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2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1311

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Goal Setting, Feedback, And Task Performance: A Laboratory Experiment, Trishita Mathew, Richard Hicks Jul 2011

Goal Setting, Feedback, And Task Performance: A Laboratory Experiment, Trishita Mathew, Richard Hicks

Richard Hicks

The present study investigated the effects of goal setting and feedback on task performance among university students. The study was conducted in two phases with a total of 80 participants. Locke and Latham’s (1990) goal setting theory states that assigning a specific and difficult goal and provision of feedback leads to higher performance. It was hypothesized that when assigned a specific, difficult goal on a complex task and (1) only provided with outcome feedback, higher performance would not result and (2) when provided with both outcome and process feedback, higher performance would result. A 2 x 2, between subjects ANOVA …


Arousal, Working Memory, And Conscious Awareness In Contingency Learning, Louise D. Cosand, Thomas M. Cavanagh, Ashley A. Brown, Christopher G. Courtney, Anthony J. Rissling, Anne M. Schell, Michael E. Dawson Dec 2008

Arousal, Working Memory, And Conscious Awareness In Contingency Learning, Louise D. Cosand, Thomas M. Cavanagh, Ashley A. Brown, Christopher G. Courtney, Anthony J. Rissling, Anne M. Schell, Michael E. Dawson

Thomas M. Cavanagh

There are wide individual differences in the ability to detect a stimulus contingency embedded in a complex paradigm. The present study used a cognitive masking paradigm to better understand individual differences related to contingency learning. Participants were assessed on measures of electrodermal arousal and on working memory capacity before engaging in the contingency learning task. Contingency awareness was assessed both by trial-by-trial verbal reports obtained during the task and by a short post-task recognition questionnaire. Participants who became aware had fewer non-specific skin conductance responses and tended to score higher on a digit span assessment. Skin conductance level was not …


Small Individual Loans And Mental Health: A Randomized Controlled Trial Among South African Adults, Lia C. H. Fernald, Rita Hamad, Dean Karlan, Emily J. Ozer, Jonathan Zinman Dec 2008

Small Individual Loans And Mental Health: A Randomized Controlled Trial Among South African Adults, Lia C. H. Fernald, Rita Hamad, Dean Karlan, Emily J. Ozer, Jonathan Zinman

Dartmouth Scholarship

Background: In the developing world, access to small, individual loans has been variously hailed as a poverty-alleviation tool – in the context of "microcredit" – but has also been criticized as "usury" and harmful to vulnerable borrowers. Prior studies have assessed effects of access to credit on traditional economic outcomes for poor borrowers, but effects on mental health have been largely ignored.

Methods: Applicants who had previously been rejected (n = 257) for a loan (200% annual percentage rate – APR) from a lender in South Africa were randomly assigned to a "second-look" that encouraged loan officers to approve their …


Psychological Distress Among Prostate Cancer Patients: Fact Or Fiction?, Christopher Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, David Christie Dec 2008

Psychological Distress Among Prostate Cancer Patients: Fact Or Fiction?, Christopher Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, David Christie

Vicki Bitsika

Although the detrimental effect upon psychological well-being of receiving a diagnosis of, or treatment for, cancer has been demonstrated across many different types of cancer, three recent reviews of the psychological health of prostate cancer patients have produced contradictory conclusions. In order to elucidate the reasons for these apparent different conclusions, each of these reviews is described, with principal methods and fi ndings summarised. Actual data, methodology used to select/reject research studies for inclusion in reviews, plus the validity of strict methodological culling of some research studies are discussed. Several extra studies and commentaries are also described, and a resolution …


Client Change In Multi-Model Treatment: A Comparison Of Change Trajectories In Group, Individual, And Conjoint Formats In A Counseling Center, Bryan K. Mickelson Dec 2008

Client Change In Multi-Model Treatment: A Comparison Of Change Trajectories In Group, Individual, And Conjoint Formats In A Counseling Center, Bryan K. Mickelson

