Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2006

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 953

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Aged Rats: Sex Differences And Responses To Chronic Stress, Rachel E. Bowman, Neil J. Maclusky, Samantha Diaz-Weinstein, Mark C. Zrull, Victoria N. Luine Dec 2006

Aged Rats: Sex Differences And Responses To Chronic Stress, Rachel E. Bowman, Neil J. Maclusky, Samantha Diaz-Weinstein, Mark C. Zrull, Victoria N. Luine

Psychology Faculty Publications

Cognitive, as well as physiological, sex differences exist in young adult rats under both basal conditions and following chronic stress; however, few studies have examined whether sex differences remain in aged subjects and whether responses to stress are altered. We compared aged male and female Fischer 344 rats (21.5 months at testing) without stress and when given 21 days of restraint for 6 h/day on locomotion, anxiety-related behaviors, object recognition (non-spatial memory), object placement (spatial memory), body weight and serum steroid hormone levels. Control (unstressed) females had lower levels of estradiol and testosterone and higher corticosterone than males, and stress …


Pain Affects Spouses Too: Personal Experience With Pain And Catastrophizing As Correlates Of Spouse Distress, Michelle T. Leonard, Annmarie Cano Dec 2006

Pain Affects Spouses Too: Personal Experience With Pain And Catastrophizing As Correlates Of Spouse Distress, Michelle T. Leonard, Annmarie Cano

Psychology Faculty Research Publications

Chronic pain has adverse effects on individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) as well as their family members. Borrowing from an empathy model described by Goubert et al. (2005), we examined topdown and bottom-up factors that may be related to psychological well-being in the spouses of ICPs. A diverse community sample of 113 middle-aged spouses of individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) completed measures on pain severity and spouse pain catastrophizing (PCS-S; Cano et al., 2005). Results showed that almost half (48.7%) of spouses reported chronic pain themselves and that pain in the spouse accounted for within-couple differences on psychological distress. That …


Glucose Modulation Of The Septo-Hippocampal System: Implications For Memory, Desiree Lynne Krebs-Kraft Dec 2006

Glucose Modulation Of The Septo-Hippocampal System: Implications For Memory, Desiree Lynne Krebs-Kraft

Psychology Dissertations

Extensive evidence suggests that glucose has both positive and negative effects on memory and these effects likely involve an influence on the brain. For instance, direct infusions of glucose into the septum (MS) or hippocampus can enhance or impair memory. The present set of experiments attempted to determine the different conditions that dissociate the memory-enhancing and -impairing effects of glucose in rats. Specifically, these experiments examined the effects of glucose in spontaneous alternation, a measure of spatial working memory and shock avoidance, an index of emontional long-term memory. The results showed that the memory-impairing effects of MS infusions of glucose …


Evidence For Multiple Manipulation Processes In Prefrontal Cortex, Dana A. Eldreth, Michael D. Patterson, Anthony J. Porcelli, Bharat B. Biswal, Donovan Rebbechi, Bart Rypma Dec 2006

Evidence For Multiple Manipulation Processes In Prefrontal Cortex, Dana A. Eldreth, Michael D. Patterson, Anthony J. Porcelli, Bharat B. Biswal, Donovan Rebbechi, Bart Rypma

Psychology Faculty Research and Publications

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to subserve working memory (WM) processes. Brain imaging studies of WM using delayed response tasks (DRTs) have shown memory-load-dependent activation increases in dorsal prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions. These activation increases are believed to reflect manipulation of to-be-remembered information in the service of memory-consolidation. This speculation has been based on observations of similar activation increases in tasks that overtly require manipulation by instructing participants to reorder to-be-remembered list items. In this study, we tested the assumption of functional equivalence between these two types of WM tasks. Participants performed a DRT under two conditions with memory …


Investigating The Utility Of The Film War Zone As A Component Of A Street Harassment Prevention Program, Doyanne A. Darnell Dec 2006

