonstrated that men scored higher across cold-heartedness and fearless dominance profiles, but not self-centered impulsivity. The low psychopathy group had lower proactive aggression than the high psychopathy group; no other differences were observed. Additionally, men and women in the high psychopathy group did not significantly differ regarding experienced outcomes. Lastly, higher psychopathy was not associated with higher proactive …


Working Outside The Binary: Experiences Of Nonbinary Employees In The Workforce, Mordeky C. Dullum Dec 2022

Working Outside The Binary: Experiences Of Nonbinary Employees In The Workforce, Mordeky C. Dullum

University Honors Theses

Transgender issues in the workplace have only recently become a focus in research, and it is still new and understudied. Even less studied is the demographic of gender expansive individuals including nonbinary and gender non-conforming individuals. This qualitative study aims to explore and highlight workplace experiences for nonbinary people, with a particular focus on younger nonbinary people who experience less employment stability in more public facing jobs. Thirteen participants engaged in interviews where they were asked to describe their experiences dealing with discrimination, harassment and transphobia in the workplace, in addition to sharing their ideas for practical solutions or changes …


Enhancing The Representation Of Women: How Gender Diversity Signals And Acknowledgement Affect Attraction To Men-Dominated Professions, Thomas P. Depatie, Anmol Sachdeva, Comila Shahani-Denning, Rebecca Grossman, Kevin P. Nolan Nov 2022

Enhancing The Representation Of Women: How Gender Diversity Signals And Acknowledgement Affect Attraction To Men-Dominated Professions, Thomas P. Depatie, Anmol Sachdeva, Comila Shahani-Denning, Rebecca Grossman, Kevin P. Nolan

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

While organizations around the world recognize the importance of gender diversity and inclusion, many struggle to reach gender parity (Sneader & Yee, 2020). Particularly, women account for less than 15% of all sworn police officers (Donohue Jr, 2020). Considering signaling theory and novel research in organizational impression management, we examined the utility of various recruitment messaging techniques for attracting women job seekers to professions dominated by men, at both a consulting firm and law enforcement agency. Women evaluating consulting firm materials perceived greater behavioral integrity and were subsequently more attracted to the organization if recruitment messages included both high gender …


Perceptions Of Happiness Through The Lens Of Age And Gender, Alea Farmer Nov 2022

Perceptions Of Happiness Through The Lens Of Age And Gender, Alea Farmer

Undergraduate Psychology Research Methods Journal

This paper intends to examine the possible relationship between demographic variables and perceptions of happiness. The demographic variables being studied are age and gender. Perceptions of happiness are measured by the Conceptions of Happiness Scale (Joshanloo, 2018) and represent one’s overall idea of happiness. A survey was distributed to adults that were recruited via social media and flyer recruitment on the campus of Lindenwood University. The survey consisted of demographic questions as well as the Conceptions of Happiness Scale (Joshanloo, 2018) for participants to complete. Initial hypotheses predicted differences in perceptions of happiness amongst different age and gender groups. However, …


The Relationship Among Gender, Attachment Style And The Perception Of Text Message Valence, Bailey Harvey, Ivy Huesmann, Marie Martan, Gavin Mitchell Oct 2022

The Relationship Among Gender, Attachment Style And The Perception Of Text Message Valence, Bailey Harvey, Ivy Huesmann, Marie Martan, Gavin Mitchell

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

ATTACHMENT STYLE AND PERCEPTION

Abstract

Text messaging has become a quick and easy way to get in touch with peers whether professionally or informally, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This form of communication, however, can be detrimental if a message is perceived incorrectly. In order to understand what can cause these miscommunication issues, prior research studied the influence of punctuation, capitalization, and emoticons on the perception of text messages. However, specific traits of the message-recipient might be relevant for the interpretation as well. Butterworth and colleagues (2019) discovered that women are more likely to rate text messages as more affectionate …


Pornography Use And Its Effect On Marital Quality, Karolyn A. Webster Sep 2022

Pornography Use And Its Effect On Marital Quality, Karolyn A. Webster

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Statistics have shown that married couples who start watching pornography double their chances of divorcing within two years following the pornography use. Statistics also report that every year for the past decade there have been roughly one million divorces in the United States, and the current divorce rate is 2.9 per population of 1000, with 45 reporting states, including Washington, DC. However, these statistics do not provide a breakdown of how many of these divorces were due to pornography use. Research suggests that the negative relationship between pornography use and marital well-being has grown stronger over time, during a period …


