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2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2023

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

To Change Or Not To Change: How Regulatory Focus Affects Change In Dyadic Decision-Making, Jelena Spanjol, Leona Tam Dec 2012

To Change Or Not To Change: How Regulatory Focus Affects Change In Dyadic Decision-Making, Jelena Spanjol, Leona Tam

Leona Tam

Successful innovation requires teams to embrace and enact change. However, team members often differ in their preferences for change. We examine how regulatory focus affects dyadic teams’ tendencies to enact change across an array of repeated brand management decisions. Understanding such tendencies is important, since the innovation process is characterized by a series of investment decisions typically made by teams, yet prone to significant biases. Regulatory focus theory provides a framework for understanding the dominant motivations driving decision-making during goal pursuit. It argues that individuals operate under either a promotion or prevention focus, influencing preferences for stability vs. change. We …


Work Motivation And Desirable And Undesirable Personality Traits According To Indian Students And Employees, Trishita Mathew, Richard Hicks, Mark Bahr Jul 2011

Work Motivation And Desirable And Undesirable Personality Traits According To Indian Students And Employees, Trishita Mathew, Richard Hicks, Mark Bahr

Richard Hicks

The last few years have seen a salient increase in trade relations between Australia and India (Hebbani, 2008). India is Australia’s fastest growing major export market and investments between Australia and India are also increasing (Rudd, 2008). India is a lucrative market as it has a growing middle class of 300 million people with a growing purchasing power of approximately 85 billion Australian dollars (Harcourt, 2007). As trade relations between Australia and India are on the rise, understanding what motivates Indians and what they consider desirable and undesirable personality characteristics will provide a competitive edge to organizations in Australia looking …


The Surprise Exam Paradox: Disentangling Two Reductios, John N. Williams Dec 2010

The Surprise Exam Paradox: Disentangling Two Reductios, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

One tradition of solving the surprise exam paradox, started by Robert Binkley and continued by Doris Olin, Roy Sorensen and Jelle Gerbrandy, construes surprise epistemically and relies upon the oddity of propositions akin to G. E. Moore's paradoxical 'p and I don't believe that p.' Here I argue for an analysis that evolves from Olin's. My analysis is different from hers or indeed any of those in the tradition because it explicitly recognizes that there are two distinct reductios at work in the student's paradoxical argument against the teacher. The weak reductio is easy to fault. Its invalidity determines the …


Justifying Circumstances And Moore-Paradoxical Beliefs: A Response To Brueckner, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Justifying Circumstances And Moore-Paradoxical Beliefs: A Response To Brueckner, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

In 2004, I explained the absurdity of Moore-paradoxical belief via the syllogism (Williams 2004): (1) All circumstances that justify me in believing that p are circumstances that tend to make me believe that p. (2) All circumstances that tend to make me believe that p are circumstances that justify me in believing that I believe that p. (3) All circumstances that justify me in believing that p are circumstances that justify me in believing that I believe that p.


Moorean Absurdity And Conscious Belief, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moorean Absurdity And Conscious Belief, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Moorean Absurdities And Higher Order Beliefs, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moorean Absurdities And Higher Order Beliefs, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Externalism And Knowledge Of Comparative Content, Yoo Guan Tan Dec 2010

Externalism And Knowledge Of Comparative Content, Yoo Guan Tan

John N. WILLIAMS

Concepts are the constituents of thoughts, which in turn, are the contents of propositional attitudes. They are also what the predicates of our language express. According to a tradition going back to Plato, questions about comparative content – questions of the form Is concept F the same as concept G? – are purely about relations of ideas, and so are answerable a priori. This does not mean that no experience at all is necessary to answer such questions, for experience may be needed to grasp their content. Call a piece of information about Fs extraneous if it is not required …


Moore's Paradoxes And Iterated Belief, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moore's Paradoxes And Iterated Belief, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

I give an account of the absurdity of Moorean beliefs of the omissive form (om) p and I don’t believe that p, and the commissive form (com) p and I believe that not-p, from which I extract a definition of Moorean absurdity. I then argue for an account of the absurdity of Moorean assertion. After neutralizing two objections to my whole account, I show that Roy Sorensen’s own account of the absurdity of his ‘iterated cases’ (om1) p and I don’t believe that I believe that p, and (com1) p and I believe that I believe that not-p, is unsatisfactory. …