Theses and Dissertations

Providing clinicians with a clearer understanding of how clients' recover over the entire course of therapy has important implications for referral and treatment strategies. The present study compares rates of change in 160 clients in group therapy with 6632 clients in individual therapy and 864 clients receiving both individual therapy and group therapy. Therapeutic outcomes were measured using the Outcome Questionnaire-45. Data was analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM), also called Multi-Level Modeling (MLM), to produce recovery curves for clients in each group. Recovery curves showed that most change occurred in the early part of group therapy and slowed near …


Physiological Correlates Of Aggression In Adolescent Females, Ashley Dibble Dec 2008

Physiological Correlates Of Aggression In Adolescent Females, Ashley Dibble

Theses and Dissertations

Recently, with the development of new technology, researchers have focused on physiological predictors of aggressive behavior, specifically cortisol and alpha amylase. Gordis, Granger, Susman, and Trickett (2006) found the interaction between cortisol and alpha-amylase significantly predicted parent reports of aggression indicating that low levels of physiological reactivity was associated with higher levels of problem behavior. While this research has provided valuable information about aggressive behavior, a major limitation is the majority of research focuses on males, or has not examined gender differences explicitly. This study expanded on work by Gordis et al. (2006) and other researchers on the HPA axis …


Menstrual Cycle And Visual Information Processing, Michelle Nash Dec 2008

Menstrual Cycle And Visual Information Processing, Michelle Nash

Theses and Dissertations

This project examined the effects menstruation may have on visual attention in women. A recent study examined electroencephalographic (EEG) gender differences using a visual object recognition task. Results indicated certain EEG amplitudes (specifically, P300 and N400) are greater in women than men. This study extended the previous findings to determine if these increased EEG amplitudes vary across menstrual phases. Eighteen female participants participated in a series of 3 EEG recording sessions using the same visual object recognition task from the previous study; 18 male participants completed this task once. Analyses from 15 of the 18 female and 16 of the …


An Anonymous Collection Of Poetry, Anonymous Dec 2008

An Anonymous Collection Of Poetry, Anonymous

Commission for LGBT - Reports, Minutes, Events and Other Documents

No abstract provided.


Demonic Influence And The Christian: Issues And Implications For Counseling, Rodger K. Bufford Dec 2008

Demonic Influence And The Christian: Issues And Implications For Counseling, Rodger K. Bufford

Faculty Publications - Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) Program

The question of whether Christians can be demon possessed is both controversial and complex.The issues involved include the nature of possession, the possibility of demonic deceivers, thefact of two spiritual kingdoms, the fact that Christians are sealed by the Holy Spirit, the activitiesof Satan and demons, the possibility of wolvesappearing in sheep’s clothing, the difficulty ofdiscerning tares and wheat, the possibility ofgrieving and quenching the Holy Spirit, theproblem of Christians walking after the flesh,and the complicating roles of the world and theflesh. As whole beings, spiritual and psychological factors interact; assessment and interventionmust reflect this. Suggested strategies include spiritual disciplines, …


Value Conflicts In Psychotherapy: Psychology Graduates' Perspectives, Shannon Vincent Wilde Dec 2008

Value Conflicts In Psychotherapy: Psychology Graduates' Perspectives, Shannon Vincent Wilde

Theses and Dissertations

Although psychotherapy has been viewed historically as value-neutral, developments over the last half-century have led to the generally accepted position that values are inescapable in therapy. However, many questions remain as to how values should be managed in psychotherapy in order to protect client autonomy. These issues are of particular concern to training programs, which bear the responsibility of instructing new psychologists in ethical values management and of helping trainees manage personal values when those values are in conflict with those of their clients or with the values of the field in general. One aspect that has not previously been …


Chemistry's Essential Tensions: Three Views Of A Science, Roald Hoffmann Dec 2008

Chemistry's Essential Tensions: Three Views Of A Science, Roald Hoffmann

IMSA Great Minds Program ®

In this generously illustrated lecture several views of chemistry will be presented, stressing its psychological dimension and its tie to the arts: First of all, chemistry is, as it has always been, the art, craft, business of substances and their transformations. It is now also the science of microscopic molecules, both simple and complex. And then there are people’s perceptions of chemistry - alternating between seeing the healing and the hurting aspects of this truly anthropic science. The underlying psychological tensions of this truly anthropic science will be explored.


