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1996

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Articles 1 - 30 of 395

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

The Need For A United States Government Capacity To Analyze And Counter Foreign Perception Management Operations: Part Ii, Todd Levanthal Dec 1996

The Need For A United States Government Capacity To Analyze And Counter Foreign Perception Management Operations: Part Ii, Todd Levanthal

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This is the second part of a three-part series by Mr. Todd Leventhal who from January 1987 to May 1996 was Program Officer for Countering Disinformation at the United States Information Agency (USIA.) The series reflects only his personal opinions, not those of USIA or the United States Government (USG.) It is presented with only the most minor editing but with extensive commentary by IBPP. The series also reflects IBPP's deep commitment to foster deliberation and--when appropriate-- change in science, policy, programs, and informed opinion.


Problems With Political Types, Ibpp Editor Dec 1996

Problems With Political Types, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The editor discusses and evaluates the concept of typology in the context of political psychology, including those who use typology as a tool.


A Psychopolitical Analysis Of Situation Awareness: An Editorial, Ibpp Editor Dec 1996

A Psychopolitical Analysis Of Situation Awareness: An Editorial, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The editor discusses aviation-related terrorism, situational awareness, and related psychological and human factors involved.


The Need For A United States Government Capacity To Analyze And Counter Foreign Perception Management Operations: Part I, Todd Levanthal Dec 1996

The Need For A United States Government Capacity To Analyze And Counter Foreign Perception Management Operations: Part I, Todd Levanthal

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This begins a three-part series by Mr. Todd Leventhal who from January 1987 to May 1996 was Program Officer for Countering Disinformation at the United States Information Agency (USIA.) The series reflects only his personal opinions, not those of USIA or the United States Government (USG.) It is presented with only the most minor editing, but with extensive commentary by IBPP. The series also reflects IBPP's deep commitment to foster deliberation and--when appropriate-- change in science, policy, programs, and informed opinion.


Competitive Orientations And Motives Of Adult Sport And Exercise Participants, Diane L. Gill, Lavon Williams, Deborah A. Dowd, Christina M. Beaudoin, Jeffrey J. Martin Dec 1996

Competitive Orientations And Motives Of Adult Sport And Exercise Participants, Diane L. Gill, Lavon Williams, Deborah A. Dowd, Christina M. Beaudoin, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Participants in four different adult sport and exercise programs (running club, exercise classes, cardiac rehabilitation program, senior games) completed measures of competitive orientation and participation motivation. Our samples were older and more diverse than samples of previous research, and their competitive orientations and motives were similarly diverse. Multivariate analyses revealed gender and sample differences. Males were higher than females on competitiveness and win orientation, and runners were less win-oriented than other groups, but overall, all groups were similar to previous college-age samples in competitive orientation. Groups varied on specific motives, with females rating fitness, flexibility, affiliation, and appearance higher than …


Interparental Conflict, Family Environment And Perceived Interpersonal Conflicts Among Late Adolescents, Harry Durell Johnson Dec 1996

Interparental Conflict, Family Environment And Perceived Interpersonal Conflicts Among Late Adolescents, Harry Durell Johnson

Student Work

The characteristics of interpersonal conflict within the family system during adolescence may be influenced not only by the attempts of adolescent's to individuate from their parents, but also by the environment in which this individuation process occurs. Family systems that are characterized by decreased family cohesion and increased interparental conflict may inadvertently provide environments that foster increases in conflict among its members. How these environmental factors are associated with the quantitative and qualitative aspects of conflict is an important question which is addressed in this study. The relationship between the family system environment (i.e., family cohesion and interparental conflict), participant's …


A Content Analysis Of Student's Perceptions Of Instructors, Bill C. Cassill Dec 1996

A Content Analysis Of Student's Perceptions Of Instructors, Bill C. Cassill

Masters Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

In his recent confirmatory factor analysis of the Instructional Development and Effectiveness Assessment rating instrument (IDEA), Marsh (1994) identified six factors matching those from his Students' Evaluation of Educational Quality (SEEQ) rating instrument. However, four of these factors, Enthusiasm, Interaction, Learning, and Organization, were found to be highly intercorrelated. Due to this, other researchers have questioned whether these four factors are really independent constructs as Marsh asserts. Because of the question of independent constructs, many researchers feel that a greater reliance should be placed on the use of global rating items instead of items designed to measure specific dimensions of …


The Mmpi-A: A Diagnostic Tool For Adhd Adolescents, Harry J. Marshall Dec 1996

The Mmpi-A: A Diagnostic Tool For Adhd Adolescents, Harry J. Marshall

Dissertations

This research investigated the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) as an instrument in the diagnosis of adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Subjects were 32 male and 12 female adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 who presented for evaluation and/or treatment for ADHD in one of three privately operated mental health clinics in a large, industrial, midwestem state. Upon establishment of the diagnosis by a psychologist who specializes in the area of ADHD, the subjects were invited to participate in the study and complete the MMPI-A. A correlational research design was used which compared …