Investigating The Utility Of The Film War Zone As A Component Of A Street Harassment Prevention Program, Doyanne A. Darnell

Psychology Theses

Street harassment, the sexual harassment by strangers in public places, is a common experience shared by many women and has been linked with other forms of sexual victimization. The negative impact of street harassment, such as fear and behavior to avoid being harassed, points to the need for preventing the behavior. This study sought to determine whether the documentary-style film War Zone may be effective in impacting men’s attitudes toward street harassment, and whether the effectiveness of the film would depend on men’s hostility toward women and level of peer acceptance for street harassment. Findings do not support the effectiveness …


Predicting Support For Government Action To Reduce Inequality, Adam James Darnell Dec 2006

Predicting Support For Government Action To Reduce Inequality, Adam James Darnell

Psychology Dissertations

The current degree of economic inequality in the US is the largest it has been since prior to the Great Depression and growing. Economic inequality is linked to mortality, social capital, interpersonal trust, and democratic participation, beyond the effects of poverty. Two main constructs are reviewed as predictors of support for efforts to reduce inequality: 1) distributive justice norms (equity and equality of outcome), and 2) causal attributions (individual and structural). Justification of the unequal status quo is often driven by reference to dominant cultural values personal responsibility and just deserts, which are likened to individual attributions and equity, respectively. …


The Relation Between Self-Report Mindfulness And Performance On Tasks Of Attention, Stefan Kennedy Schmertz Dec 2006

The Relation Between Self-Report Mindfulness And Performance On Tasks Of Attention, Stefan Kennedy Schmertz

Psychology Theses

The present study examined the relation between self-report mindfulness and performance on tasks measuring abilities for three aspects of attention: sustained, selective, and attention switching. Because attention regulation has been described as a core component of mindfulness, and past research suggests that experience with mindfulness meditation is associated with improved attentional skills, the present study predicted that higher self-report mindfulness would be positively related to performance on tasks of attention. Fifty undergraduate students completed self-report mindfulness questionnaires and completed a battery of attention tasks. There was mixed support for the relation between mindfulness scores and sustained attention, such that higher …


An Overview Of The Near-Death Experience Phenomenon, David San Filippo Ph.D. Dec 2006

An Overview Of The Near-Death Experience Phenomenon, David San Filippo Ph.D.

David San Filippo Ph.D.

Near-death experiences appear to be universal phenomena that have been reported for centuries. A near-death encounter is defined as an event in which the individual could very easily die or be killed, or may have already been considered clinically dead, but nonetheless survives, and continue his or her physical life. Reports of near-death experiences date back to the Ice Age. There are cave paintings, in France and Spain that depict possible after life scenes that are similar to reported scenes related to near-death experiences. Plato's Republic presents the story of a near-death experience of a Greek soldier named Er. In …


An Overview Of The Near-Death Experience Phenomenon, David San Filippo Ph.D. Dec 2006

An Overview Of The Near-Death Experience Phenomenon, David San Filippo Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

Near-death experiences appear to be universal phenomena that have been reported for centuries. A near-death encounter is defined as an event in which the individual could very easily die or be killed, or may have already been considered clinically dead, but nonetheless survives, and continue his or her physical life. Reports of near-death experiences date back to the Ice Age. There are cave paintings, in France and Spain that depict possible after life scenes that are similar to reported scenes related to near-death experiences. Plato's Republic presents the story of a near-death experience of a Greek soldier named Er. In …


Group Therapy For Abused And Neglected Youth: Therapeutic And Child Advocacy Challenges, Janine Wanlass, J. Kelly Moreno, Hannah M. Thomson Dec 2006

Group Therapy For Abused And Neglected Youth: Therapeutic And Child Advocacy Challenges, Janine Wanlass, J. Kelly Moreno, Hannah M. Thomson

Psychology and Child Development

Although group therapy for abused and neglected youth is a viable and efficacious treatment option, facilitation is challenging. Group leaders must contain intense affect, manage multiple transferences, and advocate for their clients within the larger social welfare system. Using a case study of a group for sexually abused girls, this paper explores some of these issues and discusses ways in which therapists recognize and deal with the dual challenge of advocating for and treating children.


