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2003

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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Challenges To Audit Education For The 21st Century: A Survey Of Curricula, Course Content, And Delivery Methods, Christine Earley, Eric Johnson, Jane Baird, Paul Caster, William Dilla, Timothy Louwers Jun 2015

Challenges To Audit Education For The 21st Century: A Survey Of Curricula, Course Content, And Delivery Methods, Christine Earley, Eric Johnson, Jane Baird, Paul Caster, William Dilla, Timothy Louwers

Eric N. Johnson

This paper reports the results of a survey of auditing and assurance courses in the US and several other countries conducted during 2000-2001. The survey, commissioned by the Auditing Section of the American Accounting Association, yielded data on a total of 285 auditing and assurance courses taught at 188 colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, and several other countries. The syllabi data were analyzed on a number of dimensions and the results compared to two prior surveys of auditing courses (Frakes, 1987; Groomer and Heintz 1994). Our findings document substantial changes in content (e.g., new or expanded coverage …


Mental Health Of Incarcerated Juveniles In Nevada: Final Report, Nevada Institute For Children's Rerearch And Policy, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas, Jennifer Petsonius, Denise Tanata, Michelle Chino Dr Dec 2003

Mental Health Of Incarcerated Juveniles In Nevada: Final Report, Nevada Institute For Children's Rerearch And Policy, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas, Jennifer Petsonius, Denise Tanata, Michelle Chino Dr

Nevada Institute for Children's Research and Policy Reports

The prevalence of mental health problems in the juvenile offender population is substantially higher than that of the general population (Cocozza & Skowyra, 2000). Studies estimate that one in five juvenile offenders has serious mental health problems, which is nearly twice the rate of occurrence of mental illness in children and adults in the general population (NMHA Fact Sheet #l). However, there have been several methodological problems encountered in previous research. These include the use of inconsistent definitions and measurements of mental illness; the use of biased, nonrandom samples, a reliance on retrospective case report data, and the use of …


Perceived Effectiveness Of Conflict Management Strategies In Dating Relationships., Jaime Ann Counts Dec 2003

Perceived Effectiveness Of Conflict Management Strategies In Dating Relationships., Jaime Ann Counts

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to determine how college participants view the success of different conflict management strategies: chance, manipulation, compliance, and confrontation. The success of the conflict management strategies was evaluated by how participants rated female satisfaction, male satisfaction, likelihood of marriage and success of marriage. A MANOVA, and a Roy Bargman step-down procedure were conducted on all dependent variables. A Tukey HSD post hoc test was ran to reveal which conflict management strategies differed from one another. Results indicated that participants thought women were less satisfied than men. For male satisfaction and likelihood of marriage, post …


Alienation And Isolation In Interracial Marriages In East Tennessee., Sheila Dianne Morris Dec 2003

Alienation And Isolation In Interracial Marriages In East Tennessee., Sheila Dianne Morris

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I conducted this study to determine if African American men and women who marry white men and women in East Tennessee perceive experiences of isolation and alienation from their families and friends as a result of their selection of a mate from a race other than the one into which they were born. I interviewed ten individuals who are or have been interracially married. As a result of my research, I found that my results compare favorably with those of scholarly studies that discovered alienation and isolation among interracial couples.

I used descriptive research methods to analyze a segment of …


Announcements, Ibpp Editor Dec 2003

Announcements, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

IBPP announcements pertaining to reader requests, editor nominations, and relevant conferences, as well as online and print publications.


What’S Special About Special Registration?, Ibpp Editor Dec 2003

What’S Special About Special Registration?, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article discusses reasons why the Special Registration Program of the United States (US) Department of Homeland Security that required the fingerprinting, photographing, and interviewing of Muslim and Arab non-citizens within the US was problematic, evaluating the potential efficacy of the program in the process.


Lewdness, Sex, And Terrorism, Ibpp Editor Dec 2003

Lewdness, Sex, And Terrorism, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses the idea of punishing supervisory personnel of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for sexual behavior.


Shootings In Iraq: A South Korean Response, Ibpp Editor Dec 2003

Shootings In Iraq: A South Korean Response, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This author examines statements of South Korean president, Roh Moo Hyun, in the wake of the news of the November 30, 2003 killings of two South Korean civilian electrical workers in Iraq. The nature of terrorism as well as potential interpretations of the president’s statements are stressed.