Wittgenstein, Moorean Absurdity And Its Disappearance From Speech, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Wittgenstein, Moorean Absurdity And Its Disappearance From Speech, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

G. E. Moore famously observed that to say, "I went to the pictures last Tuesday but I don't believe that I did" would be "absurd." Why should it be absurd of me to say something about myself that might be true of me? Moore suggested an answer to this, but as I will show, one that fails. Wittgenstein was greatly impressed by Moore's discovery of a class of absurd but possibly true assertions because he saw that it illuminates "the logic of assertion". Wittgenstein suggests a promising relation of assertion to belief in terms of the idea that one "expresses …


Moorean Absurdity And Expressing Belief, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moorean Absurdity And Expressing Belief, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Wittgenstein, Moorean Absurdity And Its Disappearance From Speech, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Wittgenstein, Moorean Absurdity And Its Disappearance From Speech, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

G. E. Moore famously observed that to say, I went to the pictures last Tuesday but I don't believe that I did would be absurd. Why should it be absurd of me to say something about myself that might be true of me? Moore suggested an answer to this, but as I will show, one that fails. Wittgenstein was greatly impressed by Moore's discovery of a class of absurd but possibly true assertions because he saw that it illuminates the logic of assertion. Wittgenstein suggests a promising relation of assertion to belief in terms of the idea that one expresses …


Superman, Wittgenstein And The Disappearance Of Moorean Absurdity, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Superman, Wittgenstein And The Disappearance Of Moorean Absurdity, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

'You have known me for years, Lois' explains Superman, as I lay aside my copy of Crimmins’s example (1992). 'But there is something you have not yet discovered. You also know me under a disguise. You have not yet realized that this person is I in disguise. On that way of thinking about me, you have different opinions of me. In fact you think me an idiot.' I've just informed Superman that I accept his testimony on the strength of his intelligence. But I confess I don’t quite know how to acknowledge my acceptance of his final remark.


The Ethics Of Placebo-Controlled Trials In Developing Countries To Prevent Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv, John N. Williams Dec 2010

The Ethics Of Placebo-Controlled Trials In Developing Countries To Prevent Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

Placebo-trials on HIV-infected pregnant women in developing countries like Thailand and Uganda have provoked recent controversy. Such experiments aim to find a treatment that will cut the rate of vertical transmission more efficiently than existing treatments like zidovudine. This scenario is first stated as generally as possible, before three ethical principles found in the Belmont Report, itself a sharpening of the Helsinki Declaration, are stated. These three principles are the Principle of Utility, the Principle of Autonomy and the Principle of Justice. These are taken as voices of moral imperative. But although each has intuitive appeal, it can be shown …


Orwell And Huxley: Making Dissent Unthinkable, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Orwell And Huxley: Making Dissent Unthinkable, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

In this paper I compare the fictional world depicted by Orwell’s 1984 with that of Huxley’s Brave New World from the point of view of an analytic philosopher. Neither novel should be read as predictions, the accuracy of which can be used to judge them. Rather, both attempt to portray what humanity could conceivably become. The authenticity of this conceivability is a necessary condition of the power of both works to raise central philosophical questions about the human condition. What is ethically wrong with control? How far can Man go in recreating himself? In what sense are these worlds anti-utopian? …


Moore’S Paradox, Defective Interpretation, Justified Belief And Conscious Belief: A Reply To Vahid, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moore’S Paradox, Defective Interpretation, Justified Belief And Conscious Belief: A Reply To Vahid, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Moorean Absurdity, Knowledge And Iterated Belief, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moorean Absurdity, Knowledge And Iterated Belief, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


The Completeness Of The Pragmatic Solution To Moore’ Paradox: A Reply To Chan, John N. Williams Dec 2010

The Completeness Of The Pragmatic Solution To Moore’ Paradox: A Reply To Chan, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