Fluency Training On Quantitative Skills Tested By The Graduate Record Examination, Pamela L. Vunovich Dec 1996

Fluency Training On Quantitative Skills Tested By The Graduate Record Examination, Pamela L. Vunovich

Dissertations

This research consisted of an evaluation of a Graduate Record Examination (GRE) preparation course and two ancillary studies. Eighteen students enrolled in one of three courses (spring, summer, or fall) during which they spent approximately 140 hours preparing for the GRE using self-instructional texts and supplementary materials. Two sets of fluency practice drills with both accuracy and speed criteria were developed to improve students' performance on the quantitative portion of the GRE. The first set of four drills used in the spring and summer courses covered basic skills (basic math, fractions, decimals, and percentages). The second set of 42 drills, …


The Association Of Five Therapist Characteristics With Therapists' Suspicion Of Childhood Sexual Abuse In Adult Client Cases, Sherri I. Terrell Dec 1996

The Association Of Five Therapist Characteristics With Therapists' Suspicion Of Childhood Sexual Abuse In Adult Client Cases, Sherri I. Terrell

Dissertations

One hundred and twenty-five doctoral level psychologists interning at university counseling centers throughout North America were surveyed to explore the association of therapists' suspicion of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in adult client cases with five therapist characteristics: (a) gender; (b) having or not having had personal therapy; (c) having or not having professional experience with three or more clients who are survivors of CSA; (d) having or not having a close friend, family member, or significant other who is a survivor of CSA; and (e) being or not being a survivor of CSA.

Information was collected on interns' demographics and …


Worker Productivity As A Function Of The Percentage Of Monetary Incentives To Base Pay, Carol J. Frisch Dec 1996

Worker Productivity As A Function Of The Percentage Of Monetary Incentives To Base Pay, Carol J. Frisch

Dissertations

Several studies have shown that individuals working under pay conditions with monetary incentives have higher levels of productivity than individuals working for non-incentive pay, such as hourly wages (Abernathy, Duffy, & O’Brien, 1982; Dierks & McNally, 1987; Farr, 1976; Gaetani, Hoxeng, & Austin, 1986; George & Hopkins, 1989; London & Oldham, 1977; Orpen, 1982; Nebeker & Neuberger, 1985; Terborg & Miller, 1978; Yukl, Wexley, & Seymore, 1972). It has also been noted that a minimum of 30% incentive is generally accepted as necessary to affect (employee) motivation (Fein, 1970), and increasing incentives above this level will not result in appreciable …


The Effects Of An Information/Counseling Session And Partner Participation In Treadmill Testing On Sexual Functioning Following Myocardial Infarction, Betty J. Fisher Dec 1996

The Effects Of An Information/Counseling Session And Partner Participation In Treadmill Testing On Sexual Functioning Following Myocardial Infarction, Betty J. Fisher

Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to assess the effects of an intervention designed to reduce patient and partner anxiety regarding the resumption of sexual activities following myocardial infarction (MI). A multiple baseline across subjects design was employed.

Participants completed self-report measures o f sexual functioning, knowledge of psychological and physical sequelae to MI, depression and anxiety on a weekly basis for at least 3 weeks (to a maximum of 12 weeks) prior to participating in treadmill testing, and attending the information/counseling session. Couples also completed these assessments for a 4-week period following the intervention.

Six heterosexual couples in which …


The Effects Of Practice On Stroop Inhibition: A Process Dissociation Approach, Emily Patterson Dec 1996

The Effects Of Practice On Stroop Inhibition: A Process Dissociation Approach, Emily Patterson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Two studies were performed to investigate the effects of age and practice on Stroop inhibition. The first experiment examined the influence of age on the ability to ignore the meaning of words on Stroop items. Fifteen younger and 15 older adults were asked to name the color of congruent, incongruent, and control items appearing on a computer screen. Participants' interference and facilitation scores, error rates, and color and word process dissociation estimates were computed. The results indicate that older adults experienced more interference and facilitation than the younger adults and produced more errors than the younger adults on items where …


Determination Of Chromatic And Luminance Channels In The Zebrafish Visual System Using An Increment Threshold Technique, Richard Hughes Dec 1996

Determination Of Chromatic And Luminance Channels In The Zebrafish Visual System Using An Increment Threshold Technique, Richard Hughes

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

It is well established that the primate visual system possesses anatomically separate chromatic and luminance channels; these pathways are responsible for the visual coding of color and brightness information, respectively. In lower vertebrates, such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio), there does not appear to be any anatomical separation of cell types mediating color and luminance information. However, several studies suggest that these vertebrates may be able to discriminate these attributes of a visual stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the zebrafish visual system possesses chromatic and luminance channels. In addition, the contribution of each cone photoreceptor …


Linking Assessment To Intervention: Teacher Awareness And Training Needs Related To Students With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Matthew Luckett Dec 1996

Linking Assessment To Intervention: Teacher Awareness And Training Needs Related To Students With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Matthew Luckett