Gender Differences In Accurate Route Recall In Novice Drivers Using Landmarks In Electronic Maps, Kimberly K. Brantley Dec 2003

Gender Differences In Accurate Route Recall In Novice Drivers Using Landmarks In Electronic Maps, Kimberly K. Brantley

Master's Theses - Daytona Beach

Past literature has found a link between gender and accuracy of route recall in traditional paper maps using landmarks. Research also suggests that what is already known about wayfinding behavior in the physical world can be applied to computer-generated environments. The goal of this study is to merge these two conclusions to determine if gender and route recall differences remain constant for global, electronic maps. Analysis of gender by accuracy as measured by number of trials showed that males required fewer trials (M = 3.63) than females (M = 4.09), F (1,99) = 7.29, p < .05 and accuracy as measured by number of errors in trial 1 also showed that males had fewer errors (M = 3.33) than females (M = 4.09), F (1,99) = 5.79, p < .05. Analysis of landmarks by accuracy as measured by number of trials showed participants viewing Landmark High Maps required fewer trials (M = 3.64) than those viewing Landmark Low Maps (M = 4.12), F (1,99) = 7.68, p < .05. Accuracy as measured by number of errors in trial 1 showed participants viewing Landmark High Maps had fewer errors in trial 1 (M = 3.16) than those viewing Landmark Low Maps (M = 4.33), F (1,99) = 11.87.


Thick Description And Fine Texture: Studies In The History Of Psychology, David B. Baker Dec 2003

Thick Description And Fine Texture: Studies In The History Of Psychology, David B. Baker

University of Akron Press Publications

The essays contained in this volume offer a unique and personal perspective on the archival research process in the history of psychology. Celebrating the achievements of John A. Popplestone and Marion White McPherson, founders of the Archives of the History of American Psychology at The University of Akron in 1965, nine leading scholars describe the value, frustration, and satisfaction inherent in the archival process in the history of psychology. The essays provide valuable information on modern historiography in the history of psychology and the construction of historical narrative based on archival resources.


The Relationship Between Childbirth Experience And Psychological Functioning In The Postpartum Period, Dena Dian Daniel Dec 2003

The Relationship Between Childbirth Experience And Psychological Functioning In The Postpartum Period, Dena Dian Daniel

College of Arts & Sciences

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between the mother's perception of the birth experience, symptoms of the post-traumatic stress, and symptoms of postpartum depression. Sixty-seven participants ranging from 17 to 40 years of age completed a self-report questionnaire containing items from three instruments including the Perception of Birth Scale, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. The findings reveal a more negative perception of the birth experience is significantly related to a greater frequency and/or. severity of. post- traumatic stress and postpartum depression symptoms following childbirth., These findings support the conclusion that an …


Yesterday's Lei Feng And Today's Young People's Liberation Army Soldiers, Che Po Chan Dec 2003

Yesterday's Lei Feng And Today's Young People's Liberation Army Soldiers, Che Po Chan

CAPS Working Paper Series

Lei Feng has been propagandized as a model of emulation for the People's Liberation Army soldiers since the 1960s. This paper uses Lei Feng as a yardstick to measure contemporary young soldiers' general behaviors and orientations. We are interested to find out to what extent contemporary young soldiers have accepted the Chinese Communist Party's political education and have followed the norm set by the Party. It is found that the widely publicized Chinese role model has exerted little influence on contemporary young soldiers. Young soldiers today are utilitarian and materialistic, sharing the same youth culture with most Chinese youths of …


Because A Better World Is Possible: Women Casino Workers, Union Activism And The Creation Of A Just Workplace, Susan Chandler Dec 2003

Because A Better World Is Possible: Women Casino Workers, Union Activism And The Creation Of A Just Workplace, Susan Chandler

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Based on a re-analysis of data from a qualitative study of the work experience of 36 women casino workers, this article examines the contributions and personal characteristics of the 13 women in the sample who described themselves as committed union activists. These women, all leaders in the Hotel Employees, Restaurant Employees Union, were proud that collectively they had improved wages, benefits, and the conditions of work in Nevada casinos, and had created an environment that reinforced pride in a job well-done, provided job security, and promoted strong families and communities. These women's workplace experience serves as a reminder to the …


An Investigation Of Personality Correlates Of Small Business Success, Kimberly Sue Owens Dec 2003

An Investigation Of Personality Correlates Of Small Business Success, Kimberly Sue Owens

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of the current study is to empirically examine the relationship between personality characteristics and small business success. A cluster of 14 personality variables were examined using a work-based measure of personality, the Personal Style Inventory (PSI), adapted for small business owners. Small business success was operationally defined in terms of financial and personal dimensions of success. The two criterion variables assessed were business performance and work satisfaction. It was hypothesized that business performance and work satisfaction are positively related.

