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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

The Effects Of Acculturation, Marianismo, And Religiosity On Pregnancy Related Anxiety In Latina Women, Jennifer M. Zanoli Aug 2023

The Effects Of Acculturation, Marianismo, And Religiosity On Pregnancy Related Anxiety In Latina Women, Jennifer M. Zanoli

Doctoral Dissertations

There is a dearth of information about pregnancy related anxiety (PRA) in Latina women, yet a growing body of literature demonstrates adverse birth outcomes for mother and infant due to PRA. This study examined the association between acculturation, religiosity, marianismo, parity, and a Latina pregnant woman’s relationship with her healthcare provider with PRA in Latina women aged 18 and above. Acculturation was expected to be the more robust factor amongst the independent variables.

Participants in this study (n = 53) were Hispanic, Chicano, Latino or had a Latin or Spanish heritage, over the age of 18, pregnant at the …


The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe May 2023

The Benefits Of Art Therapy On Stress And Anxiety Of Oncology Patients During Treatment, Helen Shiepe

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Within the last ten years research on art therapy and its positive impact on oncology patients’ stress and anxiety during treatment has been minimal. Oncology patients whether they are children or adults when diagnosed experience similar reactions due to their diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases end of life care. The current question is whether or not art therapy does have a positive impact on decreasing the stress and anxiety with oncology patients while undergoing treatment. Deane, Fitch & Carmen (2000), discussed art therapy as a healing art that is “intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating …


Sleep Quality In Undergraduate Students: Examining The Role Of Class Rank And Related Individual Differences, Lauren Yocum, Lauren Yocum May 2023

Sleep Quality In Undergraduate Students: Examining The Role Of Class Rank And Related Individual Differences, Lauren Yocum, Lauren Yocum

Honors College Theses

College students are likely to experience stress due to increased responsibilities, more demanding coursework, and maintaining a balance between academics and social life. Indeed, college students are at risk for experiencing clinically-significant depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as sleep disturbances, likely as a result of these challenges. Although the relationship between these affective variables and college stressors are well-documented, less attention has been given to the factors that may help promote better sleep, with the majority of research documenting the intrinsic bidirectional nature of mood and sleep (e.g., lack of sleep leads to worse mood which further exacerbates sleep …


Reducing Anxiety Symptoms In African Americans Using Informal Mental Health Coping Strategies, Maleitha Nard, Kourtnei Jones-Dumas Dec 2022

Reducing Anxiety Symptoms In African Americans Using Informal Mental Health Coping Strategies, Maleitha Nard, Kourtnei Jones-Dumas

Doctoral Projects

Research shows that the adult Black community is 20% more likely to experience serious mental health problems such as anxiety disorder (Anxiety and Depression Association of America [AADA], 2018). While this sobering statistic suggests the need for mental health resources in the African American community, findings indicate significant factors that depict how individuals view the mental health medical system, its health disparities, and noted inequities. Past experiences with trust and discrimination, minimal accessibility to adequate insurance, and lack of culturally aware mental health providers have all been supportive reasons for the African American community to turn to other coping mechanisms …


Analyzing Emerging Adulthood Narratives And The Role Of Anxiety In Developmental Functioning, Daryl Parungao Dec 2022

Analyzing Emerging Adulthood Narratives And The Role Of Anxiety In Developmental Functioning, Daryl Parungao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Emerging adulthood is a developmental period characterized by the themes of identity exploration, instability, feeling in-between, being self-focused, and exploring possibilities (Arnett, 2006). Emerging adults are at higher risk for anxiety as they navigate novel developmental experiences and responsibilities (Kranszler et al., 2019). This study explores whether these themes map on to the experiences of modern-day emerging adults, and whether developmental functioning corresponds to anxiety. College students completed standard questionnaires and provided free-text responses about adjusting to adulthood. Identity exploration and instability were perceived as the most positive and negative aspects of aging, respectively, though response-type varied by participant demographics. …