Perceived Spouse Responses To Pain: The Level Of Agreement In Couple Dyads And The Role Of Catastrophizing, Marital Satisfaction, And Depression, Laura Pence, Annmarie Cano, Beverly Thorn, Charles Ward Dec 2006

Perceived Spouse Responses To Pain: The Level Of Agreement In Couple Dyads And The Role Of Catastrophizing, Marital Satisfaction, And Depression, Laura Pence, Annmarie Cano, Beverly Thorn, Charles Ward

Psychology Faculty Research Publications

The primary objective of this study was to examine whether individuals with chronic pain (“participants”) and their spouses agree on perceptions of solicitous, distracting, and punishing spouse responses to pain. The second aim was to examine the role of participant catastrophizing (a negative mental set about pain), participant and spouse marital satisfaction, and participant and spouse depression in participant perceptions of spouse responses, spouse perceptions of their responses, and agreement between participants and spouses. Individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their spouses (N=108 couples) completed questionnaire packets. Examination of overall group averages (participants vs. spouses) indicated little or no differences …


Psychological Adaptation Of Mainland Chinese Female International Students: A Phenomenological Inquiry, I-Wen Chan Dec 2006

Psychological Adaptation Of Mainland Chinese Female International Students: A Phenomenological Inquiry, I-Wen Chan

Doctoral Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to obtain a description of Mainland Chinese female international students’ experiences of adjustment in the U.S. Thirteen participants were asked the one question that guided the study: “Please tell me in as much detail as you can, regarding being a female and originally from China, your process of adapting to your studies and living in the United States.” Participants described their experiences in individual audio-taped in-depth interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, creating thirteen separate transcripts. These transcripts, serving as the primary data source, were analyzed using a phenomenological method. Analysis revealed six …


An Investigation Of Sense Of Identity Among College Students, Christine Susie Wu Dec 2006

An Investigation Of Sense Of Identity Among College Students, Christine Susie Wu

Doctoral Dissertations

In this study the construct, Sense of Identity was examined. Specifically, variables conceptually related to Sense of Identity will be described, and the nature of any relationships with personality traits including the Big Five personality traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness were explored. Additionally, the study examined the nature of the relationships between narrow personality traits and Sense of Identity. Lastly, the relationships between Sense of Identity and extracurricular activities were investigated. Sense of Identity was positively related to the Big Five personality traits with a range of r=.32 to r=.46 with p<.01. Additionally, the selected …


Exploring The Relationship Between Time-Series Data Collection And Duration Of Treatment In A University Clinic: A Survival Analysis, Justin D. Winkel Dec 2006

Exploring The Relationship Between Time-Series Data Collection And Duration Of Treatment In A University Clinic: A Survival Analysis, Justin D. Winkel

Doctoral Dissertations

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in time-series research and the duration of psychotherapy. In previous research, 50 patients were accepted into the Time-Series Study at the University of Tennessee Psychological Clinic. Study participation included a significant degree of patient involvement, including repeated assessment of process and outcome variables totaling 120 items which patients were asked to complete twice a week. It was hypothesized that participation in this type of research may have resulted in shorter treatment duration due to increased subject burden, or may have motivated patients to stay in treatment, thus increasing …


The Experience Of Being Loved: Physical Affection From Parents As Remembered From Childhood, Ellen Senter Denny Dec 2006

The Experience Of Being Loved: Physical Affection From Parents As Remembered From Childhood, Ellen Senter Denny

Doctoral Dissertations

This project provided a description of the experience of physical affection as remembered from childhood. In-depth, non-directive interviews were conducted with 21 adult participants who were asked to describe their experiences of receiving physical affection from their parents during childhood. The raw data consisted of transcriptions of the interviews, and a method informed by phenomenology and hermeneutics for the purpose of describing the thematic structure of the experience was employed.

