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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Event-Related Potentials Of Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Performing The Attention Network Task, P. Dennis Rodriguez, Justin E. Stauffacher Oct 2022

Event-Related Potentials Of Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Performing The Attention Network Task, P. Dennis Rodriguez, Justin E. Stauffacher

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

The current study sought to investigate the neural basis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining the performance of individuals with ADHD on the Attentional Networks Test (ANT) by Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, and Posner (2002), while recording electroencephalography (EEG) utilizing event-related potentials (ERP) methodology. Fifty-seven university students were divided into three groups: control, ADHD-inattentive subtype (ADHD-IA), and ADHD-combined/hyperactive impulsive subtype (ADHD-C/HI). The average peak amplitudes of the P300 waveform for each group were compared and analyzed for performance on each attention network measured by the ANT: the alerting network, the orienting network, and the executive control network. The average P3 …


Correlation Of The Anterior Salience Network With Attention: A Resting-State Fmri Analysis, Matthew Brooks May 2022

Correlation Of The Anterior Salience Network With Attention: A Resting-State Fmri Analysis, Matthew Brooks

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Background: Some studies have broadened our understanding of attention while other studies have used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses to identify brain regions that are functionally connected and may be associated with salience processing. This thesis sought to examine the relationship between the anterior salience network and attentional control. The current study hypothesized that resting-state functional connectivity between regions of the anterior salience network would be associated with attentional control ability. Methods: Forty-eight college-aged students completed the affective Stroop task to assess attentional regulation ability. Accuracy on trials of the task was examined in correlation with resting-state functional …


So I Was, 'Like', Totally Buggin’ – Evidence For The Role Of Attention On Entrainment From Discourse Particles, Rachel L. Williams May 2022

So I Was, 'Like', Totally Buggin’ – Evidence For The Role Of Attention On Entrainment From Discourse Particles, Rachel L. Williams

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In this study, we investigated the role of attention for entrainment during production and comprehension using the discourse particle like. We tested two main hypotheses – that entrainment to discourse particles, even if relatively implicit, requires some attentional resources, versus that it requires little (if any) attention. In two experiments, participants read a short story and retold it (baseline retelling phase), then read another short story and listened to a recording of it (priming phase), and then read and retold a third story (target retelling phase). In Experiment 1, half of the participants simultaneously navigated a busy pedestrian zone in …


Classical Conditioning Of Cognitive States, Arthur Burns Apr 2022

Classical Conditioning Of Cognitive States, Arthur Burns

Neuroscience Honors Papers

Classical conditioning has been a fundamental concept and practice throughout the history of psychology. While classical conditioning traditionally seeks to elicit target behaviors in correlation to specific stimuli, we sought to do the same with cognitive states in place of behaviors. Specifically, we wanted to determine the effectiveness of conditioning states of cognitive arousal in human participants in conjunction with cues presented in a designed learning task. We designed a cognitive task specifically for this research, referred to as “the Tone Pitching Task”, which utilized a combination of working memory and mental processing in order to elicit cognitive arousal and …


Using Legos® In Research Facilitation: An Advanced Scripted Research Method, Samuel W. Root Jan 2022

Using Legos® In Research Facilitation: An Advanced Scripted Research Method, Samuel W. Root

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies Advance Publication Archive

Transpersonal research methods can help individuals access useful information and material that typically reside out of conscious awareness. The playful activity of LEGO® block-building can be adapted for research purposes and used to overcome research impasses, for example. This paper presents a novel transpersonal LEGO® building process for facilitation in each of the four major phases of research. Readers are provided with a 6-step script that takes between 30 minutes and 1 hour to complete. Steps include: Prepare to Exercise; Set Intentions; Build While Intending Solution; Appreciate/Take In; Project and Actively Imagine; and Reflect and Ease Out. Future studies could …


Are Neuronal Mechanisms Of Attentional Modulation Universal Across Human Sensory And Motor Brain Maps?, Edgar A. Deyoe, Wendy E. Huddleston, Adam S. Greenberg Jan 2022