A Simple Solution To The Surprise Exam Paradoxes, John N. Williams Dec 2010

A Simple Solution To The Surprise Exam Paradoxes, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


The Diverse Neurogeography Of Emotional Experience: Form Follows Function, Christoper Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika Dec 2010

The Diverse Neurogeography Of Emotional Experience: Form Follows Function, Christoper Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika

Vicki Bitsika

The experience of emotion underlies emotional expression and consequent action. Although several theoretical models of emotion have suggested that emotional expression is reciprocally involved with sensory inputs and behavioural responses to environmental stimuli, these discussions have largely focused upon fear and its survival value to the organism. By describing research studies across a wide range of emotions and the specific brain regions that are associated with those emotions, this review raises the hypothesis that the “form” of emotional experience neurogeography has followed the “function” associated with developing complex emotional and behavioural responses to challenging environmental stimuli. This separation of emotions …


Recommendations For Terminating With Child Clients Diagnosed With Reactive Attachment Disorder, Rebecca Katherine Greiner Dec 2010

Recommendations For Terminating With Child Clients Diagnosed With Reactive Attachment Disorder, Rebecca Katherine Greiner

Educational Specialist, 2009-2019

Clients diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder have mental health struggles which originate from the quality of significant relationships. Therefore the ending of the therapeutic relationship with these clients presents notable risk and opportunity. This thesis contains an extensive literature review that covers reactive attachment disorder treatment recommendations and termination recommendations. A journal article manuscript follows which provides suggestions and considerations for terminating counseling with child clients diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder.


The Heart And Mind At Work: The Effects Of Implicit And Explicit Reasoning On Performance Appraisal, Scott Ryan Dec 2010

The Heart And Mind At Work: The Effects Of Implicit And Explicit Reasoning On Performance Appraisal, Scott Ryan

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The Use Of Picture Prompts To Generalize Play Skills And Parallel Play For Children With Autism, Cameron Groenwoud Dec 2010

The Use Of Picture Prompts To Generalize Play Skills And Parallel Play For Children With Autism, Cameron Groenwoud

Honors Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Using Clinical Support Tools To Prevent Treatment Failure, Tiffany K. Washington Dec 2010

The Effects Of Using Clinical Support Tools To Prevent Treatment Failure, Tiffany K. Washington

Theses and Dissertations

To date, outcome research suggests that providing clinicians with patient progress feedback and problem-solving tools is effective in improving therapeutic outcome for clients who are predicted to have a negative treatment outcome. To expand upon this body of research, the current study examined the efficacy of using these problem-solving tools (Clinical Support Tools; CST) to reduce the risk of treatment failure and enhance positive outcome with 118 clients who were not identified as at -risk for a negative outcome. Results of this study indicated that the intervention failed to lower the rate of becoming an at-risk case or to enhance …


Evaluating Changes In Attentional Biases Following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Social Phobia, Martha R. Calamaras Dec 2010

Evaluating Changes In Attentional Biases Following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Social Phobia, Martha R. Calamaras

Psychology Theses

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate changes in attentional biases following CBT for Social Phobia. It was found that 1.) consistent with previous investigations, the overall sample displayed vigilance toward threatening facial stimuli prior to receiving treatment, and 2.) participants’ pattern of responding to threatening facial stimuli changed following treat-ment, but only when the sample was divided into those who were vigilant and those who were avoidant prior to treatment. Findings provide support for the presence of two distinct sub-groups with differing attentional styles, one with a tendency for vigilance toward social threats, and a second with …


Marginalized Stakeholders And Performative Politics: Dueling Discourses In Education Policymaking, Celina Su Dec 2010

Marginalized Stakeholders And Performative Politics: Dueling Discourses In Education Policymaking, Celina Su

Publications and Research

American urban education policy debates pivot around dueling lines of discourse on what ails inner-city youth; such students are portrayed as emblems of a largely African-American and Latino ‘culture of failure’, even as their voices remain largely absent from debates about them. In response, youth-led organizations attempt to forward youth as political stakeholders. I draw upon ethnographic data from two such organizations to examine the performative aspects of their campaign work. I focus on how they engaged in (1) counter-scripting, to imagine themselves as political stakeholders and substantively prepare themselves for their new roles, and in (2) counter-staging, to gain …


