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2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 3424

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Gender And Theory Of Mind In Preschoolers’ Group Effort: Evidence For Timing Differences Behind Children’S Earliest Social Loafing, Robert Thompson, Bill Thornton Dec 2015

Gender And Theory Of Mind In Preschoolers’ Group Effort: Evidence For Timing Differences Behind Children’S Earliest Social Loafing, Robert Thompson, Bill Thornton

Bill Thornton

This study explored mental state reasoning within the context of group effort and possible differences in development between boys and girls. Preschool children (59 girls, 47 boys) were assessed for theory of mind (ToM) ability using classic false belief tests. Children participated in group effort conditions that alternated from one condition, where individual effort was transparent and obvious, to one where individual effort remained anonymous. The aim was to investigate if emergent mental state reasoning, after controlling for age, was associated with the well-known phenomenon of reduced effort in group tasks (“social loafing”). Girls had slightly higher ToM scores and …


Cognitive Processes And Moderators Of Willingness In Individuals With Social Anxiety Disorder And Non-Anxious Controls In Response To A Social Performance Task, Lauren P. Wadsworth Dec 2014

Cognitive Processes And Moderators Of Willingness In Individuals With Social Anxiety Disorder And Non-Anxious Controls In Response To A Social Performance Task, Lauren P. Wadsworth

Graduate Masters Theses

The present study investigated differences between individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and non-anxious controls (NAC) on measures of thought processes and anxiety responses surrounding an anxiety-provoking situation. Participants gave a spontaneous speech to an audience and reported their anxiety throughout. Measures of trait decentering and anxiety, situational anxiety, negative thoughts and believability, and willingness to repeat the task were administered. Compared to NAC, individuals with SAD reported a higher prevalence of negative thoughts, found the thoughts more believable, reported lower levels of trait decentering, and reported less willingness to repeat an anxiety-provoking task. Collapsing the groups, we found an …


Blurring Group Boundaries: The Impact Of Subgroup Threats On Global Citizenship, Stephen Reysen, Iva Katzarska-Miller, Phia S. Salter, Caroline Hirko Dec 2014

Blurring Group Boundaries: The Impact Of Subgroup Threats On Global Citizenship, Stephen Reysen, Iva Katzarska-Miller, Phia S. Salter, Caroline Hirko

Cultural Encounters, Conflicts, and Resolutions

We examined the outcomes of an extinction threat (possible discontinuation of a group’s symbolic or actual existence) to one’s nation on global citizenship identification and related prosocial values. In Study 1, participants showed a drop in global citizenship identification when America was threatened (vs. absence of threat). In Study 2, participants reported lower global citizenship identification when America was threatened (vs. absence of threat) and the perception that one’s normative environment did not support a global citizen identity mediated the relationship between threat and identification. Furthermore, the threat was shown to indirectly predict lower endorsement for prosocial values and behaviors …


Clinical Art Therapy And Hebrew Calligraphy: An Integration Of Practices, Debra Linesch Dec 2014

Clinical Art Therapy And Hebrew Calligraphy: An Integration Of Practices, Debra Linesch

Journal of Clinical Art Therapy

This paper explores the process of integrating two apparently disparate practices, clinical art therapy and the rendering of Hebrew calligraphy as religious ritual. A growing body of literature that supports this attempt at integration is briefly reviewed. Following this, an exploration of the potential integration is described, discussed and analyzed. The author’s own images are viewed as an example of an image making process that is developed from a faith tradition and informed by the understandings and values of clinical art therapy. The findings of the exploration suggest that art therapy understandings have the potential to illuminate and support many …


Repositioning Art Work From Patients Suffering From Anorexia Nervosa In A Gendered, Socio-Cultural Context: A Self-Reflective Study, Dafna Rehavia-Hanauer Dec 2014

Repositioning Art Work From Patients Suffering From Anorexia Nervosa In A Gendered, Socio-Cultural Context: A Self-Reflective Study, Dafna Rehavia-Hanauer

Journal of Clinical Art Therapy

This article, conceptualized within a post-structuralist, feminist approach to art therapy, addresses the role of visual images as a controlling constituting discourse significant to the formation of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa. As a core position this article argues for a change in the way art work created within the art therapy process by women who suffer from anorexia nervosa is interpreted and analyzed by art therapists. The article argues for an enhanced appreciation and critical analysis of gendered, social-cultural contextualization of visual images and recognition of how these forces have a role in directing women to enact behaviors of …


The Use Of Creative Art As A Strategy For Case Formulation In Psychotherapy: A Case Study, Semra Karaca Phd, Nurhan Eren Dec 2014

