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1997

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Articles 1 - 30 of 511

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Psychological Metaphor And Financial Crisis In Southeast Asia, Ibpp Editor Dec 1997

Psychological Metaphor And Financial Crisis In Southeast Asia, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article presents several Issues in applying psychological constructs to political phenomena.


When Intelligence Is Alleged To Be Bogus: An Israeli Example, Ibpp Editor Dec 1997

When Intelligence Is Alleged To Be Bogus: An Israeli Example, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article highlights a series of hypotheses that may merit analysis when intelligence provided by one's case officer is alleged to be bogus. It then describes a congruence in analyzing intelligence whether or not there are such allegations.


Trends. International Trade And The Subversion Of Justice: Japan, The European Union, And Iraq, Ibpp Editor Dec 1997

Trends. International Trade And The Subversion Of Justice: Japan, The European Union, And Iraq, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses the moral philosophy, the psychology of moral judgment, and treatises on law often suggest that justice subsumes some combination of behavioral and intentional accountability and equity.


Learning To See Analogies: A Connectionist Exploration, Douglas S. Blank Dec 1997

Learning To See Analogies: A Connectionist Exploration, Douglas S. Blank

Computer Science Faculty Research and Scholarship

The goal of this dissertation is to integrate learning and analogy-making. Although learning and analogy-making both have long histories as active areas of research in cognitive science, not enough attention has been given to the ways in which they may interact. To that end, this project focuses on developing a computer program, called Analogator, that learns to make analogies by seeing examples of many different analogy problems and their solutions. That is, it learns to make analogies by analogy. This approach stands in contrast to most existing computational models of analogy in which particular analogical mechanisms are assumed a priori …


Functionalism As An Aid To Antiterrorist/Counterterrorist Analysis, Ibpp Editor Dec 1997

Functionalism As An Aid To Antiterrorist/Counterterrorist Analysis, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes how philosophical and psychological variants of functionalism can aid antiterrorist/counterterrorist analysis.


Trade Deficits, Mental Deficits, And Moral Deficits, Ibpp Editor Dec 1997

Trade Deficits, Mental Deficits, And Moral Deficits, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes the psychology of the trade deficit as a political Issue in the United States of America (USA).


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages And The Analysis Of Political Entities, Ibpp Editor Dec 1997

Erikson's Psychosocial Stages And The Analysis Of Political Entities, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article illustrates the potential of Erikson's psychosocial stage theory in analyzing political entities.


Peer Versus Adult Models: Infants Immediate And Deferred Imitation Of Familiar And Novel Events, Robina Enayat Gul Dec 1997

Peer Versus Adult Models: Infants Immediate And Deferred Imitation Of Familiar And Novel Events, Robina Enayat Gul

Student Work

The present study examined the effects of different aged models (adult vs. peer) on infants' memory and imitative behaviors. Thirty infants between the age of 14- to 18-months were included in the study. Fifteen of the infants watched an adult model demonstrate two familiar three-step event sequences and two novel three-step event sequences on simple objects. The other fifteen infants observed a peer model perform the same event sequences on the same objects. Three questions were addressed: (a) Do infants learn to imitate three-step event sequences better from an adult or a peer model? (b) Do infants better recall familiar …


Relationship History And Friendship Development In Adolescence, Jay L. Ringle Dec 1997

Relationship History And Friendship Development In Adolescence, Jay L. Ringle

Student Work

Adolescents in grades 8, 10, 12, and college (13-22 year olds) completed the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI) (Berscheid, Snyder, & Omoto, 1989), a written relationship development narrative, and a graph of major relationship events for a designated friend in a same-sex and cross-sex relationship. Data collection was done in separate sessions for each relationship type, with order of com pletion randomly assigned.

Age and relationship differences were found for total score on the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI), indicating that closeness in same-sex relationships increases gradually with age, whereas closeness in cross-sex relationships does not increase until later adolescence. When asked …


Farrowing Behaviour And Stillbirth In Two Environments: An Evaluation Of The Restraint-Stillbirth Hypothesis, D. Fraser, P. A. Phillips, B. K. Thompson Dec 1997

Farrowing Behaviour And Stillbirth In Two Environments: An Evaluation Of The Restraint-Stillbirth Hypothesis, D. Fraser, P. A. Phillips, B. K. Thompson

Reproductive Behavior Collection

A total of 59 farrowings were studied in either a conventional, narrow farrowing crate (0.43 m wide) or a much wider alternative design with sides spaced 1.2 m apart at the sow’s standing height but narrowing near the floor to limit the sow’s lying area. Using video recording, we monitored each “birth interval” (i.e. the period between two successive births) and noted the interval’s length, the sow’s posture and postural changes during the interval, and whether the interval ended with a live-born or stillborn piglet. The wide and conventional crates did not differ significantly in median interval between piglets (15.9 …