A Quantitative Study Of The Effectiveness Of Positive Behavior Support In Secondary Schools, Rebecca Lynn Raftery Dec 2008

A Quantitative Study Of The Effectiveness Of Positive Behavior Support In Secondary Schools, Rebecca Lynn Raftery

Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a second tier intervention on at risk students' behaviors and academic success. The study included 113 middle school and junior high students identified as being at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders using the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD). The participants were assigned to a control group (no treatment), one, two, or three semesters of the intervention. The intervention integrated components of social skills instruction, self-management techniques, and social and emotional awareness. Students' behaviors and academic success were measured using school data (i.e. GPA, Office Discipline Referrals, attendance, and …


Explorando El «Apartidismo» En México: ¿Apartidistas O Apolíticos? América Latina Hoy, Vol. 50, Diciembre-Sin Mes, 2008, Pp. 119-145, Benjamin Temkin, Sandra Solano, José Del Tronco Dec 2008

Explorando El «Apartidismo» En México: ¿Apartidistas O Apolíticos? América Latina Hoy, Vol. 50, Diciembre-Sin Mes, 2008, Pp. 119-145, Benjamin Temkin, Sandra Solano, José Del Tronco

benjamin (benny) temkin

En las últimas décadas, distintos estudios han identificado, especialmente en las democracias avanzadas, un proceso de debilitamiento de la lealtad partidista. Russell Dalton ha explicado este fenómeno a través del incremento de los niveles educativos y de la mayor capacidad de los ciudadanos para obtener información y participar en asuntos públicos de forma independiente a los partidos. Este trabajo analiza la pertinencia del modelo de Dalton para el caso mexicano, donde el proceso de modernización económica y apertura política es mucho más reciente. Los resultados muestran la utilidad del modelo, pero sugieren la necesidad de tomar en cuenta diversos factores …


Career Development For Transition-Aged Youth With Emotional Disturbances: Exemplary Practices Of Florida Mental Health And Substance Abuse Agencies, Mason G. Haber, Troy Loker, Nicole Deschenes, Hewitt B. Clark Dec 2008

Career Development For Transition-Aged Youth With Emotional Disturbances: Exemplary Practices Of Florida Mental Health And Substance Abuse Agencies, Mason G. Haber, Troy Loker, Nicole Deschenes, Hewitt B. Clark

Mason G. Haber

Though an emerging literature on career development practices for transition-age youth with emotional disturbances (TAY w/ED) exists, this literature has not been systematically reviewed. In addition, efforts by publicly-funded sites in Florida to implement such programs have not been comprehensively described. The current project is designed to advance these aims to provide a basis for expanded implementation of career development programs for TAY w/ED in the state.


A Comparison Of Two Probability Encoding Methods: Fixed Probablity Vs. Fixed Variable Values, Ali E. Abbas, David V. Budescu, Hsiu-Ting Yu, Ryan Haggerty Dec 2008

A Comparison Of Two Probability Encoding Methods: Fixed Probablity Vs. Fixed Variable Values, Ali E. Abbas, David V. Budescu, Hsiu-Ting Yu, Ryan Haggerty

Psychology Faculty Publications

We present the results of an experiment comparing two popular methods for encoding probability distributions of continuous variables in decision analysis: eliciting values of a variable, X, through comparisons with a fixed probability wheel and eliciting the percentiles of the cumulative distribution, F(X), through comparisons with fixed values of the variable. We show slight but consistent superiority for the fixed variable method along several dimensions such as monotonicity, accuracy, and precision of the estimated fractiles. The fixed variable elicitation method was also slightly faster and preferred by most participants. We discuss the reasons for its superiority and conclude with several …