Are Neuronal Mechanisms Of Attentional Modulation Universal Across Human Sensory And Motor Brain Maps?, Edgar A. Deyoe, Wendy E. Huddleston, Adam S. Greenberg

Kinesiology Faculty Articles

One's experience of shifting attention from the color to the smell to the act of picking a flower seems like a unitary process applied, at will, to one modality after another. Yet, the unique experience of sight vs smell vs movement might suggest that the neural mechanisms of attention have been selectively optimized to employ each modality to greatest advantage. Relevant experimental data can be difficult to compare across modalities due to design and methodological heterogeneity. Here we outline some of the issues related to this problem and suggest how experimental data can be obtained across modalities using more uniform …


Divided Attention And Its Effect On Forward Testing, Nicholas H. Garcia Jan 2022

Divided Attention And Its Effect On Forward Testing, Nicholas H. Garcia

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The testing effect is a well-studied and robust phenomenon. The forward testing effect is a relatively new phenomenon that has been observed in robust settings with a diverse population. The testing effect (also coined the backwards testing effect) and the forward testing effect share similar benefits and are applicable in similar settings. Research on the forward testing effect has demonstrated underlying mechanisms that differ from the backwards testing effect, illuminating the differences between these two phenomena. Dividing attention during study periods has been revealed to negatively affect the backwards testing effect, significantly reducing its efficacy. The forward testing effect, operating …


The Role Of Caregiver-Reported Emerging Social Attention In Predicting Duration Of Orienting And Social Communication, Casey E. Swick Jan 2022

The Role Of Caregiver-Reported Emerging Social Attention In Predicting Duration Of Orienting And Social Communication, Casey E. Swick

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Early identification of atypical development could lead to opportunities for earlier intervention, ultimately improving developmental outcomes. Early signs of atypical attention, social attention, and social communication development emerge in infancy, yet age at diagnosis of neurodevelopmental difficulties does not typically occur until well after the first year of life. In order to achieve this goal of early identification, sensitive and accessible tools are needed to identify infants at risk for atypical development. This study examined whether caregivers could report on emerging social attention behaviors in the first days to weeks of life with a novel, experimental scale (PediaTrac SSIP). This …


Eye Movement And Pupil Measures: A Review, Bhanuka Mahanama, Yasith Jayawardana, Sundararaman Rengarajan, Gavindya Jayawardena, Leanne Chukoskie, Joseph Snider, Sampath Jayarathna Jan 2022

Eye Movement And Pupil Measures: A Review, Bhanuka Mahanama, Yasith Jayawardana, Sundararaman Rengarajan, Gavindya Jayawardena, Leanne Chukoskie, Joseph Snider, Sampath Jayarathna

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Our subjective visual experiences involve complex interaction between our eyes, our brain, and the surrounding world. It gives us the sense of sight, color, stereopsis, distance, pattern recognition, motor coordination, and more. The increasing ubiquity of gaze-aware technology brings with it the ability to track gaze and pupil measures with varying degrees of fidelity. With this in mind, a review that considers the various gaze measures becomes increasingly relevant, especially considering our ability to make sense of these signals given different spatio-temporal sampling capacities. In this paper, we selectively review prior work on eye movements and pupil measures. We first …


The Effect Of School-Based Mindfulness Intervention On Student Attention And Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis, Sarah E. Rea Dec 2021

The Effect Of School-Based Mindfulness Intervention On Student Attention And Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis, Sarah E. Rea

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Schools are facing increasing responsibility to foster the social-emotional development of students. One way in which schools can improve student functioning is through school-based mindfulness interventions. Using mindfulness practices, in particular, can teach students to increase their attention of surroundings and internal experiences, and awareness of their thoughts and behaviors. While the evidence-base for mindfulness interventions in schools continues to grow, there are several studies that show promising outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine how large the effect sizes for school-based mindfulness studies are in regard to increasing student attention, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Results indicate …