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Perception Levels Of Prime Beef Training And Readiness Task Confidence, D. Wade Lawrence Dec 1997

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Perception Levels Of Prime Beef Training And Readiness Task Confidence, D. Wade Lawrence

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined the readiness training perception levels and task self-confidence of CE Prime BEEF personnel, and investigated the relationships between these two constructs. A heuristic model was developed which hypothesized that since previous research has shown that perception of training affects self-efficacy, and that self-efficacy affects performance, it may be inferred that training perception ultimately affects task performance. Surveys were sent to the target population to gather demographic data, perceptions of Prime BEEF readiness training and task confidence in both self and unit. Despite an improvement in perceptions over the past 12 years, results showed somewhat mediocre perception levels …


The Place Of The Psyche In A Constructed World, Kenneth J. Gergen Dec 1997

The Place Of The Psyche In A Constructed World, Kenneth J. Gergen

Psychology Faculty Works

The vast majority of social constructionist writings have been critical of psychological science-on both ideological and conceptual grounds. The constructionist emphasis on microsocial processes also functions oppositionally to psychological accounting. The existing animus grows, however, from a realist metaphysics and a correspondence view of language, neither of which constructionism endorses. Viewing the relationship between constructionism and psychological science in more pragmatic terms, we find three significant ways in which constructionism contributes to a more fully enriched and broadly effective psychology. First, critical constructionism functions to denaturalize psychological accounts, opening them to reflexive deliberation, and democratizing the field more generally. Second, …


Making Sense Of Direction: Proximity And Order In Asymmetric Paired Comparison Data, Jonathan M. Borkum Dec 1997

Making Sense Of Direction: Proximity And Order In Asymmetric Paired Comparison Data, Jonathan M. Borkum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In a square asymmetric matrix, the relationships among objects in the lower triangular half-matrix, differ from the relationships among the same objects in the upper triangular half. Square, asymmetric matrices can arise in similarity and preference data, when the direction of comparison is important. An asymmetric matrix can be rendered symmetric by averaging corresponding entries above and below the main diagonal. The difference between the original and the symmetric matrix is purely asymmetric, or skew-symmetric. The symmetric and skew-symmetric pans are orthogonal. An eigenvector-eigenvalue decomposition analyses the asymmetries into rank 2 skew-symmetric matrices, having an optimum least squares fit to …


Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller Dec 1997

Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller

Dissertations

Skinner (1958) expressed the need for an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of education. In particular, he suggested that programmed instruction could provide such efficiency. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of four types of instructional materials: those requiring overt construction responses, overt discrimination responses, covert reading of text with highlighted key words, and covert reading of standard text. The material requiring overt responding produced greater learning than did the covert reading materials, with or without highlighting. There was no difference found between the two types of overt responding; nor were there differences between …


Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson Dec 1997

Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson

Dissertations

Individual productivity of high performers was compared under an individual monetary incentive system and a 10-member group monetary incentive system. Subjects were 4 college students, each assigned to a simulated 10-person group. Subjects individually performed four computerized work tasks (SYNWORK) simultaneously, and the total number of points earned on the tasks was the main dependent variable. A within-subject reversal design was used, with hourly pay (A), individual (B) and group (C) monetary incentives implemented in an ABCB pattern. Subjects, when working under the group incentive pay condition, were told that the number of points they earned during each session would …


Friendship Patterns And School Adjustment In The Mixed-Age Context, Sarah Caverly Dec 1997

Friendship Patterns And School Adjustment In The Mixed-Age Context, Sarah Caverly

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

While friendship patterns and the relationship between friendship status and school adjustment have been studied in same-age classrooms, little is known about friendship patterns and the contribution of friendship status to school adjustment in mixed-age classrooms. The purposes of the present study were to investigate friendship patterns in a large sample of mixed-age (ungraded) primary classrooms and to examine the contribution of friendship status to school adjustment in a smaller subsample of ungraded primary children. Peer acceptance level and age relative to classmates both had a significant impact on the number of reciprocated friends children had, and on the relative …


Analysis Of The Ministerial Emphasis Survey Quantifying The Call Of The Church, Ray Doyel Dec 1997

Analysis Of The Ministerial Emphasis Survey Quantifying The Call Of The Church, Ray Doyel