How Personalized And Socialized Power Motivation Facilitate Antisocial And Prosocial Decision-Making, Joe C. Magee, Carrie A. Langner Dec 2008

How Personalized And Socialized Power Motivation Facilitate Antisocial And Prosocial Decision-Making, Joe C. Magee, Carrie A. Langner

Psychology and Child Development

In two studies, we investigate the effects of individuals’ power motivation on decision-making. We distinguish between two types of power motivation [McClelland, D. C. (1970). The two faces of power. Journal of International Affairs, 24, 29–47; Winter, D. G. (1973). The power motive. New York: The Free Press] and demonstrate that both types of power motivation facilitate influential decision-making but that each type plays a different role in different contexts. In a conflict context (Study 1), individuals’ personalized (self-serving) power motivation was associated with antisocial decisions, and in a healthcare context (Study 2), individuals socialized (other-serving) power motivation …


Organizational Culture And Job Satisfaction In Korean Professional Baseball Organizations, Yun Seok Choi, Jeffrey J. Martin, Meungguk Park Dec 2008

Organizational Culture And Job Satisfaction In Korean Professional Baseball Organizations, Yun Seok Choi, Jeffrey J. Martin, Meungguk Park

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of organizational culture and investigate a link between organizational culture and job satisfaction in the Korean Professional Baseball League (KPBL). The findings of the present study revealed that the baseball clubs in the KPBL tended to emphasize a market culture. The results of this study also suggest that the clan culture has a significant influence on overall employee job satisfaction and satisfaction with co-workers, supervision and personal growth. Given the importance of a conceptual relation between organizational culture and job satisfaction in effectively managing sport organizations, implications and suggestions for …


Relationship Of Broad Versus Narrow Personality Traits To Psychological Sense Of Community In College Students, Katherine Higgins Dec 2008

Relationship Of Broad Versus Narrow Personality Traits To Psychological Sense Of Community In College Students, Katherine Higgins

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to further examine the relationship between personality traits and Psychological Sense of Community (PSC). It attempts to confirm previous research findings that indicate a significant relationship between the Big Five traits and PSC. In addition, it seeks to determine whether selected narrow personality traits are significantly related to PSC and whether those traits add incremental validity to the Big Five personality traits in predicting PSC. This study is a secondary analysis of data collected by Resource Associates, Inc between 2003-2005. Participants (N=1468) were students at a large, southeastern university. Results confirmed a positive …


The Manifestation Of Depressed Mood In Student-Athletes And Their Attitudes Toward, Barriers To, And Preferences For Seeking Professional Psychological Help, Renée L. López Dec 2008

The Manifestation Of Depressed Mood In Student-Athletes And Their Attitudes Toward, Barriers To, And Preferences For Seeking Professional Psychological Help, Renée L. López

Doctoral Dissertations

Student-athletes are thought to be at greater risk for some psychopathologies while underutilizing mental health services. Few studies have explored depression in student-athletes or the reasons behind the resistance to seeking psychological help. The goals of this study were to examine in a nationwide sample of NCAA D-IA and D-IAA student-athletes the (a) manifestation of depressed mood as it relates to gender, injury, injury characteristics (i.e., perceived impact, time in treatment, chronicity), and student-athlete role behaviors (e.g., frequency of skipping events, role strain, self-destructive behaviors) and (b) examine their treatment resistance, perceived barriers to seeking help, and counselor preference should …


Value Similarity And Its Relationship To Interpersonal Relationship Quality And Identity: Perceptions Of Self, Partner, And Ideal Partner, Jennifer G. Clement Dec 2008

Value Similarity And Its Relationship To Interpersonal Relationship Quality And Identity: Perceptions Of Self, Partner, And Ideal Partner, Jennifer G. Clement