The ground of Being Loved provided the context upon which three themes became figural. It included the awareness of feelings that participants experienced, such as love, security, being cared for, …


Organizing To Strategize In The Face Of Interactions: Preventing Premature Lock-In, Jan W. Rivkin, Nicolaj Siggelkow Dec 2006

Organizing To Strategize In The Face Of Interactions: Preventing Premature Lock-In, Jan W. Rivkin, Nicolaj Siggelkow

Management Papers

Motivated by real examples that run contrary to conventional wisdom, we examine how firms organize themselves to strategize well. Interactions among decisions make strategizing difficult. They raise the spectre that a firm's strategizing efforts will get stuck in a web of conflicting constraints prematurely, before managers explore a wide enough range of possibilities. A key role of organizing is to free strategizing efforts and encourage broad search. At the same time, organizing must ensure that strategizing efforts are stabilized once the firm discovers an effective set of choices. The need to balance search and stability, we argue, is a central …


Tips, Volume 26, No. 4, 5 & 6, 2006/2007, Wolf P. Wolfensberger Dec 2006

Tips, Volume 26, No. 4, 5 & 6, 2006/2007, Wolf P. Wolfensberger

Training Institute Publication Series (TIPS)

• War & the Military

• Torture

• Slavery

• Violence in Society, Especially Among the Young

• Crime & Criminality

• The Validity of Evidence in Criminal Cases

• Some Ideological Issues Around Crime

• Sex Offenses

• Patterns Among the Poor Related to Crime

• Some Unusual--Perhaps One of a Kind?--Crimes

• Computer-Based or -Facilitated Crimes

• Illegalities by Illegals

• Miscellaneous Crime News

• ... And Its Punishment

• Prison Issues

• Homelessness

• Hobo & Homeless Songs & Poetry

• Some Reflections on "Street People" & Their Favorite Hymns

• Other Relevant Songs

• Poverty

• …


Masturbation And Sexual Satisfaction In Relationally Committed Men, Micha T. Ballard Dec 2006

Masturbation And Sexual Satisfaction In Relationally Committed Men, Micha T. Ballard

College of Arts & Sciences

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between masturbation frequency with and without the use of pornography, and sexual satisfaction in men in committed relationships. One hundred and twelve participants ranging from 23 to 70 years of age completed a sexuality survey and an Index of Sexual Satisfaction survey. Correlations revealed a significant negative relationship between masturbation frequency during the last month and sexual satisfaction. When clinical participants were factored out, correlation between masturbation frequency and sexual satisfaction dropped. This study found that using themes of incest or homosexuality, while masturbating, was significantly associated with higher ISS …


The Aggression Questionnaire As An Indicator Of Anger Expression By Abused Women In Therapy, Audrey Steakley Dec 2006

The Aggression Questionnaire As An Indicator Of Anger Expression By Abused Women In Therapy, Audrey Steakley

College of Arts & Sciences

The present study examined whether adult women in therapy who have been physically abused express anger differently than their counterparts who have been sexually abused, and whether they are aware that they express anger in noticeable ways. The first hypothesis stated that physically abused women express anger directly and physically, whereas sexually abused women express anger indirectly, avoiding direct confrontation. The second hypothesis proposed that they are not aware how much they express their anger outwardly. Participants were female clients at a local counseling agency, with issues stemming from physical and/or sexual abuse. They voluntarily completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) …


Paved With Good Intentions: A Definitional Study On The Issue Of Psychological Child Abuse, Anita Renee Fromm Dec 2006

Paved With Good Intentions: A Definitional Study On The Issue Of Psychological Child Abuse, Anita Renee Fromm