One hundred forty-seven small business owners completed the web survey. Correlational analyses revealed personality characteristics were significantly related to …


Predicting Academic Success: A Re-Examination Of Broad Versus Narrow Personality Traits, Susan D. Ridgell Dec 2003

Predicting Academic Success: A Re-Examination Of Broad Versus Narrow Personality Traits, Susan D. Ridgell

Doctoral Dissertations

Personality and cognitive variables were examined to determine relative validity in predicting academic performance. This study investigated whether broad personality variables (in this case, the Big Five: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness to Experience) predicted academic success better than narrow personality variables (the construct Work Drive); it also explored the utility of operationalizing academic performance via cumulative grade point average (GPA) versus a single course grade. The highest significant correlates of GPA and course grade were Work Drive (r=.42, p<.01; r=.29, p<.01) and general intelligence, the cognitive variable (r=.40, p<.01; r=.35, p<.01). Regression analysis revealed that Work Drive was the stronger predictor of GPA (17.9% unique variance as step 1, compared to general intelligence’s 15.7% unique variance as step 1); while general intelligence was found to be the stronger predictor of course grade (11.8% unique variance as step 1, compared to Work Drive’s 8.6% unique variance as step 1). Two Big Five variables, Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability, correlated significantly with GPA (r=.15, p<.05; and r=.14, p<.05; respectively). Therefore, this study found that the narrow personality trait predicted better than the broader traits. Conflicting evidence was provided concerning whether GPA and course grade might be used interchangeably as valid criteria.


The Effects Of Individual And Group Incentives On High And Low Performance, Heather M. Mcgee Dec 2003

The Effects Of Individual And Group Incentives On High And Low Performance, Heather M. Mcgee

Masters Theses

This study examined the effects of individual and group monetary incentives on the performance of high and low performers. Participants were six college students who performed a computerized work task called SYNWIN. Participants earned points for correct responses and lost points for incorrect responses. The primary dependent variables were the total number of points earned per session and the percent correct per session. An ABAC within-subject reversal design was used, where A= individual incentives, B = group incentives (either high or low performance), and C = hourly pay.

The point scores of all six participants decreased when group incentives were …


Resiliency Factors Related To Substance Use/Resistance: Perceptions Of Native Adolescents Of The Southwest, Margaret A. Waller, Scott K. Okamoto, Bart Miles, Donna E. Hurdle Dec 2003

Resiliency Factors Related To Substance Use/Resistance: Perceptions Of Native Adolescents Of The Southwest, Margaret A. Waller, Scott K. Okamoto, Bart Miles, Donna E. Hurdle

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This exploratory, qualitative study examined risk and protective factors influencing drug and alcohol use and/or resistance of Native youth in the Southwest. Thirty-two Native middle school students participated in 10 focus groups that explored their experiences with alcohol and drugs in their school and reservation communities. The findings indicate a complex interaction of both risk and protective factors related to substance use. Respondents' cousins and siblings, in particular, played a key role in their decisions to use or resist drugs. Implications for social work practice are discussed.


The Role Of Cognitive Factors In The Development Of Seasonal Affective Disorder Episodes, Stacy Whitcomb-Smith Dec 2003

The Role Of Cognitive Factors In The Development Of Seasonal Affective Disorder Episodes, Stacy Whitcomb-Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent literature on Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) has begun to focus on diathesis stress models, including Young and colleagues' (1 991) Dual Vulnerability Hypothesis (DVH). The DVH posits that individuals must possess both a biological vulnerability to developing vegetative symptoms and a psychological vulnerability to developing mood symptoms in order to develop SAD episodes. Such a model addresses SAD as well as non-seasonal depression, and suggests that there may be an as yet unidentified group suffering fiom only the biological vulnerability (i.e., winter anergia). However, until very recently few studies have directly tested this model, and most have focused on …


Response Cost In The Treatment Of Lunging In Dogs, Jennifer L. Sobie Dec 2003

Response Cost In The Treatment Of Lunging In Dogs, Jennifer L. Sobie

Masters Theses

Contemporary professional applied animal behavior management employs a diagnostic and treatment approach for unwanted pet behavior that incorporates ethology-based causal factors. As in behavior therapy for humans, behavioral assessment includes descriptive functional analysis when possible to determine relevant contingency variables. But this information is then considered in the context of an appropriate motivational classification, such as social or prey-directed motivation or fear-motivated, and treatments are designed accordingly. A different view is that behavior can be treated effectively without a presumption of the motivation through analysis of the manifestation of the behavior itself. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of …