Doctoral Dissertations

The exploration of interpersonal relationships has led to the recognition that similarity has played a large role in the relationship quality, e.g. satisfaction, of dyads, specifically romantic dyads. Three categories of similarity have been shown to best predict satisfaction: communication, attitudes, and values. This study examined the actual, perceived, and ideal value similarity of heterosexual romantic dyads at the University of Tennessee and assessed relationship quality which included satisfaction, intimacy, trust, and social provisions. Using stepwise regressions and Pearson Product correlations this study determined that actual, perceived, and ideal value similarity significantly predicted the relationship quality of the individual and …


A Test Of Financial Incentives To Improve Warfarin Adherence, Kevin G. Volpp, George Loewenstein, Andrea B. Troxel, Jalpa A. Doshi, Maureen Price, Mitchell Laskin, Stephen E. Kimmel Dec 2008

A Test Of Financial Incentives To Improve Warfarin Adherence, Kevin G. Volpp, George Loewenstein, Andrea B. Troxel, Jalpa A. Doshi, Maureen Price, Mitchell Laskin, Stephen E. Kimmel

Health Care Management Papers

Background

Sub-optimal adherence to warfarin places millions of patients at risk for stroke and bleeding complications each year. Novel methods are needed to improve adherence for warfarin. We conducted two pilot studies to determine whether a lottery-based daily financial incentive is feasible and improves warfarin adherence and anticoagulation control.

Methods

Volunteers from the University of Pennsylvania Anticoagulation Management Center who had taken warfarin for at least 3 months participated in either a pilot study with a lottery with a daily expected value of $5 (N = 10) or a daily expected value of $3 (N = 10). All subjects received …


Individual Differences In Emotion Expression: Hierarchical Structure And Relations With Psychological Distress, Jeffery H. Kahn, Leah K. Barr, Joel W. Schneider Dec 2008

Individual Differences In Emotion Expression: Hierarchical Structure And Relations With Psychological Distress, Jeffery H. Kahn, Leah K. Barr, Joel W. Schneider

Faculty Publications – Psychology

Several constructs reflecting individual differences in emotion expression have been described in the literature, yet their structural organization is unknown. The present study provided a taxonomy of these individual differences and determined their relations to depression and anxiety symptoms. Exploratory factor analyses suggested seven emotion-expression factors-Affect Intensity, Ambivalence About Expression Disclosure of Negative Emotion, Disclosure of Emotion, Disclosure of Lack of Affect, Expression of Positive Emotion, and Secret Keeping-are explained by two second-order factors: Emotional Constraint and Emotional Expression. Multiple regression and canonical correlation analyses suggested that a reluctance to express emotions is related to heightened psychological symptoms. These findings …


The Impact Of Role Conceptualization On The Process And Outcomes Of Decision Making In An Educational Context, Scott Richard Turner Dec 2008

The Impact Of Role Conceptualization On The Process And Outcomes Of Decision Making In An Educational Context, Scott Richard Turner

Doctoral Dissertations

Research has shown that the traditional conceptualization of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) is not tenable because some employees perceive OCBs to be part of their job or in-role behaviors (Morrison, 1994). Conceptualizing behaviors as in-role has been shown to increase the frequency of the behaviors but no study has investigated whether conceptualization of these behaviors influences the manner in which they are conducted. This study combined findings from OCB research with the Judgment and Decision Making literature in order to identify the impact that role conceptualization had on an ambiguous decision making exercise where the act of making the decision …


Testing The Spousal Model Of Stress In Healthy Controls, Persons With Multiple Sclerosis And Their Spousal Caregivers, Donna L. Kennedy Dec 2008

Testing The Spousal Model Of Stress In Healthy Controls, Persons With Multiple Sclerosis And Their Spousal Caregivers, Donna L. Kennedy