College of Arts & Sciences

Definitional issues concerning child abuse have long plagued the identification and treatment of this malady. This study examined the role of perpetrator intention in categorizing adverse parenting skills, as well as psychological child abuse potential. Exploitative parenting styles were displayed and rated in a variety of vignettes. Social service professionals and university students were participants in this vignette style questionnaire study. Results indicated that with a few exceptions, a constant perpetrator intention did not appear to alter subject perceptions that the scenarios presented adverse parenting skills and child abuse potential. The participants were indecisive concerning scenarios that represented excessive athletic …


An Investigation Of Automaticity In Learning Disabled (Ld) And Non-Clinical Adults, Kerry Towler Dec 2006

An Investigation Of Automaticity In Learning Disabled (Ld) And Non-Clinical Adults, Kerry Towler

Doctoral Dissertations

Dyslexia research has implicated phonetic dysfunction in the phoneme-grapheme associations which underlie reading skills. Expert readers of normal developmental etiology have required less mental effort, faster processing speed, and reduced focal attention when applying reading subskills. Readers with dysphonia and poorly automatized reading subskills have required more time, mental effort, and attention. Dyslexia automaticity deficit has been attributed to left hemisphere neuro-cortical disruptions of the underlying neurological substrata that support developmental acquisition of reading subskills. Effects of inefficiently automatized phoneme-grapheme skills accumulate over time resulting in poor reading skills that are detrimental to academic achievement.

Using neuropsychological methodology, adults with …


The Thematic Meaning Of Face-To-Face Conflict Experiences: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Investigation, Thomas Rhett Graves Dec 2006

The Thematic Meaning Of Face-To-Face Conflict Experiences: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Investigation, Thomas Rhett Graves

Doctoral Dissertations

Face-to-face interactions are the experiential basis for our reflected understandings of the social world. Face-to-face conflict (as a form of social transaction) is present across different forms of social conflict (e.g., international or intergroup conflicts). Understanding the phenomenology of face-to-face conflict thus provides insight concerning experiences of social conflict and our evaluations of it. In this investigation, a hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to describe the thematic meanings of face-to-face conflict experiences.

Eleven dialogical interviews were conducted concerning situations in which participants “experienced a conflict between themselves and another person(s)” and comprise 17 hours of recorded dialogue between the participants …


A Multi-Source Model Of Perceived Organizational Support And Performance, Sarah Kay Nielsen Dec 2006

A Multi-Source Model Of Perceived Organizational Support And Performance, Sarah Kay Nielsen

Doctoral Dissertations

The two-fold purpose of this field study was to examine: 1) the collective contributions of supervisor support (PSS), coworker support (PCS), and direct report support (DRS)to an employee’s global sense of organizational support (POS), and 2) the additive value of counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) to a performance outcome model of POS that also includes in-role and extra-role performance. To this end, the researcher predicted a 360-model of POS such that PSS, PCS, and DRS would better predict POS than any individual support variable alone. Additionally, the researcher hypothesized that POS would predict in-role performance, extra-role performance, and CWB over time. …


Perceived Similarity And Relationship Success Among Dating Couples: An Idiographic Approach, Catherine J. Lutz, Angela Christine Bradley, Jennifer L. Mihalik, Erika R. Moorman Dec 2006

Perceived Similarity And Relationship Success Among Dating Couples: An Idiographic Approach, Catherine J. Lutz, Angela Christine Bradley, Jennifer L. Mihalik, Erika R. Moorman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study utilized an idiographic approach to investigate the relation between similarity on valued characteristics and relationship success. College students (N = 247) rated their current romantic partner on perceived similarity in personality, attitudes, interests, and religious affiliation; the importance of similarity in these dimensions; and relationship satisfaction. Relationship status was assessed 6 weeks later. Results revealed significant similarity by importance interactions for religion and interests in predicting satisfaction. Participants with high perceived similarity in religion or interests reported greater satisfaction than did their low similarity counterparts, but only to the extent that they rated this type of similarity …


Family Environment As A Contributor To Locus Of Control In Children And Adolescents, Christopher Michael Delap Dec 2006