Environmental Enrichment And Prior Experience Of Live Prey Improve Foraging Behaviour In Hatchery-Reared Atlantic Salmon, C. Brown, T. Davidson, K. Laland Dec 2003

Environmental Enrichment And Prior Experience Of Live Prey Improve Foraging Behaviour In Hatchery-Reared Atlantic Salmon, C. Brown, T. Davidson, K. Laland

Aquaculture Collection

Atlantic salmon salmo salar L. parr were reared for 3 months under standard hatchery conditions or in a structurally enriched tank (containing plants, rocks and novel objects). Half of each of these fish had prior exposure to live prey in the form of live bloodworm while the other half were fed hatchery-pellets. After 12 days all fish were tested on a novel live prey item (brine shrimp). A significant interaction between the two factors (prior exposure to live prey and rearing condition) revealed that foraging performance was only enhanced in fish that had been reared in a complex environment and …


Shift Work And Negative Work-To-Family Spillover, Blanche Grosswald Dec 2003

Shift Work And Negative Work-To-Family Spillover, Blanche Grosswald

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A representative sample of the U.S. workforce from 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce data (Families & Work Institute, 1999) was examined to study the relationship between shift work and negative workto- family spillover. Negative spillover was measured by Likert-scale frequency responses to questions concerning mood, energy, and time for family as functions of one's job. Statistical analyses comprised t-tests, ANOVAs, and multiple regressions. Among wage earners with families (n = 2,429), shift work showed a significant, strong, positive relationship to high negative work-to-family spillover when controlling for standard demographic characteristics as well as education and occupation. Distinctions among …


Organizational Factors Contributing To Worker Frustration: The Precursor To Burnout, Cathleen A. Lewandowski Dec 2003

Organizational Factors Contributing To Worker Frustration: The Precursor To Burnout, Cathleen A. Lewandowski

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examined the organizationalf actors that contribute to workers' frustration with their work situation. The sample included 141 service professionals who attended workshops on burnout in 2001. The purpose of the workshops was to increase awareness regarding the organizational factors that could contribute to burnout. Findings indicate that factors most directly affecting clients were predictive of frustration, rather than factors that may indirectly support service quality or factors impacting workers' professional autonomy. A sense of powerlessness and isolation was also predictive of frustration, suggesting that participants viewed workplace problems as a private rather than an organizational concern. To address …


How Are Social Identities Linked To Self-Conception And Intergroup Orientation? The Moderating Effect Of Implicit Theories, Ying-Yi Hong, Gloria Chan, Chi-Yue Chiu, Rosanna Y. M. Wong, Ian G. Hansen, Sau-Lai Lee, Jennifer Yuk-Yue Tong, Ho-Ying Fu Dec 2003

How Are Social Identities Linked To Self-Conception And Intergroup Orientation? The Moderating Effect Of Implicit Theories, Ying-Yi Hong, Gloria Chan, Chi-Yue Chiu, Rosanna Y. M. Wong, Ian G. Hansen, Sau-Lai Lee, Jennifer Yuk-Yue Tong, Ho-Ying Fu

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Social identity approaches assume that social identification affects both self-conception and intergroup orientation. The authors contend that such social identification effects are accentuated when people hold a fixed view of human character and attribute immutable dispositions to social groups. To these individuals, social identities are immutable, concrete entities capable of guiding self-conception and intergroup orientation. Social identification effects are attenuated when people hold a malleable view of human character and thus do not view social identities as fixed, concrete entities. The authors tested and found support for this contention in three studies that were conducted in the context of the …


When Personality Traits Need A Frame Of Reference: Enhancing The Predictive Validity Of Non-Cognitive Measures, Andrew David English Dec 2003

When Personality Traits Need A Frame Of Reference: Enhancing The Predictive Validity Of Non-Cognitive Measures, Andrew David English

Theses and Dissertations

The reconsideration of personality among personnel specialists is partly due to the discovery of the five-factor model of personality or the "Big Five" (Costa, 1996). In the years following the acceptance of this taxonomy, several researchers have examined the relationship of the "Big Five" personality traits to numerous job performance criteria. Research has show:n that personality testing can contribute significant incremental validity over that of cognitive ability and skills (Neuman & Wright, 1999). The issues of trait consistency and the faking of personality measures have divided researchers in regards to how detrimental the effects of each are. The results of …