The Use Of Creative Art As A Strategy For Case Formulation In Psychotherapy: A Case Study, Semra Karaca Phd, Nurhan Eren

Journal of Clinical Art Therapy

Case formulation refers to the appraisal of the individual data and the treatment plan in terms of certain principles. In psychotherapy, case formulation is relevant for the recognition of conceptual and clinical tools, as well as for the evaluation of the therapeutic endeavor. Art work (painting) provides an effective tool for case formulation because it allows the individual to express his/her thoughts and emotions, which are prone to the influences of subconscious drives, conflicts, fears, and desires in a symbolic fashion. In this study, case formulation of a 31-year-old woman, who could not overcome her verbal and physical aggressive behaviors, …


Editorial Poem, Einat Metzl Dec 2014

Editorial Poem, Einat Metzl

Journal of Clinical Art Therapy

No abstract provided.


Journal Cover And Front Matter Dec 2014

Journal Cover And Front Matter

Journal of Clinical Art Therapy

No abstract provided.


Using Yoga Practice To Empower Psychotherapists’ Interpersonal Process, Jennifer Paz Dec 2014

Using Yoga Practice To Empower Psychotherapists’ Interpersonal Process, Jennifer Paz

Graduate School of Professional Psychology: Doctoral Papers and Masters Projects

Yoga practice promotes awareness and acceptance, and serves as a body-centered medium for developing deepened self-understanding. Among patient populations, a growing body of evidence suggests that the benefits of yoga practice extend to both physical health and psychological well-being. However, the psychological impact of yoga practice on psychotherapists’ interpersonal responses, while potentially promising, has received little attention in the literature. This paper provides a historical overview of contemplative practices and discusses the role that yoga can play in developing certain interpersonal characteristics of the psychotherapist that are hypothesized to empower the therapeutic relationship and facilitate constructive behavior change on the …


Positive Interventions: Developing A Theoretical Model To Guide Their Development And Use, David S. Nevill Dec 2014

Positive Interventions: Developing A Theoretical Model To Guide Their Development And Use, David S. Nevill

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The burgeoning field of positive psychology, which is the scientific study of how individuals and organizations flourish and what makes life worth living, is primarily descriptive and nomothetic. However, it has spawned several prescriptive exercises (i.e., positive interventions) for improving well-being. A common theoretically based definition for a positive intervention does not exist in the current literature. More importantly, although the interventions have shown some success, they have been developed with little thought to theory, such that the mechanisms that make such interventions successful are unknown. The aims of this paper are several-fold: First, I review the importance of theory …


Sad Mood Reduces Inadvertent Plagiarism: Effects Of Affective State On Source Monitoring In Cryptomnesia, Amanda Gingerich, Chad Dodson Dec 2014

Sad Mood Reduces Inadvertent Plagiarism: Effects Of Affective State On Source Monitoring In Cryptomnesia, Amanda Gingerich, Chad Dodson

Amanda C. Gingerich

In two experiments, we explored the influence of affective state, or mood, on inadvertent plagiarism, a memory failure in which individuals either misattribute the source of an idea to themselves rather than to the true originator or simply do not recall having encountered the idea before and claim it as novel. Using a paradigm in which participants generate word puzzle solutions and later recall these solutions, we created an opportunity for participants to mistakenly claim ownership of items that were, in fact, initially generated by their computer ‘partner.’ Results of both experiments suggest that participants induced into a sad mood …


Study Smarter, Not Harder, Tara T. Lineweaver, Amanda C. Gingerich Dec 2014

Study Smarter, Not Harder, Tara T. Lineweaver, Amanda C. Gingerich

Tara T. Lineweaver

Provides tips for studying.


Claiming Hidden Memories As One’S Own Ideas: A Review Of Inadvertent Plagiarism, Amanda Gingerich, Meaghan Sullivan Dec 2014

Claiming Hidden Memories As One’S Own Ideas: A Review Of Inadvertent Plagiarism, Amanda Gingerich, Meaghan Sullivan

Amanda C. Gingerich

Inadvertent plagiarism, or cryptomnesia, occurs when an individual claims another's idea as his or her own with no recollection of having been exposed to the idea before. Although some variation exists in the explanations of this occurrence, the source monitoring framework has emerged as the most plausible account. The purpose of this paper is to review the core body of research that has been conducted on cryptomnesia over the past two decades, with particular focus on the factors that affect the propensity of this phenomenon and how these influences inform a theoretical explanation of cryptomnesia. This paper also includes some …


Omg! Texting In Class = U Fail :( Empirical Evidence That Text Messaging During Class Disrupts Comprehension, Amanda Gingerich, Tara Lineweaver Dec 2014