Family Environment As A Contributor To Locus Of Control In Children And Adolescents, Christopher Michael Delap

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between family environment and locus of control among children and adolescents. The data examined consisted of 52 participants who were from a larger study that was comprised of 265 participants in a school setting. The measures used for this study were the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the Multidimensional Measure of Children's Perceptions of Control (MMCPC). An independent groups t test was used to examine whether there were significant differences in scores on the relationship and growth domains on the FES between internal, external, or unknown locus of control …


Psychosocial Adjustment Among Refugee Children, Nola Ivana Lawrence Dec 2006

Psychosocial Adjustment Among Refugee Children, Nola Ivana Lawrence

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Refugee children are faced with multiple stressors. These stressors include unresolved issues with country of origin, transition to a new country, and long-term adjustment. War is a traumatic situation. For children who have gone through the trauma of war, parents may contribute one of the major influences to their psychosocial adjustment. The purpose of this study was to assess the role that parental mental health, as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist - 25 (HSCL-25) and parenting sense of competence as measured by the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC), plays in children’s psychosocial adjustment to war trauma using delinquency …


Latino Students' Prejudice And Stereotypes Toward African Americans, Amite Milner Dec 2006

Latino Students' Prejudice And Stereotypes Toward African Americans, Amite Milner

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

This study examined generational status and acculturation in relation to stereotyping and prejudice towards African Americans among Anglo and Latino American, high school students. A sample of 597 Anglo and Latino high school juniors and seniors from the Fontana and Redlands School Districts participated in this study. Participants completed a questionnaire that included demographic, acculturation, prejudice, and stereotype measures. A series of analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to test hypotheses predicting ethnic differences among Anglo and Latino Americans in prejudice and stereotype endorsement. Results showed that Latinos endorsed more stereotypes stereotype than Anglos. No ethnic difference was found on …


Patient Handling Safety For Nursing Staff, Don Nielsen Dec 2006

Patient Handling Safety For Nursing Staff, Don Nielsen

Dissertations

The effectiveness of video scoring and feedback about the scoring of the components of safe patient transfers was observed among eight nursing staff members in a skilled nursing department within an acute care hospital.

An ABCA (and sometimes ABCDA), multiple baseline across individuals design was utilized in the study. The dependent variable under investigation was the percentage of safe lifting components. Following baseline measures, nursing staff participated in an information phase during which they reviewed and discussed components of safe patient transfers. A video scoring phase was introduced, during which, participants viewed and scored a model video of a patienttransfer. …


Behaviorally-Based Disorders: The Historical Social Construction Of Youths' Most Prevalent Psychiatric Diagnoses, Christopher A. Mallett Dec 2006

Behaviorally-Based Disorders: The Historical Social Construction Of Youths' Most Prevalent Psychiatric Diagnoses, Christopher A. Mallett

Social Work Faculty Publications

The article discusses the historical social construction of the most prevalent diagnosis of youth in the U.S. The country's psychiatry controls the definitions of mental health disorders and diagnosis through required practice utilization of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. A research is conducted through a social construction theoretical paradigm to identify diagnostic classification systems, nosology changes, and critical time periods.


The Environmental Reward Observation Scale (Eros): Development, Validity, And Reliability, Maria Elizabeth Anne Armento Dec 2006

The Environmental Reward Observation Scale (Eros): Development, Validity, And Reliability, Maria Elizabeth Anne Armento

Masters Theses

Researchers have established a strong association between the frequency and duration of environmental reward and affective mood states, particularly in relation to the etiology, assessment and treatment of depression. Given behavioral theories that outline environmental reward as a strong mediator of affect and the unavailability of an efficient, reliable and valid self-report measure of environmental reward, we developed the Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS) and examined its psychometric properties. In Experiment one, an exploratory factor analysis supported a unidimensional 10-item measure with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability. When administered to a replication sample, confirmatory factor analysis suggested an excellent …