Exposure To Unpredictability And Mental Health: Validation Of The Brief Version Of The Questionnaire Of Unpredictability In Childhood (Quic-5) In English And Spanish, Natasha G. Lindert, Megan Y. Maxwell, Sabrina R. Liu, Hal S. Stern, Tallie Z. Baram, Elysia Poggi Davis, Victoria B. Risbrough, Dewleen G. Baker, Caroline M. Nievergelt, Laura M. Glynn Nov 2022

Exposure To Unpredictability And Mental Health: Validation Of The Brief Version Of The Questionnaire Of Unpredictability In Childhood (Quic-5) In English And Spanish, Natasha G. Lindert, Megan Y. Maxwell, Sabrina R. Liu, Hal S. Stern, Tallie Z. Baram, Elysia Poggi Davis, Victoria B. Risbrough, Dewleen G. Baker, Caroline M. Nievergelt, Laura M. Glynn

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Unpredictability is increasingly recognized as a primary dimension of early life adversity affecting lifespan mental health trajectories; screening for these experiences is therefore vital. The Questionnaire of Unpredictability in Childhood (QUIC) is a 38-item tool that measures unpredictability in childhood in social, emotional and physical domains. The available evidence indicates that exposure to unpredictable experiences measured with the QUIC predicts internalizing symptoms including depression and anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to validate English and Spanish brief versions (QUIC-5) suitable for administration in time-limited settings (e.g., clinical care settings, large-scale epidemiological studies). Five representative items were identified from …


Psychophysiological Effects Of Increasing Awareness Of Nondual Consciousness In Young Adults With Depression And Anxiety, Milena Braticevic Oct 2022

Psychophysiological Effects Of Increasing Awareness Of Nondual Consciousness In Young Adults With Depression And Anxiety, Milena Braticevic

CONSCIOUSNESS: Ideas and Research for the Twenty-First Century

Young adults increasingly suffer from anxiety and depression during the time of transition into adulthood. This research study examined the effects of increasing awareness of nondual consciousness in young adults who were experiencing various levels of anxiety and depression. The methodology was mixed-method and included four 1-hour group-based sessions over 4 weeks. Increasing awareness of nondual consciousness through educational, experiential, and behavioural components resulted in reduction in the average depression score from 19.4 (borderline clinical depression) to 10 (normal), and reduction in the average anxiety score from 12.7 (moderate anxiety) to 6.9 (mild). Participants reported increased mental, emotional, physical, and …


The Relationship Between Chronic Pain And Stress, Anxiety, And Depression In College Students Oct 2022

The Relationship Between Chronic Pain And Stress, Anxiety, And Depression In College Students

Journal of Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Research

The purpose of this study was to measure chronic pain levels as they relate to stress, anxiety, and depression in college students. This is a non-experimental, correlational research design, using a survey methodology. Eighty-four participants, over the age of 18, were recruited (men = 33.3%, women = 66.6%) to participate in this study. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire which was a compilation of the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire (CPGQ) (Von Korff et al., 1992), the Perceived Stress Scale (Wickrama et al., 2013), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) (Beck et al., 1988), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) (Beck …


The Moderating Role Of Positive Religious Coping And Workplace Spirituality In The Relationship Between Level Of Traditional And Covid-19 Related Stressors Encountered And Mental Health In Hospitality Workers, Danielle Grace Defacci Oct 2022

The Moderating Role Of Positive Religious Coping And Workplace Spirituality In The Relationship Between Level Of Traditional And Covid-19 Related Stressors Encountered And Mental Health In Hospitality Workers, Danielle Grace Defacci

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Higher levels of workplace and COVID-related stressors appear clearly linked to poorer mental health outcomes, and evidence is emerging that suggests positive religious coping (PRC) and workplace spirituality (WS) are both related to better mental health outcomes. It could be that PRC and WS buffer the impact of high stress levels on mental health. However, only one study exists that has explored the moderating effect of PRC in the stress-mental health relationship, and no studies exist exploring the moderating effect of WS in the stress-mental health relationship. Therefore, this study looked at the moderating role of PRC and WS in …


Memory And Attention While Scuba Diving At Shallow And Deep Depths: An Open Water Study, Leanne Boucher, Joshua Feingold, Kelly Concannon, Stephanie Talavera, Jaime Tartar, W. Matthew Collins Sep 2022