The Role Of Emotional Attention Regulation In High Psychopathy Incarcerated Males, Michael K. Webb Dec 2021

The Role Of Emotional Attention Regulation In High Psychopathy Incarcerated Males, Michael K. Webb

Dissertations and Theses

This study examined the role of emotional attention regulation in men (N = 60) currently incarcerated in a Midwestern prison. Modern conceptualizations define psychopathy as a multifaceted and dimensional construct that includes atypical experience of affect, interpersonal problems, and remarkable social deviance. Attentional differences and deficient emotional experience have been shown to predict psychopathy and other outcomes related to the construct. However, attentional and emotional functioning in individuals high in psychopathy is complex and results have been shown to vary across discrete emotion states and experimental paradigms. The negative preception hypothesis (Kosson et al. 2018) suggests that these differences may …


Using Legos® In Research Facilitation: An Advanced Scripted Research Method, Samuel W. Root Dec 2021

Using Legos® In Research Facilitation: An Advanced Scripted Research Method, Samuel W. Root

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Transpersonal research methods can help individuals access useful information and material that typically reside out of conscious awareness. The playful activity of LEGO® block-building can be adapted for research purposes and used to overcome research impasses, for example. This paper presents a novel transpersonal LEGO® building process for facilitation in each of the four major phases of research. Readers are provided with a 6-step script that takes between 30 minutes and 1 hour to complete. Steps include: Prepare to Exercise; Set Intentions; Build While Intending Solution; Appreciate/Take In; Project and Actively Imagine; and Reflect and Ease Out. Future studies could …


An Erp Study Of The Effects Of Iconic And Nonsense Gestures On Memory Formation, Brianna E. Cairney Nov 2021

An Erp Study Of The Effects Of Iconic And Nonsense Gestures On Memory Formation, Brianna E. Cairney

LSU Master's Theses

Co-speech gesture is an important part of human communication and aids in comprehension, learning, and memory. The addition of iconic gestures to speech has been shown in prior work to enhance memory for the speech. However, it remains unclear as to whether this benefit requires gestures to be meaningful, or, conversely, if any attentionally-engaging gesture will enhance memory. In the current study, we tested two theories to explain the mnemonic benefits of co-speech gesture: Dual Coding Theory, which attributes these benefits to multimodal encoding and enhanced imageability, and Attentional Highlighting Theory, which posits that gestures draw more attention to concurrent …


The Giver: Vision & Memory, Alexander J. Dontre Nov 2021

The Giver: Vision & Memory, Alexander J. Dontre

All Faculty and Staff Scholarship

A memory hole is the banishment of problematic thoughts. We exile that which we prefer not to exist. Enter the perilous Memory Hole: The Psychology of Dystopia, to explore a legion of social and psychological themes through the lens of dystopian literature. The crushing fist of 1984 annihilating thoughts from existence as a means of persuasion. The exquisite seduction of addiction as an agent of control in Brave New World. Incineration of the written word to bask in the embers of peace of mind in Fahrenheit 451. Each chapter weaves in and out of the dystopian realms forged …


The Utility Of The Test Of Everyday Attention For Children (Tea-Ch) For Attention-Related Referrals, Ewelina Lakomy Oct 2021

The Utility Of The Test Of Everyday Attention For Children (Tea-Ch) For Attention-Related Referrals, Ewelina Lakomy

Dissertations

The Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) is a commonly used, UK-normed test to assess diverse attentional capacities in children and adolescents. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for the diagnostic utility of the TEA-Ch with ADHD in a U.S. population. The focus in this study was to investigate the relationship between the TEA-Ch scores test authors found to be most sensitive to ADHD in UK samples as well as the relationship of TEA-Ch scores to other measures typically used in the diagnosis of ADHD, including rating scales. Archival and prospective analyses of 121 subjects with mixed-clinical/ADHD diagnoses (ages 6–16; …


The Role Of Top-Down Attention In Statistical Learning Of Speech, Stacey Reyes Aug 2021