Climbing The Masculine Hierarchy: Examining Constructions Of Masculinity Through Incel Identities, Alyssa Jewel Davis Aug 2022

Climbing The Masculine Hierarchy: Examining Constructions Of Masculinity Through Incel Identities, Alyssa Jewel Davis

All Theses

In a gender-segregated digital space known as the Manosphere, a group of men calling themselves “Incels,” or involuntary celibates, express feelings of hostility and hatred towards women. Incels hold a low position on a masculine hierarchy where the men who hold the most power in society are those who have access to women’s emotional and sexual services. Incels are characterized by feelings of entitlement to women’s services and aggrievement by their inability to access them. As a result, they often appear to fantasize about or engage in acts of violence to compensate for their lack of masculine privilege. However, there …


Masculinity, Affirmations, Belongingness, And Resiliency In Male Adolescents: Effects On School Engagement, Kelsey Burt Aug 2022

Masculinity, Affirmations, Belongingness, And Resiliency In Male Adolescents: Effects On School Engagement, Kelsey Burt

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on male adolescent students within 7th and 8th grade and how endorsement of masculine stereotypes impacts their school engagement and feelings of belonging. The study also examines how peers maintain masculine conformity and how individual resiliency change outcomes. This research is based on two main theories, inclusive masculinity and social learning theory. These theories describe how behaviors are largely learned from the social environment and maintained due to reinforcement or punishment. There were 127 adolescent males who participated in this study and were recruited through an online survey system. Results of the study show that …


A Moderated Mediation Model Of Gender, Posttraumatic Cognitions, And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms After Military Sexual Assault, Hallie S. Tannahill Aug 2022

A Moderated Mediation Model Of Gender, Posttraumatic Cognitions, And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms After Military Sexual Assault, Hallie S. Tannahill

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Military sexual assault (MSA) is associated with the greatest risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD severity beyond other trauma types. Sexual revictimization further increases this risk and severity. However, not all who experience MSA revictimization develop PTSD. This suggests there may be a key mechanism that explains the association between MSA and PTSD. Posttraumatic cognitions (PTC), which include an overall domain and subdomains of self, world, and self-blame, may be one such mechanism between MSA and PTSD, although this link has not yet been examined in the context of MSA revictimization. Further, literature suggests that men and women …


The Dunning-Kruger Effect On Free Throw Shooting, Abigail Schescke, Nicolas Veldhorst, Makayla De Young Jul 2022

The Dunning-Kruger Effect On Free Throw Shooting, Abigail Schescke, Nicolas Veldhorst, Makayla De Young

Student Work

This study examines the Dunning-Kruger effect in regards to physical activity. Seventy-four participants with various levels of basketball experience were recruited from an undergraduate university. Participants were assigned to make predictions regarding the number of free throw shots they would make out of ten before or after warming up. Out of factors which affected participant predictions (gender, previous experience, warm up group), gender was found to have a significant relationship with predictive error score. Additionally, underconfidence from top-performing participants and overconfidence from bottom-performing participants indicates the presence of the Dunning-Kruger effect in physical tasks.


The Moderating Impact Of Gender And Friendship Quality On The Effects Of Interparental Conflict On Adolescent Internalizing Problems, Jessica Dandan Jul 2022

The Moderating Impact Of Gender And Friendship Quality On The Effects Of Interparental Conflict On Adolescent Internalizing Problems, Jessica Dandan

Theses and Dissertations

In response to escalating concerns about the increasing incidence of adolescent internalizing disorders, several mechanisms have been investigated to understand their etiology. Though genetic predisposition contributes to the risk for psychopathology, its interaction with environmental stressors such as interparental conflict appears to further increase this risk. Girls are more susceptible to stressors and twice as likely as boys to develop internalizing problems. However, friendship quality may buffer some of the adverse effects incurred from exposure to interparental conflict. A recent review of proposed mechanisms through which conflict is associated with youth psychopathology pinpointed the need for further adolescent-focused research including …


Sexual Objectification Of Women: What Can Ancient Rome And Modern Psychology Teach Us?, Noa Raskin Jun 2022

Sexual Objectification Of Women: What Can Ancient Rome And Modern Psychology Teach Us?, Noa Raskin

Honors Theses

Sexual objectification (SO) is an omnipresent experience for women that decreases their quality of life. Researching why SO occurs and is perpetuated can help us understand how to decrease the interpersonal, mental health, and safety consequences women face from being sexually objectified. This presentation looks at sexual objectification through the lenses of two different disciplines: psychology and classics. The psychology component involved an empirical study aimed at better comprehending women’s perceptions of their own SO and the connection SO has to Greek life. Nineteen men from Union College completed two scales to assess their direct and indirect SO of women, …