Memory And Attention While Scuba Diving At Shallow And Deep Depths: An Open Water Study, Leanne Boucher, Joshua Feingold, Kelly Concannon, Stephanie Talavera, Jaime Tartar, W. Matthew Collins

NeuroSports

SCUBA diving requires a high level of cognitive functioning, however, many divers anecdotally report poor memory and attentional skills while underwater. Few studies have documented cognitive deficits resulting from an open-water dive. Here, 23 divers completed both shallow (8 m) and deep (28 m) dives over two days in the open-water. The order of the dives was counterbalanced across participants. While at depth, they completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to assess anxiety levels, learned and were tested on a list of 36 words, and completed the trail making task (TMT) to assess executive functioning. They also gave saliva samples to …


Like Attracts Like? The Effects Of Anxiety, Implicit Bias, And Perception Of Diversity Culture On Team Attraction, Donna Yao, Melody M. Chao, Elizabeth George, Pritviraj Chattopadhyay Sep 2022

Like Attracts Like? The Effects Of Anxiety, Implicit Bias, And Perception Of Diversity Culture On Team Attraction, Donna Yao, Melody M. Chao, Elizabeth George, Pritviraj Chattopadhyay

Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia

Past relational demography research has demonstrated the influence of demographic dissimilarity among employees on their work engagement and attrition. Little is known about how demographic dissimilarity affects individuals’ attraction to a team in the first place. The present research focused on the attraction component of the attraction-selection-attrition model to investigate factors that contribute to team attraction and their associated underlying processes. Specifically, we identified anxiety towards potential teammates as an affective response to cultural dissimilarity, which in turn influenced performance expectations and team attraction. We also examined implicit and explicit cognitions that might shape the impact of anxiety. To this …


Thoughts, Feelings, Actions; The Brevity Of Being: A Haiku Method, Scott Medeiros Sep 2022

Thoughts, Feelings, Actions; The Brevity Of Being: A Haiku Method, Scott Medeiros

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The difficulties of delivering clinical services during the pandemic showed that there was a need for interventions that were able to be adapted to virtual sessions. In addition, lack of training and expertise regarding specialized therapies require modern day clinicians to be able to synergize current theory with the reality of the mental health landscape. In this study, 19 individuals participated in a psychoeducation group that taught a therapeutic thought mapping technique that was then adapted towards the creation of a haiku. It was noticed that participants were able to learn a psychological concept, apply it towards their life, create …


In Covid-19 Health Messaging, Loss Framing Increases Anxiety With Little-To-No Concomitant Benefits: Experimental Evidence From 84 Countries, Charles A. Dorison, Et. Al. Sep 2022

In Covid-19 Health Messaging, Loss Framing Increases Anxiety With Little-To-No Concomitant Benefits: Experimental Evidence From 84 Countries, Charles A. Dorison, Et. Al.

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The COVID-19 pandemic (and its aftermath) highlights a critical need to communicate health information effectively to the global public. Given that subtle differences in information framing can have meaningful effects on behavior, behavioral science research highlights a pressing question: Is it more effective to frame COVID-19 health messages in terms of potential losses (e.g., “If you do not practice these steps, you can endanger yourself and others”) or potential gains (e.g., “If you practice these steps, you can protect yourself and others”)? Collecting data in 48 languages from 15,929 participants in 84 countries, we experimentally tested the effects of message …


Competitive And Facilitative Interactions Between Pavlovian Cues In Human Associative Learning: A Behavioral And Neural Analysis, Fahd Alhazmi Sep 2022

Competitive And Facilitative Interactions Between Pavlovian Cues In Human Associative Learning: A Behavioral And Neural Analysis, Fahd Alhazmi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Learning to anticipate significant events accurately is a crucial element of survival for all species. The process by which animals acquire this knowledge has been a central question of psychological research. A fundamental assumption of many learning theories is that the predictive value assigned to cues is not simply determined by their probability of reinforcement but rather by their ability to compete with other cues present during learning. The assumption of cue competition has significantly contributed to the development of behavioral and neuroscience research for decades, as it has opened the door to new empirical and theoretical advances on the …