Parenting At Midnight: Measuring Parents' Thoughts And Strategies To Help Young Children Sleep Through The Night, Aimee J. Coulombe Dec 2010

Parenting At Midnight: Measuring Parents' Thoughts And Strategies To Help Young Children Sleep Through The Night, Aimee J. Coulombe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Throughout the night, brief periods of arousal are common and not necessarily indicative of problematic sleep. Awakening without an easy return to sleep (“night-waking”), however, can be problematic for parents and children alike. Approximately 30% of preschool-aged children wake at least once per night and require parental intervention (“help or assistance”). Although parents’ responses to children’s night-waking (i.e., parents’ night-waking strategies) can determine the course of night-waking over time, very little is known about night-waking strategy use among parents of preschool-aged children. The purpose of the present dissertation was to lay the foundation upon which a better understanding of the …


Modeling Phonological Processing For Children With Mild Intellectual Disabilities: The Relationship Between Underlying Phonological Abilities And Associated Language Variables, Robert Michael Barker Dec 2010

Modeling Phonological Processing For Children With Mild Intellectual Disabilities: The Relationship Between Underlying Phonological Abilities And Associated Language Variables, Robert Michael Barker

Psychology Dissertations

The structure of phonological processing for typically developing children has been debated over the past two decades. Recent research has indicated that phonological processing is best explained by a single underlying phonological ability (e.g., Anthony and Lonigan, 2004). The current study had two goals. The first goal was to determine the structure of phonological processing for school-age children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The second goal was to determine the relationship between the components of phonological processing and expressive and receptive language ability. The participants were 222 school-age children identified by their schools as having MID. Confirmatory factor analysis was …


Vocabulary And Reading Growth In Children With Intellectual Disabilites: The Influences Of Risks, Adaptive Behavior, And A Reading Intervention, Dana Donohue Dec 2010

Vocabulary And Reading Growth In Children With Intellectual Disabilites: The Influences Of Risks, Adaptive Behavior, And A Reading Intervention, Dana Donohue

Psychology Dissertations

Risk factors tend to be negatively associated with developmental outcomes such as academic achievement and language skills. Promotive factors, on the other hand, may foster resilience in at-risk children. Some children, such as children with intellectual disabilities, experience relatively more risks than other children do. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of risks, adaptive behavior, and an intervention on the language and reading growth of children with intellectual abilities over the course of a yearlong reading intervention in which they were participants. The results suggested that, on average, risks were negatively associated and adaptive behaviors were …


Relations Of Depression, Social Support, And Socio-Demographic Factors On Health Behaviors Of Mothers With Premature Infants Hospitalized In A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (Nicu), Surbhi Kanotra Dec 2010

Relations Of Depression, Social Support, And Socio-Demographic Factors On Health Behaviors Of Mothers With Premature Infants Hospitalized In A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (Nicu), Surbhi Kanotra

Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined the relationships of depression, social support, and socio-demographic factors on health behaviors of mothers with preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In addition, the study also assessed the moderation effect of social support on the relationship between depression and health behaviors. Eighty-nine mothers with hospitalized infants in the central Richmond area participated in the study. Analyses found that mother’s education level and her marital status to be significantly associated with her health behaviors. Mothers with a higher level of education and those who were married, were less likely to smoke and more …


Predicting Arithmetic Performance From Age And Executive Function Skills, Andrea Molzhon Dec 2010

Predicting Arithmetic Performance From Age And Executive Function Skills, Andrea Molzhon

Theses and Dissertations

The learning of mathematics can be a difficult process for many students. Understanding the cognitive components that contribute to arithmetic achievement may illuminate sources of difficulty and inform the development of better teaching and learning practices. Executive functions (EFs) have been implicated in the development of arithmetic skills in early childhood, but less is known about this relation across middle childhood and beyond. The current study included individuals ages 6-7, 9-10, 12-13, and 18+ years and examined the contributions of 3 components of EF, working memory (WM), inhibition, and set shifting (SS), to arithmetic skills in two domains. It was …