Meta-Analysis Of Cyber Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration And Victimization: Different Types And Their Associations With Face-To-Face Ipv Among Men And Women, Ohad Gilbar, Ruby Charak, Oscar Trujillo, Jorge I. Cantu, Valeria Cavazos, Iris Lavi May 2022

Meta-Analysis Of Cyber Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration And Victimization: Different Types And Their Associations With Face-To-Face Ipv Among Men And Women, Ohad Gilbar, Ruby Charak, Oscar Trujillo, Jorge I. Cantu, Valeria Cavazos, Iris Lavi

Psychological Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Cyber intimate partner violence (C-IPV) is a technology-mediated form of violence. It has been examined only in the last 10 years as a form of violence that can cause psychological damage to its victims. How this phenomenon connects to and differs from face-to-face IPV (F2F-IPV) has been, as yet, little studied. Research has not made clear whether sex differences may impact its use, particularly in light of the fact that no physical coercion is used in C-IPV. Thus, the current research aimed to investigate through a meta-analysis: differences between the average levels of different types of C-IPV victimization and perpetration; …


Who Has My Back? Perceptions Of Anti-Racist And Anti-Sexist Allyship Are Predicted By Race, Gender, And Past Behavior, R. Grace Drake May 2022

Who Has My Back? Perceptions Of Anti-Racist And Anti-Sexist Allyship Are Predicted By Race, Gender, And Past Behavior, R. Grace Drake

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

After facing racial or gender discrimination, people often seek support or allyship from others. However, who will provide effective support or allyship is often uncertain. To understand how people of color and women navigate this uncertainty, in two studies we randomly assigned participants to read a series of vignettes about potential allies. In each vignette, a person was described as either Black, Asian, Hispanic, or White and either a man or woman. Participants also sometimes learned that the person had a history of allyship behavior. Participants were then asked to envision that someone made a racist (Study 1) or sexist …


Observing Gender Role Salience And Gender Role Flexibility As Potential Buffers Between Levels Of Household Responsibilities And Experiences With Work-Family Conflict And Role Overload, Roberta Alexis Salgado May 2022

Observing Gender Role Salience And Gender Role Flexibility As Potential Buffers Between Levels Of Household Responsibilities And Experiences With Work-Family Conflict And Role Overload, Roberta Alexis Salgado

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Despite the known link between the level of household responsibilities and negative experiences/outcomes (e.g. work-family conflict, role overload), few studies have observed how gender-role beliefs may impact these relationships. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between level of household responsibilities and experiences with work-family conflict and role overload. Further, we considered potential buffers of these relationships by examining the moderating effects of gender role flexibility and gender role saliency. Data for the study were collected from a sample of employed parents, 18 years old or older, residing in the United States, who were currently married or …


The Ivory Tower: An Intersectional View On Gender And Ethnicity In Academia Before And After The Transition To Online Work, Chelsea Robbins May 2022

The Ivory Tower: An Intersectional View On Gender And Ethnicity In Academia Before And After The Transition To Online Work, Chelsea Robbins

All Theses

A substantial body of research shows that female academics have faced lower salaries, fewer promotions, and lower rates of tenure than male academics. Proposed mechanisms include higher demands for unrewarded service in the teaching-research-service ratio and significant obstacles in balancing work and family. This study proposed the ‘Academic Tetrad,’ which includes the additional facet of home life, as an alternative to the traditional ‘Academic Trinity’ perspective. The present study utilized an intersectional perspective to examine the academic tetrad, key workplace variables, and work-life balance across the COVID-19 transition to online work. The findings countered previous research by showing equality on …


Demographic Disparities In College Students’ Psychological Adjustment During Covid-19, Anna Marston Apr 2022

Demographic Disparities In College Students’ Psychological Adjustment During Covid-19, Anna Marston

Honors Theses

The goal of the present study was to explore psychological adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic in undergraduate college students. Since March 2020, undergraduates have endured extended lockdowns, quarantines, and social distancing efforts that may affect mental health, especially for historically marginalized groups such as women and people of color. Furthermore, research on coping styles suggests that those who cope with a stressor such as a pandemic in healthy, adaptive ways may be protected against psychological difficulty. In February/March 2021 (Time 1) and again in April/May 2021 (Time 2), college students (N = 277) from two residential liberal arts institutions were …