The Role Of Top-Down Attention In Statistical Learning Of Speech, Stacey Reyes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Statistical learning (SL) refers to the ability to extract regularities in the environment and has been well-documented to play a key role in speech segmentation and language acquisition. Whether SL is automatic or requires top-down attention is an unresolved question, with conflicting results in the literature. The current proposal tests whether SL can occur outside the focus of attention. Participants either focused towards, or diverted their attention away from an auditory speech stream made of repeating nonsense trisyllabic words. Divided-attention participants either performed a concurrent visual task or a language-related task during exposure to the nonsense speech stream, while control …


Driving Habits, Cognition, And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Middle-Aged And Older Adults With Hiv, Josiah J. Robinson, Tess Walker, Cierra Hopkins, Brittany Bradley, Peggy Mckie, Jennifer S. Frank, Caitlin N. Pope, Pariya L. Fazeli, David E. Vance Aug 2021

Driving Habits, Cognition, And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Middle-Aged And Older Adults With Hiv, Josiah J. Robinson, Tess Walker, Cierra Hopkins, Brittany Bradley, Peggy Mckie, Jennifer S. Frank, Caitlin N. Pope, Pariya L. Fazeli, David E. Vance

Graduate Center for Gerontology Faculty Publications

Cognitive impairment is known to increase with aging in people living with HIV (PLWH). Impairment in cognitive domains required for safe driving may put PLWH at risk for poor driving outcomes, decreased mobility, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study described the driving behaviors of middle-aged and older PLWH and examined correlations between driving behaviors and cognitive functioning (Aim 1), and driving behaviors and HRQoL domains (Aim 2). A sample of 260 PLWH ages 40 and older completed a comprehensive assessment including a battery of cognitive tests, an HRQoL measure, and a measure of self-reported driving habits. Associations between …


Binge-Watching And The Spacing Effect, Michael R. Austin Aug 2021

Binge-Watching And The Spacing Effect, Michael R. Austin

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Binge-watching, defined as consuming at least three episodes or three hours of video media in one sitting, is an increasingly prevalent behavior in the digital age. But scant research exists investigating how binge-watching affects memory for what was watched. Literature surrounding the spacing effect, defined as superior memory for information presented repeatedly across longer spans of time, would predict a memory deficit for binged material. However, findings from previous unpublished research by Fogler and colleagues do not align with this prediction. To investigate the dissonance, the aim of this research is to replicate and extend the work of Fogler and …


Mentally Restorative Areas For Students: Impacts Of Nature On Psychophysiological State, Jesse Moore Aug 2021

Mentally Restorative Areas For Students: Impacts Of Nature On Psychophysiological State, Jesse Moore

Honors Theses

Situated in the top outdoor ranking city of Chattanooga, the campus of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) includes diverse areas available for student rest and recreation. This study aims to introduce UTC students into the collection of studies on the effects of natural environments on Attention Restoration Theory (ART) by using the Stroop cognitive test and portable electroencephalograph (EEG) headsets. Participants completed the Stroop test after ten-minute mental restoration sessions in environments of varying natural exposure included on campus. Through analysis of variance, location was found to significantly influence performance on Stroop testing and measures of relaxation (p=0.030). …


How To Enhance Curiosity In Early Childhood: A Curiosity Toy Kit, Michelle Kwan Aug 2021

How To Enhance Curiosity In Early Childhood: A Curiosity Toy Kit, Michelle Kwan

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Curiosity is a universal and malleable positive character strength. It has been linked to physical, social, emotional, and psychological well-being, academic success, and success in adulthood. Curiosity is especially important in early childhood because this is a critical stage of development when children’s curiosity is still abundant and organic. But for all its value, curiosity remains under-recognized and under-studied. There is no universally agreed upon definition of curiosity in adults or children. As a result, the research community has varying opinions on how to define, measure, and enhance curiosity. And in many current day classrooms, an overly rigid top-down structure …