Does Anxiety Sensitivity Mediate Age-Related Differences In Anxiety In Middle-Aged And Older Adults?, Katherine F. Peterson Aug 2022

Does Anxiety Sensitivity Mediate Age-Related Differences In Anxiety In Middle-Aged And Older Adults?, Katherine F. Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety is a mental illness that can have significant deleterious impacts on an individual’s functioning. Although anxiety has been studied in older adults, there is conflicting evidence on differences in anxiety as a function of age. Anxiety sensitivity is a construct that is positively related to anxiety but has limited research in older adults. Extant literature suggests that older adults experience less anxiety sensitivity than do younger adults. According to Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, this may be due to older adults letting go of the things that make them anxious. The current study proposed that age impacts self-rated anxiety such that …


Depression, Anxiety, And Stress Severity Impact Social Media Use And Tiktok Addiction, Skylar L. Maguire, Hollie Pellosmaa Aug 2022

Depression, Anxiety, And Stress Severity Impact Social Media Use And Tiktok Addiction, Skylar L. Maguire, Hollie Pellosmaa

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Relationship Between Cognitive Flexibility And Rumination: From Laboratory To Daily Life, Cassidy R. Girard Aug 2022

The Relationship Between Cognitive Flexibility And Rumination: From Laboratory To Daily Life, Cassidy R. Girard

All NMU Master's Theses

Cognitive flexibility has been considered one of the risk factors for anxiety. People with high levels of anxiety tend to stick to more maladaptive strategies such as rumination. The interaction between cognitive flexibility and rumination may help explain the contribution of cognitive flexibility to the development of anxiety. This study investigated the relationship between cognitive flexibility and rumination. Each individual’s level of cognitive flexibility, anxiety, and rumination were measured through questionnaires and computer tasks. Daily changes in emotion and rumination were assessed using the experience sampling method. The results showed interesting relationship between rumination (both trait and momentary) and cognitive …


Investigating The Shared And Unique Mechanisms Of The Development Of Comorbid Eating Disorder-Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence., Leigh Cara Brosof Aug 2022

Investigating The Shared And Unique Mechanisms Of The Development Of Comorbid Eating Disorder-Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence., Leigh Cara Brosof

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Eating disorders are associated with significant morbidity, psychiatric comorbidity, and impairment. Despite the detrimental outcomes associated with eating disorders, effective treatments for eating disorders are lacking. One factor that has impeded the identification of targets for intervention in eating disorders is the high comorbidity rate with other psychiatric disorders. Comorbidity models can inform treatments by showing which mechanisms are shared in comorbidity and which mechanisms are unique to specific disorders. Anxiety disorders are the most frequently co-occurring disorders with eating disorders, as 85% of individuals with eating disorders have a comorbid anxiety disorder. One mechanistic process in both anxiety …


Effects Of Expressive Writing On Reducing Anxiety About Attending Intergroup Dialogue On Race And Racism, Cemal Arda Aksoy Aug 2022

Effects Of Expressive Writing On Reducing Anxiety About Attending Intergroup Dialogue On Race And Racism, Cemal Arda Aksoy

Masters Theses

This experimental study examined the effects of expressive writing (EW) on the level of anxiety that White college students experience for their anticipated participation in a dialogue about race and racism with a racially diverse group of people. Ninety-one undergraduate college students, aged 18 to 25 years, living in the United States and identifying their race as White/European American were randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition for this online study. In both conditions, participants were informed that they would be participating in an online dialogue about race and racism with a racially diverse group of people after they …


The Role Of Traumatic Experiences In Developing Nocturnal Panic Attacks, Nicole S. Smith Jul 2022

The Role Of Traumatic Experiences In Developing Nocturnal Panic Attacks, Nicole S. Smith