Young Children’S Tv Show Preferences And Perceptions Of Women In Stem, Lauren Berck Apr 2022

Young Children’S Tv Show Preferences And Perceptions Of Women In Stem, Lauren Berck

Undergraduate Theses

Women are joining STEM fields at higher rates, yet the stereotype of math and science being for men is still reinforced to children by their parents, their teachers, and especially what they watch. Children tend to trust characters of their same gender and are more likely to retain the lessons from the characters they trust. Since most of the shows children watch tend to display gender stereotypes, especially the stereotype of men being good in STEM, children are likely to enforce these stereotypes. The increase of women in STEM has increased interest in STEM for girls, but boys still tend …


Self-Efficacy & Perception Of Mental Well-Being, Sarah L. Capen-Becerra, Sophie K. Louis, Abigail Danzig, Olimpia Sansone Apr 2022

Self-Efficacy & Perception Of Mental Well-Being, Sarah L. Capen-Becerra, Sophie K. Louis, Abigail Danzig, Olimpia Sansone

Psychology Presentations

When young adults have high self-efficacy, they tend to exhibit more resilience to stress and other mental health problems. Additionally, women are reported to experience depression at higher rates than men, which might be explained by potential gender bias in current diagnostic criteria. Our study examined the influence of gender and mental health self-efficacy on depression symptoms as well as the interaction of these two variables on depression outcomes in college aged-students. Participants (N = 58) were tasked to fill out an anonymous Qualtrics survey based on the Gender Inclusive Depression Scale (GIDS; Martin et al. (2013), and an additional …


Bridging The Research-Practice Gap: Development Of A Theoretically Grounded Workshop For Graduate Students Aimed At Challenging Microaggressions In Science And Engineering, Amy C. Moors, Lindsay Mayott, Benjamin Hadden Apr 2022

Bridging The Research-Practice Gap: Development Of A Theoretically Grounded Workshop For Graduate Students Aimed At Challenging Microaggressions In Science And Engineering, Amy C. Moors, Lindsay Mayott, Benjamin Hadden

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Efforts to promote diversity and inclusion often lack a theoretical basis, which can unintentionally exacerbate issues. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation results of a theoretically grounded workshop aimed at reducing microaggressions and promoting ally engagement among graduate students in science and engineering. In Study 1, using a Delphi method, eight science and engineering faculty members with backgrounds in diversity efforts provided feedback on workshop development. In Study 2, 107 graduate and advanced undergraduate students engaged in the 90-minute interactive workshop. Results indicate that attendees found the workshop valuable, developed new skills for ally engagement, and planned …


An Analysis Of Commentary In Men’S And Women’S Olympic Basketball, Madison Monk Apr 2022

An Analysis Of Commentary In Men’S And Women’S Olympic Basketball, Madison Monk

Honors Projects

The objectification theory suggests that women are subjected to more comments about their appearance than men, but in the field of athletics and sports analysts, newer perspectives suggest that there are fewer distinctions between how male and female athletes are portrayed. The present study examined whether there were differences in broadcast commentary of men’s and women’s Olympic basketball gold medal games, including comments about the players looks and appearance, their physicality and athleticism, and the pattern of name used. The coding method employed was developed based on previous research and used to quantify the frequency of each category. Two coders …


Burnout In Virginia's Community College Adjuncts With Relation To Gender, Age, And Number Of Jobs Held, Justin Barrett Stowe Apr 2022

Burnout In Virginia's Community College Adjuncts With Relation To Gender, Age, And Number Of Jobs Held, Justin Barrett Stowe

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Burnout is a psychological condition that affects individuals in high stress careers. Higher education faculty are prone to burnout, with studies showing women experienced burnout at different ages than their male counterparts. Few studies have been conducted to test if age and gender could predict a high level of burnout amongst adjunct faculty in community colleges. In addition, community college adjunct faculty are known to work more than one job to meet economic needs, and the research demonstrates such a condition creates anxiety, but little discussion is present on whether the variables of age, gender, and additional jobs held may …


Examining Covid-19 Long-Haulers Along Gender, Race Stress And Social Support Variables, Brianna Mabie Mar 2022

Examining Covid-19 Long-Haulers Along Gender, Race Stress And Social Support Variables, Brianna Mabie

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Unfortunately, the United States has experienced approximately 620,000 deaths as a direct result of COVID-19, with elderly, Hispanic, and Black Americans experiencing the greatest risk (CDC, 2021). Although most individuals recover from mild to moderate COVID-19 infections within a few weeks, some may experience lingering symptoms for many months (Mayo Clinic, 2020). These individuals are commonly known as COVID-19 long-haulers. In order to properly assist in the well-being of COVID-19 long-haulers, more needs to be understood in terms of how gender, race, stress, and social support impact symptomatology within this population. The present study seeks to address this gap in …