Omg! Texting In Class = U Fail :( Empirical Evidence That Text Messaging During Class Disrupts Comprehension, Amanda Gingerich, Tara Lineweaver

Amanda C. Gingerich

In two experiments, we examined the effects of text messaging during lecture on comprehension of lecture material. Students (in Experiment 1) and randomly assigned participants (in Experiment 2) in a text message condition texted a prescribed conversation while listening to a brief lecture. Students and participants in the no-text condition refrained from texting during the same lecture. Postlecture quiz scores confirmed the hypothesis that texting during lecture would disrupt comprehension and retention of lecture material. In both experiments, the no-text group significantly outscored the text group on the quiz and felt more confident about their performance. The classroom demonstration described …


The Religious Shaping Of Feeling: Implications Of Affect Valuation Theory, Jeanne L. Tsai, Birgit Koopmann-Holm, Masako Miyazaki, Cameron Ochs Dec 2014

The Religious Shaping Of Feeling: Implications Of Affect Valuation Theory, Jeanne L. Tsai, Birgit Koopmann-Holm, Masako Miyazaki, Cameron Ochs

Psychology

Over 80% of the world population identifies with a specific religion (Adherents. com, 2007; Central Intelligence Agency, 2011). For some individuals, this religion structures and shapes every dimension of their daily lives: what they wear, with whom they spend time, where they go, and what they eat. As important, but perhaps less overt, is how religion shapes people's psyches. Indeed, one of the major functions of religion is to provide followers with a way of understanding and coping with their life circumstances (see Pargament, Falb, Ano, & Wachholtz, Chapter 28, this volume; Park, 2005). Another is to provide a guide …


Judging By Heuristic: Cognitive Illusions In Judicial Decision Making, Chris Guthrie, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Andrew J. Wistrich Dec 2014

Judging By Heuristic: Cognitive Illusions In Judicial Decision Making, Chris Guthrie, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Andrew J. Wistrich

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Many people rely on mental shortcuts, or heuristics, to make complex decisions, but this sometimes leads to inaccurate inferences, or cognitive illusions. A recent study suggests such cognitive illusions influence judicial decision making.


Heuristics, Biases, And Philosophy, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

Heuristics, Biases, And Philosophy, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Commenting on Professor Cass Sunstein's work is a daunting task. There is simply so much of it. Professor Sunstein produces scholarship at a rate that is faster than I can consume it. Scarcely an area of law has failed to feel his impact. One cannot today write an article on administrative law, free speech, punitive damages, Internet law, law and economics, separation of powers, or animal rights law without addressing one or more of Sunstein's papers. And his work is typically not a mere footnote. Sunstein has changed how scholars think about each of these areas of law. More broadly, …


Law, Environment, And The “Nondismal” Social Sciences, William Boyd, Douglas Kysar, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

Law, Environment, And The “Nondismal” Social Sciences, William Boyd, Douglas Kysar, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Over the past 30 years, the influence of economics over the study of environmental law and policy has expanded considerably, becoming in the process the predominant framework for analyzing regulations that address pollution, natural resource use, and other environmental issues. This review seeks to complement the expansion of economic reasoning and methodology within the field of environmental law and policy by identifying insights to be gleaned from various “nondismal” social sciences. In particular, three areas of inquiry are highlighted as illustrative of interdisciplinary work that might help to complement law and economics and, in some cases, compensate for it: the …


The Psychological Foundations Of Behavioral Law And Economics, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

The Psychological Foundations Of Behavioral Law And Economics, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Over the past decade, psychological research has enjoyed a rapidly expanding influence on legal scholarship. This expansion has established a new field—“Behavioral Law and Economics” (BLE). BLE’s principal insight is that human behavior commonly deviates from the predictions of rational choice theory in the marketplace, the election booth, and the courtroom. Because these deviations are predictable, and often harmful, legal rules can be crafted to reduce their undesirable influence. Ironically, BLE seldom recognizes that its intellectual origins lie with psychology more so than economics. This failure leaves BLE open to criticisms that can be answered only by embracing the underlying …


Regulating In Foresight Versus Judging Liability In Hindsight: The Case Of Tobacco, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

Regulating In Foresight Versus Judging Liability In Hindsight: The Case Of Tobacco, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Potentially dangerous products, such as cigarettes, can be regulated through ex post liability or ex ante regulation. Both systems should reach the same result. In practice, however, cognitive biases that influence the liability system can produce incentives to take an excess of precautions. In particular, because people tend to see past events as more predictable than they really were, judges and juries will tend to find defendants who took reasonable care negligent or even reckless. As a consequence of these biases, a liability system can be more expensive than a regulatory system, both to potential defendants and to society. Cognitive …