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The expectations of a church for its minister are broad and difficult to define. These expectations are perhaps most intently examined when the church is seeking to replace a minister. It is during this time that the church may attempt to measure in some way the expectations of the congregation. These expectations may be studied from different perspectives, ranging from the effectiveness of the minister to the leadership style of the minister. This research examined the Ministerial Emphasis Survey which was used by a mainline, Protestant denomination during an actual minister search. The study included participants from the congregation, the …


Local Use Of A Nationally-Developed Predictor Of University Student Attrition, Michelle Huffman Dec 1997

Local Use Of A Nationally-Developed Predictor Of University Student Attrition, Michelle Huffman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In this study we examine the ability of the scales of the College Student Inventory (CSI) to predict attrition at a single institution. We also develop a locally-specific dropout proneness model with which to compare the nationally-developed model of the CSI. Attention is given to the incremental validity of both of these models over high school grade point average and ACT composite scores. Dropout Proneness National, although statistically significantly related to attrition, was lacking in practical significance, especially when considering its incremental predictive value over high school grade point average and ACT composite score. Dropout Proneness Local was found to …


Personality Types Of Registered Nurses Employed In A Rural Community Hospital, Tina Snodgrass Dec 1997

Personality Types Of Registered Nurses Employed In A Rural Community Hospital, Tina Snodgrass

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to identify the personality types of registered nurses in a rural community. An extensive literature review revealed that no studies, utilizing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to identify personality types, had been conducted with rural nurses. Jung's Psychological Type Theory was the theoretical framework for the study. The MBTI operationalizes Jung's theory and was utilized to determine the most frequently occurring personality types of the nurses. A descriptive study was conducted at a 68 bed acute care hospital. The sample consisted of 40 experienced registered nurses working in staff positions within the hospital. Sensing, …


A Statewide Survey Linking Assessment To Interventions: Assessing Teacher Awareness And Training Needs Related To Students With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Leann Pearson Dec 1997

A Statewide Survey Linking Assessment To Interventions: Assessing Teacher Awareness And Training Needs Related To Students With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Leann Pearson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study, using a survey questionnaire developed by Luckett (1996), was completed by 211 kindergarten through sixth grade teachers in 33 school districts across Kentucky. The sample consisted of regular education, special education, and Title One teachers with one to thirty-one years of experience. Educational backgrounds of the predominantly female sample ranged from bachelor's to doctoral degrees. The survey included four distinct sections. Participants were questioned about (a) knowledge level with respect to the diagnostic criteria and diagnostic labels for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, (b) intervention preferences for addressing ADHD student's behaviors in the classroom, (c) interventions which they would …


The Relationship Between Childhood Aggression And Impulsiveness, Mary Gail Glover Dec 1997

The Relationship Between Childhood Aggression And Impulsiveness, Mary Gail Glover

Graduate Theses

Previous research on the relationship between children's levels of aggression and impulsivity have been inconclusive. Studies of each of these behaviors independently have shown that they are correlated with many of the same factors. However, no studies have been found in which aggression and impulsivity have correlated specifically with each other. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a relationship exists between aggression and impulsivity in children. The participants of this study consisted of 115 children who had been tested at a center for behavioral analysis to determine diagnoses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. They had been referred for …


Tips, Volume 17, No. 4, 5, & 6, 1997/1998, Wolf P. Wolfensberger Dec 1997

Tips, Volume 17, No. 4, 5, & 6, 1997/1998, Wolf P. Wolfensberger

Training Institute Publication Series (TIPS)

• Poverty & the Poor

• The Gulf Between the Haves & Have Nots

• The Worship of Mammon (Thomas Hood)

• When the Idle Poor Become the Idle Rich (Song from "Finian's Rainbow," 1947 musical)

• The Transfer of Wealth Upward

• Homelessness & the Welfare Helter-Skelter Shelter System

• The Mother of All Hobo Songs!

• Where is My Boy Tonight or Where is My Wandering Boy Tonight (Hobo song)

• Singing the Song of Their Traffic ... (Song by hobo poet Harry Kemp)

• Hobo Jokes

• Hobo History

• Crime

• Punishment

• More Ships of …


Usaf Pilot Perceptions Of Workload Assessment In A Combat Or High-Threat Environment, Kadircan Kottas Dec 1997

Usaf Pilot Perceptions Of Workload Assessment In A Combat Or High-Threat Environment, Kadircan Kottas

Theses and Dissertations

This study analyzed the self-reported survey responses of 219 Air Force Pilots concerning their perceptions of workload assessment in a combat or a high threat environment. The first objective of this study was to determine and compare the combat workload factors of varying importance in combat workload assessment by aircraft and mission type flown. The second objective was to examine the pilots' perception of combat mission inflight workload. A stepwise regression model to predict the pilots' perceptions of inflight workload using pilots' characteristics data was explored. Research conclusion varied among aircraft types. Combat workload items indicated as distractingly important were …