The Unfinished Hope Of Gower's Transgender Children, Gabrielle M.W. Bychowski Mar 2022

The Unfinished Hope Of Gower's Transgender Children, Gabrielle M.W. Bychowski

Accessus

This article examines two of Gower's tales from the Confessio Amantis that deal with trans youths: Iphis and Narcissus. Considering these two tales together, I ask the question: why does one story end with hopeful futurity for the trans masculine youth and the other end with death and the absence of futurity for the trans feminine youth. Connecting these medieval texts to premodern contexts and then with modern contexts, I map the trajectory of centuries long problems facing trans youths. In the end, I conclude that trans youth possess a healthier and more stable future when they receive trans affirming …


Psychological Factors Of Athletes And Preference For Competition Against Opponents Who Differ In Relative Standing, Emily Lorry Jan 2022

Psychological Factors Of Athletes And Preference For Competition Against Opponents Who Differ In Relative Standing, Emily Lorry

Psychology Honors Papers

Sports and competition are a large part of most cultures across the globe and their popularity only appears to be increasing. Athletic competition is increasingly becoming more about winning, results, and performance and much less about having fun. Professional athletes are no longer the only competitors facing extreme pressure to perform. Collegiate athletes and youth athletes are expected to perform at their best to earn titles for their program or scholarships to universities. Although it is becoming more common for athletes to speak about their personal struggles regarding mental health and performance anxiety, there is little to no change in …


Gender, Attachment Patterns, And Mental Representations Of Parents And Self As Predictors Of Early Adolescents’ Trauma Symptoms, Bryan Blum Jan 2022

Gender, Attachment Patterns, And Mental Representations Of Parents And Self As Predictors Of Early Adolescents’ Trauma Symptoms, Bryan Blum

Selected Full Text Dissertations, 2011-

Gender, attachment patterns and mental representations of close relationships have not previously been used to predict trauma symptomatology in early adolescents. In this study, 109 eighth grade students ages 12-13 (44% female) were recruited from a private Manhattan middle school for academically advantaged, ethnically diverse students. The study took place over the course of four years, with each new group of participants providing data in September of their eighth grade year. Participants reported on trauma symptoms and the affective valence of their mental representations of self and parents, and school staff reported on participants’ attachment patterns. While boys reported more …


What About Me: Understanding The Relationship Between Gender Identity And Social Anxiety, Jessica Allen Jan 2022

What About Me: Understanding The Relationship Between Gender Identity And Social Anxiety, Jessica Allen

All Master's Theses

Anxiety disorders have been researched primarily in cisgender populations until very recently. A clear gap in the literature exists for gender diverse individuals in this research. Through analysis of transgender and gender-diverse individuals’ accounts of their experiences with social anxiety, this study developed a scale specifically aligned with these encounters, titled the Allen Scale. Further, this study examined whether body dysmorphia symptoms have any correlation with social anxiety symptoms in either gender-diverse or cisgender populations. Results uncovered no clear statistical difference between the gender diverse group and the cisgender group on ratings of experienced discrimination, social anxiety or body dysmorphia …


Mental Health, Bullying, And Victimization Among Chinese Adolescents, Yang Wen, Xihe Zhu, Justin A. Haegele, Fangliang Yu Jan 2022

Mental Health, Bullying, And Victimization Among Chinese Adolescents, Yang Wen, Xihe Zhu, Justin A. Haegele, Fangliang Yu

Human Movement Sciences Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study was to examine if adolescents who experience anxiety or depression have higher levels of reported bullying victimization or perpetration than those who do not. Based on the existing research, we hypothesized that those who experienced moderate or severe depression and anxiety would have higher rates of bullying victimization and perpetration when compared to those who experienced mild or no depression. This study used an observational design, and data were collected from a convenience sample of adolescents in a large regional high school in an Eastern province of China. The final sample included 1481 adolescents aged …


Indirect Effects Of Parental Psychological Control On Emerging Adult Psychological Problems Via Emotion Regulation, Alyssa R. Williams, Cliff Mckinney Jan 2022

Indirect Effects Of Parental Psychological Control On Emerging Adult Psychological Problems Via Emotion Regulation, Alyssa R. Williams, Cliff Mckinney

College of Arts and Sciences Publications and Scholarship

No abstract provided.