Dissertations

Nocturnal panic attacks refer to panic attacks that occur out of a sleeping state with no obvious cause, resulting in awakening at the peak of a panic attack. Nocturnal panic affects roughly half of patients with panic disorder as well as individuals with other psychological disorders such as PTSD. Prior research has suggested that experiencing a traumatic event may lead to the development of nocturnal panic attacks. The current study sought to expand upon the extant literature related to the role of trauma in nocturnal panic by collecting a comprehensive trauma and panic history in order to establish a timeline …


The Impact Of Trauma Subtypes On Ptsd Severity In Syrian Child And Adolescent Refugees, Liza Hinchey, Lana Grasser, Bassem Saad, Kathleen Gorski, Arash Javanbakht, May Chammaa Jun 2022

The Impact Of Trauma Subtypes On Ptsd Severity In Syrian Child And Adolescent Refugees, Liza Hinchey, Lana Grasser, Bassem Saad, Kathleen Gorski, Arash Javanbakht, May Chammaa

Medical Student Research Symposium

Background:

Child and adolescent refugee populations are at increased risk for psychiatric disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. Recent studies have demonstrated different symptomatology based on the type(s) of traumatic events experienced. Cluster analyses based on the Life Events Checklist (LEC) indicate three trauma subtypes: accidental/injury, victimization, and predominant death threat. Extending this line of research from adults to youth may lead to better understanding of the unique impacts of trauma subtypes on symptoms for improved prediction of risk and resilience.

Methods:

Refugee participants were recruited within 1 month of their resettlement in the U.S. Data used were …


“I Wonder If Being Broke Is Worth It For School”: An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Anxiety, Well-Being, And Coping Strategies Among Undergraduate Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Rebekah Woodburn Jun 2022

“I Wonder If Being Broke Is Worth It For School”: An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Anxiety, Well-Being, And Coping Strategies Among Undergraduate Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Rebekah Woodburn

Bridges: An Undergraduate Journal of Contemporary Connections

This study investigated the relationship between stressors, coping strategies, and well-being among undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Undergraduate students were asked to complete a series of measures designed to assess their general health levels, financial anxiety, subjective well-being, and resilience. In addition, they were asked open-ended retrospective questions regarding the coping strategies they had used over the course of the school year and the perceived effectiveness of these strategies. It was hypothesized that stress would be prevalent among many undergraduate students who face moderate to high anxiety levels. They would use inadequate coping strategies to improve their emotional well-being. …


Migraine And Anxiety In The Context Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Emma Gray Jun 2022

Migraine And Anxiety In The Context Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Emma Gray

Honors Theses

Migraine and anxiety are common health conditions that are highly comorbid. In this study, I examined the relationship between migraine and anxiety in the context of migraine triggers and the COVID-19 pandemic. 188 participants (mean age = 34.18 years; 10.63% male, 85.63% female, 3.72% other) who were recruited online completed two measures of state-level anxiety and two measures of migraine disability. The first two measures prompted participants to report the anxiety and migraine disability they experienced before the COVID-19 pandemic. The second two measures prompted participants to report the anxiety and migraine disability they experienced during what they personally believed …


Exploring The Impact Of Stress On Healthcare Student Competency: A Cognitive Model For Self-Regulating Performance During High-Stakes Scenarios, Michael J. Teachey May 2022

Exploring The Impact Of Stress On Healthcare Student Competency: A Cognitive Model For Self-Regulating Performance During High-Stakes Scenarios, Michael J. Teachey

Critical and Creative Thinking Capstones Collection

Stress and anxiety are part of healthcare and are experienced not only by patients but also by clinicians. This work explores an issue prevalent in healthcare education, outlining the detrimental effects of stress-induced anxiety on student performance during practical assessments. Included in this paper are the research and investigative details that elaborate on the process taken towards resolving the issue. Research conducted in the fields of education, law, and medicine is used to explore how these areas address stress with regard to performance. Through the various processes of research and engagement, this action research project uncovers the underlying issue of …


Interparental Conflict In Early Childhood As A Predictor Of Depression And Anxiety Symptoms At Age 15, Abigail Picinich May 2022

Interparental Conflict In Early Childhood As A Predictor Of Depression And Anxiety Symptoms At Age 15, Abigail Picinich