Psychophysically Derived Work Frequencies Associated With Roof Shingling Operations Involving Change In Grade, Sang Dae Choi Dec 2003

Psychophysically Derived Work Frequencies Associated With Roof Shingling Operations Involving Change In Grade, Sang Dae Choi

Dissertations

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of roof slope on psychophysical roof shingling frequency. Twelve healthy males (21-30 years old) were used as participants. Experiment one was designed to determine Maximum Acceptable Roof Shingling Frequency (MARSF) for a workday period using psychophysical methodology. Results indicate that 198 shingles/hr is an acceptable roof shingling frequency for a workday. Furthermore, 2 hours is an acceptable testing period (equivalent to the workday). Postural sway and physiological variables support these findings. Experiment two was designed to study the effect of slope (18°, 26°, and 34°) on MARSF. Experiment two indicates …


The Effects Of Feedback, Goals, And Consequences On Response Time For Medical Staff In A Medical-Surgical Hospital Setting, Don K. Nielsen Dec 2003

The Effects Of Feedback, Goals, And Consequences On Response Time For Medical Staff In A Medical-Surgical Hospital Setting, Don K. Nielsen

Masters Theses

Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) has developed procedures useful in addressing a variety of organizational challenges. Frequently used components of OBM interventions include feedback, goal setting, and consequences. Literature on various combinations of these components is abundant but there are few reports of their use in the hospital setting. Specifically, no published studies were found that focus on response time of answering patient calls. The present study was an attempt to evaluate the effects of feedback, goals, and consequences on the latency of responses to patient calls. A multiple-baseline design across individuals was used in a hospital setting to evaluate the …


Emotional Intelligence In Children: A Review Of Programs And Web Sites, Ericka Weiten Dec 2003

Emotional Intelligence In Children: A Review Of Programs And Web Sites, Ericka Weiten

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In recent years, the term emotional intelligence has become popularized in the media, beginning with the success of Goleman's best-selling book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ (1995). Since the time this book was published, other media outlets including educational curriculums and Internet web sites have promoted this growing area of interest. Although emotional intelligence continues to be popular in the commercial media, there is actually very little scientific research on this topic. Much of the available research relates to university students (Dawda & Hart, 1999) and people in the workplace (Cherniss, 2000; Goleman, 1995), with minimal …


Potential Antecedents Of Muscle Dysmorphia, Crystal Henson Dec 2003

Potential Antecedents Of Muscle Dysmorphia, Crystal Henson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study was designed to gain a better understanding as to some of the possible contributing factors of muscle dysmorphia. Muscle dysmorphia is an under recognized form of Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Individuals who are diagnosed with muscle dysmorphia are in reality very large and muscular, but they have a profound fear and belief that they are small and weak. These individuals go to extreme lengths to increase their amount of lean muscle mass. This includes behaviors such as spending hours in the gym, excessive attention to one's diet, and use of steroids or nutritional supplements. These individuals experience extreme …


Prevalence Of Eating Disorder Symptoms In Women Living In Residence Halls And Off Campus, Carolyn Powell Dec 2003

Prevalence Of Eating Disorder Symptoms In Women Living In Residence Halls And Off Campus, Carolyn Powell

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Eating disorders should be a growing a concern in today's society. This study was designed to examine the occurrence of eating disorders in women living in residence halls compared to women living off-campus. The participants for this study were 200 women (105 on campus and 95 off campus) attending Western Kentucky University. Age of the participants ranged from 18 to 47 years, with a mean of 21.1 years (SD=3.70). The instrument used to determine eating disorder symptoms was the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS; Stice, Rizvi, & Telch, 2000). The EDDS is a selfreport scale consisting of 22 items in …


Parent-Child Interaction: Development Of Measure For A Naturalistic Setting., Valarie N. Holzwarth Dec 2003

Parent-Child Interaction: Development Of Measure For A Naturalistic Setting., Valarie N. Holzwarth

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Parent-child interaction could arguably be the most important factor in child development, including academic achievement, behavior, and personality. This study suggests that the quantity of parent-child interaction is just as important as quality, and we test the reliability and validity of our instrument developed to quantitatively measure parent-child interaction in the home under realistic conditions. Twenty-eight children’s parents participated in the study over four days. Eight families had two research observers complete the instrument simultaneously with them, and reliability measures were taken between parents (74%), parent and one research-observers (78%), and two research observers (97%). Validity measures yielded scores of …