An Analysis Of The Use Of Social Processes During Computer Use, Shawna R. Wimpy Dec 1997

An Analysis Of The Use Of Social Processes During Computer Use, Shawna R. Wimpy

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the claim that people use social processes relating to other humans when interacting with computers. A laboratory study (n = 38) manipulated two team factors, identity and interdependence and a stereotype activation effect to two labels, generalist and specialist. Subjects for this study were military members or civilians working for the military. The results show that none of the subjects reported being influenced by team or stereotype manipulations as given in self-reports. Incongruent to these findings, the behavioral data demonstrated that subjects were influenced by stereotype labels. There were no interaction effects between team factors and stereotype …


Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer Dec 1997

Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer

Dissertations

This research began as an exploratory investigation into body image differences between individuals who were weight cyclers and those who were noncyclers. Participants were fem ale and m ale graduate students (n= 444) who completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 1990a), the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (M.A. Thompson & Gray, 1995), and the Weight History Questionnaire (W H Q ), a researcher developed self-report survey of weight, dieting, and demographic information. Data gathered from the WHQ were used to identify pairs of individuals who were matched on cycling status, gender, age, and body mass index. Fifteen such pairs were …


An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson Dec 1997

An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson

Dissertations

When collapsed across gender and subject pools, Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects three to five percent of school-aged children (DSMIV, 1994). Intervening upon environmental contingencies for ADHD-diagnosed children is one of the least intrusive forms of treatment and is often very effective (Atkeson & Forehand, 1978; Forehand & King, 1977; Barkley, 1986; Webster-Stratton, 1993). As noted by many researchers (Allen, Tamowski, Simonian, Elliott & Drabman, 1991; Drabman, Hammer, & Rosenbaum,1979; Stokes & Osnes, 1989), it is necessary to assess generalization of treatment effects across the behavior therapy literature. Few have examined generalization from the home setting to the classroom. Since …


Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger Dec 1997

Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive relationship between two affective measures, affective orientation and alexithymia, and five empathy measures in 67 master’s degree level counselor trainees. It was hypothesized that affective orientation would be predictive and alexithymia inversely predictive of five distinct dimensions of empathy: communicated, observed, emotional, cognitive, and relational. Communicated empathy was measured by trainees’ audio-taped responses to a client stimulus which were assessed by “blind” raters. Observed empathy was measured by practicum supervisors based on their observations of trainees with clients. Emotional, cognitive, and relational empathy were assessed by trainees’ self-reported responses about …


Assessment Of Customer Perceptions Of The Hazardous Materials Pharmacy, Sean M. O'Brien Dec 1997

Assessment Of Customer Perceptions Of The Hazardous Materials Pharmacy, Sean M. O'Brien

Theses and Dissertations

The Air Force began operations of a Hazardous Material Pharmacy (HMP) in the late 80s. This thesis identifies causes of positive and negative perceptions of the HMP among its customers. Focus groups were used to determine customer perceptions. Several Total Quality Management (TQM) tools were used in this analysis. Brainstorming was used to generate customer perceptions. Affinity diagrams were used to group data into meaningful categories. Interrelationship digraphs were used to determine influence among causes of perception and to rank the causes of perception. This study showed that lack of clear policy and support of the HMP were the leading …


Subjective Quality Of Experience With The Internet: Accounting For Temporal Changes In User Acceptance Of Information Technology, Jason M. Turner Dec 1997

Subjective Quality Of Experience With The Internet: Accounting For Temporal Changes In User Acceptance Of Information Technology, Jason M. Turner

Theses and Dissertations

Contemporary information technology (IT) related research has focused on use as a key dependent measure for valuing IT. By understanding the determinants of IT use, we gain descriptive information about successful IT, and prescriptive information for better deploying IT resources. Although there are several competing theories regarding IT use, research findings often cite their inability to account for temporal changes in usage behaviors. This thesis introduces quality of experience as a potential moderator between the determinants of use and actual usage behaviors. A pilot survey concerning Internet usage generated potentially relevant items which were later refined into a questionnaire assessing …


The Relationship Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Behaviors Of Women Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Heather Ferrillo Dec 1997

The Relationship Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Behaviors Of Women Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Heather Ferrillo

Nursing Master’s Theses and Projects

Due to the increasing number of women who are diagnosed with heart disease and who are undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, it is important to explore the psychosocial aspects involved in the recovery process of these women. This study examined the relationship between locus of control and health behaviors of women who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.