The Influence Of Human Attentional State And Familiarity On Bengal Tiger (Panthera Tigris Tigris) And Siberian Tiger (Panthera Tigris Altaica) Sociability, Jenna J. Dail Aug 2021

The Influence Of Human Attentional State And Familiarity On Bengal Tiger (Panthera Tigris Tigris) And Siberian Tiger (Panthera Tigris Altaica) Sociability, Jenna J. Dail

MSU Graduate Theses

An essential element of an animal’s character is sociability (Gosling and John, 1999) and is demonstrated through interactions with other individuals (Capitanio, 2002). Although it is common to believe that domestic cats are not social beings, they have exhibited variance in solitary and social behavior, contingent on their environment and history (Turner, 2014). Much of the research on sociable behavior of animals has been completed between conspecifics. There has been less examination into interspecies sociability, and that which has been reviewed is focused on the relationship between humans and the domestic dog (Udell et al., 2010). Following this work, Vitale …


The Effect Of A Mindfulness-Based Intervention On Attention And Cognitive Control As A Function Of Smartphone Notifications., Joshua D. Upshaw Jul 2021

The Effect Of A Mindfulness-Based Intervention On Attention And Cognitive Control As A Function Of Smartphone Notifications., Joshua D. Upshaw

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Barriers to accessing mobile technology, particularly smartphones, have decreased substantially since the iPhone’s release in 2007, resulting in increased ownership and usage across all ages, genders, and races. Despite their ubiquity in our society, relatively little empirical work has investigated the influence of smartphones on our higher order executive functioning. Prior work has linked smartphone use with impaired cognitive control during cognitively demanding tasks, especially in heavier smartphone users. The goals of the current study were twofold. First, the study aimed to examine the effects of smartphone notifications on cognitive control and attention. And second, to determine the effects of …


Cerebellum-Seeded Functional Connectivity Changes In Trait-Anxious Individuals Undergoing Attention Bias Modification Training, Katherine Elwell Jul 2021

Cerebellum-Seeded Functional Connectivity Changes In Trait-Anxious Individuals Undergoing Attention Bias Modification Training, Katherine Elwell

All NMU Master's Theses

Anxiety and anxiety related disorders are increasing at a drastic rate in the past decade, with the NIMH reporting that 31.1% of U.S. adults will experience an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives. Anxiety is commonly characterized by increased attention bias to threat. Attention Bias Modification (ABM) is a new treatment used to reduce individual’s attention bias towards threat. The extent to which ABM leads to underlying neural changes is still unknown. The cerebellum is a neglected brain structure, with new research provides evidence that cerebellum’s functional connectivity and shared networks with threat processing regions has a direct …


The Development And Validation Of An Automated Screener Of Attention, Rachel Bridges Jul 2021

The Development And Validation Of An Automated Screener Of Attention, Rachel Bridges

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated a strong relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic underachievement. Interventions specific to academic deficits in children with ADHD are available, which are most effective if implemented before secondary concerns arise. Performance based screening is one method for determining the need for early intervention, yet extant measures of attention have limitations for the purposes of large-scale screening. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties and guiding conceptual model of a novel instrument of executive functioning—the GNG Screen— which measures response inhibition via a go/no-go paradigm. Results from Rasch modeling and exploratory factor analysis provide preliminary psychometric …


Examining The Transient Neural Dynamics Underlying Working Memory Maintenance For Complex Visual Stimuli, Chelsea Reichert Plaska Jun 2021

Examining The Transient Neural Dynamics Underlying Working Memory Maintenance For Complex Visual Stimuli, Chelsea Reichert Plaska

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Working memory (WM) is the temporary storage of information to accomplish a future goal. The WM delay period is the time after encoding but before retrieval when information is being maintained, typically in the absence of relevant stimuli. Understanding how the brain supports maintenance during the delay period, and how neural activity and connectivity are related to memory is critical for advancing both basic knowledge as well as informing declines in memory and cognition related to neurodegenerative diseases and healthy aging. An open question in the field of WM research is how information is stored during this delay period. One …