Doctoral Dissertations

The current study examined the Spousal Model of Stress in a sample of healthy, married controls (n=52) and a sample of persons with multiple sclerosis and their spousal caregivers (n=51). The Spousal Model of Stress was created by joining together Ruben Hill’s (1958) ABCX Model of Stress and Karney & Bradbury’s (1995) Vulnerability- Stress-Adaptation Model of Marriage. Factors in the Spousal Model include stress, resources/vulnerabilities, perceptions/adaptive processes, and outcomes (marital satisfaction, marital quality, life satisfaction, and depression). The new model revealed that spousal attributions were an important factor in predicting marital quality and marital satisfaction in a group of healthy …


Individuals And Populations: How Biology's Theory And Data Have Interfered With The Integration Of Development And Evolution, David S. Moore Dec 2008

Individuals And Populations: How Biology's Theory And Data Have Interfered With The Integration Of Development And Evolution, David S. Moore

Pitzer Faculty Publications and Research

Research programs in quantitative behavior genetics and evolutionary psychology have contributed to the widespread belief that some psychological characteristics can be “inherited” via genetic mechanisms. In fact, molecular and developmental biologists have concluded that while genetic factors contribute to the development of all of our traits, non-genetic factors always do too, and in ways that make them no less important than genetic factors. This insight demands a reworking of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, a theory that defined evolution as a process involving changes in the frequencies of genes in populations, and that envisioned no role for experiential factors now known …


Integrating Development And Evolution In Psychology: Looking Back, Moving Forward, David S. Moore Dec 2008

Integrating Development And Evolution In Psychology: Looking Back, Moving Forward, David S. Moore

Pitzer Faculty Publications and Research

This work is the editorial for a special edition of New Ideas in Psychology titled Integrating Development and Evolution in Psychology.


Promoting Animals For Well-Being And Self-Acceptance With The Human Patient, Vicki J. Marquardt Dec 2008

Promoting Animals For Well-Being And Self-Acceptance With The Human Patient, Vicki J. Marquardt

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Few empirical studies have been conducted in order to scientifically measure the benefits of using animals with individuals suffering from neurological disorders, or traumatic brain injuries, with or without the inclusion of chronic pain. This study looked at the benefit of using horses in the therapeutic setting, by measuring the levels of anxiety, depression, self-esteem and quality of life pre- and post-therapy, in individuals diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Three groups were used in this study, and were measured pre and post therapy over an eight week period of time. The first group did not participate in the therapy at …


The Social Psychology Of Evil: Can The Law Prevent Groups From Making Good People Go Bad?, David Crump Dec 2008

The Social Psychology Of Evil: Can The Law Prevent Groups From Making Good People Go Bad?, David Crump

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Psychological Distress And Change In A Pediatric Obesity Population, Amy Rebecca Beck Dec 2008

Psychological Distress And Change In A Pediatric Obesity Population, Amy Rebecca Beck

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Pediatric overweight and obesity is a growing national epidemic with 15 percent of children ages 6-19 considered obese and at least 22 percent considered overweight. While there is considerable research pointing to contributing factors of obesity, there is a paucity of research which elucidates what contributes to successful intervention. Considering that by the year 2050, nearly 50 million Americans may be obese, understanding the factors delineating success of weight loss and prevention is a necessity. The purpose of this study was to utilize archival data from the LLU Growing Fit Program to evaluate the levels of psychological distress experienced by …


Mindfulness: Mediating The Relationship Between Attachment Security And Parenting Style, Ian P. Haag Dec 2008

Mindfulness: Mediating The Relationship Between Attachment Security And Parenting Style, Ian P. Haag

Doctoral Dissertations

The current project examines the relationships between attachment security, parenting style, and mindfulness. The level of mindfulness an individual demonstrates is argued to mediate the relationship between an individual’s attachment security and her respective parenting style. The population is composed of 35 mothers who were drawn from a university clinic setting. Measures utilized included: the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), which measures adult attachment security, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), which measures the level of mindfulness an individual demonstrates, and the Parental Authority Questionnaire – Revised (PAQ-R), which measures parenting style attitudes. Results demonstrated no significant relationships between attachment security and …