Theses - ALL

Research has continually demonstrated a number of adverse externalizing outcomes for children from conflictual families, though the impact of interparental conflict on adolescents' internalizing problems is less well understood. This study utilized longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child-Wellbeing Study, which is a stratified, multistage sample following 4,898 children from low-income families from birth to age 15. Self-report data from both the mothers and focal-teens was utilized to examine the impact of interparental conflict, at age 3, on both anxiety and depressive symptoms, at age 15. Findings indicated that there is a significant relationship between higher frequency of interparental …


The Role Of Prenatal Anxiety Sensitivity On Postpartum Anxiety And Depression, Ryann Holman May 2022

The Role Of Prenatal Anxiety Sensitivity On Postpartum Anxiety And Depression, Ryann Holman

Honors Theses

Pregnancy is a vulnerable period for women, with roughly 15% of women experiencing psychopathology during pregnancy and postpartum. The most common mental health concerns during this period are anxiety and depression, which have been linked to adverse outcomes on both mother and baby, such as low birth weight and preterm birth. In understanding their onset, anxiety sensitivity has been found to be a potential mechanism for the development of both anxiety and depressive disorders. The goal of the current study was to examine the association between prenatal anxiety sensitivity and postpartum anxiety and depression. Pregnant women were given a battery …


The Feasibility Of Remote Brief Mindfulness Training And Impact On Anxiety-Related Attention Bias, Hanna Culang May 2022

The Feasibility Of Remote Brief Mindfulness Training And Impact On Anxiety-Related Attention Bias, Hanna Culang

Theses and Dissertations

Brief mindfulness training (BMT) improves anxiety and the allocation of attentional resources. Whether BMT can remediate disruptions in attention associated with anxiety, such as anxiety-related attention bias (AB), remains unclear. This experimental study revealed that BMT significantly improved subjective state mindfulness and state anxiety, but did not influence AB.


Time To Stop Worrying: A Correlational Study On Individualist Versus Collectivist Time Perspectives And Anxiety, Anna Waldron May 2022

Time To Stop Worrying: A Correlational Study On Individualist Versus Collectivist Time Perspectives And Anxiety, Anna Waldron

ELAIA

Purpose Research has indicated a significant relationship between anxiety and time perspective (TP), which is the way one views life in terms of the past, present or future. TP is broken down into five facets based on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), including past negative (PN), past positive (PP), present fatalistic (PF), present hedonistic (PH), and future (F) time perspectives (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). Time perspective is thought to be impacted by one’s culture, although there is a lack of representation in studies on TP cross-culturally, which makes it difficult to generalize. In order to add to the research …


Exploring Social Media Usage And Its Effects On College Students' Mental Health: A Mixed-Methods, Intervention Study, Kimanh Le May 2022

Exploring Social Media Usage And Its Effects On College Students' Mental Health: A Mixed-Methods, Intervention Study, Kimanh Le

Health and Kinesiology Theses

Background: Social media can cause detrimental effects to college students’ mental wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to examine UT Tyler students’ social media usage and its effects on mental health such as depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and the fear of missing out (FoMO). The researcher wanted to see if one specific social media site, Instagram, had more deleterious effects compared to other social media platforms and if reducing time usage would help improve mental health.

Methods: A mixed-methods, intervention design was used. An online quantitative survey link, which contained questions about demographics, social media usage, and mental health …


Relationship Between Pet And Human Separation Anxiety On Owners’ Anxiety And Physical Health, Noah Ross May 2022

Relationship Between Pet And Human Separation Anxiety On Owners’ Anxiety And Physical Health, Noah Ross

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pet ownership has always been thought to be beneficial, but some recent studies have not been consistent with this statement. A possible explanation for this is an unhealthy overdependence that pets and pet owners have developed as a result of the Coronavirus pandemic. In this paper, I examine whether separation anxiety from pets, people, and separation behavior of pets could be predictors of anxiety and physical health. The first prediction was that pet and non pet owners differed demographically. Also, it was hypothesized that separation anxiety from humans, separation anxiety from pets, but not pet separation behaviors predicted anxiety and …