Mental Imagery In The Regulation Of Differential Fear Conditioning: A Multimodal Investigation Involving Self-Report, Psychophysiology, And Brain Imaging, Tyler Daniel Robinson May 2021

Mental Imagery In The Regulation Of Differential Fear Conditioning: A Multimodal Investigation Involving Self-Report, Psychophysiology, And Brain Imaging, Tyler Daniel Robinson

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Mental imagery is a common component in a range of emotion regulation techniques. However, the effectiveness and neural mechanisms of regulation via mental imagery are underexplored due to a lack of studies targeting mental imagery specifically. This discrepancy results in uncertainty regarding the mechanism of regulation in existing paradigms. Biased competition for attentional resources presents a plausible model by which a mental imagery-based distracter can downregulate response to an emotional stimulus. If visualizing an imagined distracter effectively regulates emotional response, the inclusion of mental imagery components in other techniques represents a potential confound. To address this discrepancy, this dissertation investigates …


The Effects Of Interactivity On Memory Relating To Presence In Virtual Environments, Jenny Wong May 2021

The Effects Of Interactivity On Memory Relating To Presence In Virtual Environments, Jenny Wong

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The overall effectiveness of virtual environments is often linked to and measured by degrees of presence, commonly defined as the psychological sensation of “being there” (Schubert et al., 1999). Psychologists agree that attention and involvement through interactivity play a role in presence (Hartmann et al., 2015; Schubert et al., 1999; Witmer and Singer, 1998). Because attention is critical in encoding information into memory storage, looking at how memory relates to presence is another topic of interest. In this study, participants (N = 30) played through a 3D virtual reconstruction of a Pompeian house under one of two conditions: free-roam …


Observation And Detection Of Adhd Malingering In College Students, Zoe Tenner Apr 2021

Observation And Detection Of Adhd Malingering In College Students, Zoe Tenner

Honors Theses

The rate of college students attempting to obtain Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in order to gain access to prescription stimulant medications has shown a large increase over the past 20 years. Research has also shown that college students are frequently able to convincingly present themselves as meeting clinical criteria for ADHD with relative ease, meaning that the barrier to false presentation for the purpose of obtaining inappropriately prescribed medication is minimal. There is a need for more concise, accurate tools to detect these efforts in clinical settings, which is an area of research pursued by members of the University of …


Mental Fatigue: Examining Cognitive Performance And Driving Behavior In Young Adults, Abigail F. Helm Apr 2021

Mental Fatigue: Examining Cognitive Performance And Driving Behavior In Young Adults, Abigail F. Helm

Doctoral Dissertations

Mental fatigue causes an increase in task-based EEG theta and alpha power and a decrease in performance (for a review, see Tran et al., 2020). However, little is known about the emergence of mental fatigue in resting state EEG recordings and whether the progression of mental fatigue over time is influenced by individual differences. The current dissertation examined the utility of resting state EEG as a measure of mental fatigue by testing whether EEG power changed in young adults over the course of a cognitively demanding battery of tasks. The current dissertation also tested how this measure of mental fatigue …


Learned But Not Distracting: Low-Value Stimuli And Value-Driven Attentional Capture, John Albanese Apr 2021

Learned But Not Distracting: Low-Value Stimuli And Value-Driven Attentional Capture, John Albanese

Senior Theses and Projects

Stimuli previously associated with reward slow response times (RTs) when presented as irrelevant distractors in subsequent, unrewarded tasks (value driven attentional capture, VDAC). Typical VDAC training requires search for one of two experimentally-determined, colored circles and an orientation judgement of a line inside the color-defined target. Reward follows correct responses, associating high- or low-value with specific colors. Distractors rendered in high-value colors consistently slow RTs in an unrewarded test phase, an outcome that is rarely observed for low-value colors. Might this be due to a failure to adequately learn the reward contingencies during training? 22 observers underwent a modified training …