Is Evolutionary Analysis Of Law Science Or Storytelling?, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

Is Evolutionary Analysis Of Law Science Or Storytelling?, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

In recent years, some legal scholars have argued that legal scholarship could benefit from a greater reliance on theories of human behavior that arise from biological evolution. These scholars contend that reliance on biological evolution would successfully combine the rigor of economics with the scientific aspects of psychology. Complex legal systems, however, are uniquely human. Law has always been the product of cognitive processes that are unique to humans and that developed as a response to an environment that no longer exists. Consequently, the evolutionary development of the cognitive mechanisms upon which law depends cannot be rigorously modeled or studied …


Barack Obama, Implicit Bias, And The 2008 Election, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Gregory S. Parks Dec 2014

Barack Obama, Implicit Bias, And The 2008 Election, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Gregory S. Parks

Jeffrey J Rachlinski

The election of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth president of the United States suggests that the United States has made great strides with regard to race. The blogs and the pundits may laud Obama’s win as evidence that we now live in a “post-racial America.” But is it accurate to suggest that race no longer significantly influences how Americans evaluate each other? Does Obama’s victory suggest that affirmative action and antidiscrimination protections are no longer necessary? We think not. Ironically, rather than marking the dawn of a post-racial America, Obama’s candidacy reveals how deeply race affects judgment.


Gains, Losses, And The Psychology Of Litigation, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

Gains, Losses, And The Psychology Of Litigation, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

No abstract provided.


A Positive Psychological Theory Of Judging In Hindsight, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

A Positive Psychological Theory Of Judging In Hindsight, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

No abstract provided.


Heuristics And Biases In The Court: Ignorance Or Adaptation?, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

Heuristics And Biases In The Court: Ignorance Or Adaptation?, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

No abstract provided.


Cognitive Errors, Individual Differences, And Paternalism, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

Cognitive Errors, Individual Differences, And Paternalism, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Legal scholars commonly argue that the widespread presence of cognitive errors in judgment justifies legal intervention to save people from predictable mistakes. Such arguments often fail to account for individual variation in the commission of such errors even though individual variation is probably common. If predictable groups of people avoid making the errors that others commit, then law should account for such differences because those who avoid errors will not benefit from paternalistic interventions and indeed may be harmed by them. The research on individual variation suggests three parameters that might distinguish people who can avoid error: cognitive ability, experience …


The Uncertain Psychological Case For Paternalism, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

The Uncertain Psychological Case For Paternalism, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

No abstract provided.


The Psychology Of Global Climate Change, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski Dec 2014

The Psychology Of Global Climate Change, Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski

In its attempt to address the threat of global climate change, society has struggled to reach a consensus regarding the need for preventive measures. Professor Rachlinski describes the threat of global climate change as a unique commons dilemma and explains that various psychological phenomena of judgment render it unlikely that society will be able to respond effectively to the threat. After considering the effects of biased assimilation, loss aversion, and other psychological processes, the author explains that an innovative approach is necessary to properly address the dilemma of global climate change. Specifically, the author examines the prospect of governmental intervention …


California Community Colleges Child Development Laboratory Schools, Shari Yates Dec 2014

California Community Colleges Child Development Laboratory Schools, Shari Yates

Dissertations

Community colleges in California are the primary source for preparing the early childhood care and education (ECE) workforce. The California child development lab school mission is to prepare ECE practitioners, provide a laboratory where college students can study and research child development/education, and offer a service to children and families. There are many benefits that are derived from laboratory schools but many community college lab schools have been reduced and/or closed over the past three years. The purposes of this Delphi study were (a) to examine the most pressing issues, problems and barriers facing California community colleges child development labs …


The Influence Of Dopamine On The Magnitude And Duration Of The Placebo Effect, Steve T. Brewer Dec 2014

The Influence Of Dopamine On The Magnitude And Duration Of The Placebo Effect, Steve T. Brewer

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

A placebo effect is a real and beneficial psychobiological phenomenon following the administration of a substance or procedure that has no inherent power to produce an effect. Nocebo effects, on the other hand are genuine and detrimental psychobiological phenomenon following the administration of and inert substance or procedure. These effects have been extensively studied but are not well understood. Central to the development of a placebo effect is the anticipation of benefit or the anticipation of harm. Indeed, expectancy and conditioning are thought to be the two primary mechanisms involved in the acquisition of the placebo effect. The neurotransmitter Dopamine …