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Despite the efforts of private and federally funded research, which have led to a prodigious accumulation of information concerning the assessment and diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and interventions for students diagnosed with ADHD, a minimal amount of research focus has centered around the application of assessment information in the development of treatment plans. The evolution of diagnostic labels for ADHD and variability among school-based assessment practices have impeded the utilization of assessment data in intervention planning. Although reaction to the challenges presented by ADHD students has been widespread, research generated by the interest in this heterogeneous population has only …


Score Changes From The Wisc-R To The Wisc-Iii In Disabled Population In Kentucky, Rachel Swing Dec 1996

Score Changes From The Wisc-R To The Wisc-Iii In Disabled Population In Kentucky, Rachel Swing

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study was conducted to examine the extent of score changes from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) when administered to Learning Disabled and Mild Mental Disabled populations. Specifically, this study examined whether there are differences, or, differential score changes between these populations from one test version to the next. Score changes were obtained from 7 school districts in Western Kentucky. Recorded were scores from the WISC-R and WISC-III administrations in the areas of Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores. The information collected about the children included date of …


A Survey Of Black Student Perceptions And Attitudes On The Utilization Of Academic Retention Programs, Beora Willams Dec 1996

A Survey Of Black Student Perceptions And Attitudes On The Utilization Of Academic Retention Programs, Beora Willams

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In this study I examine the perceptions and attitudes of black students attending a predominantly white institution (PWI) concerning student support services designed to assist them in achieving social and academic success. PWIs have established minority retention programs with an overall mission of recruiting and retaining black students; however, program use is minimal and black students continue to depart college prematurely. This research seeks to assess the perceptions and attitudes of black students to determine if program ambiguity, lack of faculty involvement or available mentoring, campus affiliation, racism, or time taken away from academic pursuits has a role in whether …


Institutional Climate And Institutional Effectiveness At Three Community Colleges, Connie S. Buckner Dec 1996

Institutional Climate And Institutional Effectiveness At Three Community Colleges, Connie S. Buckner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to explore the impact of employee morale, as manifested in institutional climate data, upon institutional effectiveness; and (2) to determine the extent to which information generated by climate survey data was used in developing and implementing change initiatives at each of the institutions studied. Three institutions were selected for this multiple site case study. Four sources of data from each institution were used to provide a "picture" of institutional climate. These sources of data were (a) the Personal Assessment of the College Environment (PACE) climate survey, (b) institutional self-study reports, (c) reaffirmation …


Using Biodata To Predict Alternative Measures Of Training Period Turnover, Ronald Pankratz Dec 1996

Using Biodata To Predict Alternative Measures Of Training Period Turnover, Ronald Pankratz

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Logistic Regression was utilized to add to what is known about biodata and turnover. Biodata items from 958 former and current employees in a manufacturing environment were used to develop models to predict a) which employees will turnover prior to completion of a ninety-day training period, b) who will leave voluntarily versus involuntarily, and of those who leave voluntarily c) which leavers are functional versus dysfunctional. A significant relationship was found between biodata items and completion of the ninety-day training period. The resulting model indicated that those who completed training were employed at time of hire, had higher aptitude scores, …


Temporal Characteristics Of Zebrafish Cone Types And Their Role In Separate Visual Processing, Warren Patterson Dec 1996

Temporal Characteristics Of Zebrafish Cone Types And Their Role In Separate Visual Processing, Warren Patterson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Chromatic and luminance information are processed separately by the visual systems of most higher vertebrates via anatomically separate pathways. Research on primates suggests that the luminance mechanism transmits information about stimulus luminance, movement, and flicker while chromatic mechanisms signal color and detailed information. In order to signal rapid movement, the luminance channel transmits information more rapidly than the chromatic mechanism. While some lower vertebrates such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio) do not demonstrate anatomical separation of processing, it is believed that separate processing is a basic requirement of vertebrate vision. The spectral sensitivity functions (relative sensitivity to different wavelengths of …


Assessing The Persistence To Graduation Of Students Joining Fraternities At Western Kentucky University, Charles Pride Dec 1996

Assessing The Persistence To Graduation Of Students Joining Fraternities At Western Kentucky University, Charles Pride

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In the study, I assessed the persistence of students who joined fraternities at Western Kentucky University. Also included is a comparison between them and the general student population. The study includes 1467 students who joined fraternities between the Fall 1986 to Spring 1991 semesters. A five-year time period was used as the benchmark for graduation from the institution. Factors that were explored included race, initiation status, year in school when pledging, and organizational affiliation. Pearson Product-Moment Correlations and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The results illustrated that students who join fraternities graduate at a higher …


Work Redesign And Its Influence On Employee Motivation And Job Satisfaction, John Koscielniak Dec 1996

Work Redesign And Its Influence On Employee Motivation And Job Satisfaction, John Koscielniak

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Reengineering and work redesign have become the buzzwords of the healthcare industry giving rise to the unprecedented growth of reengineering / work redesign consultants who offer cookbook methods to make the organization efficient and reduce costs. The unfortunate consequence of this rush to redesign is that the employer accepts recommendations to change the organization without knowing the state of the workforce. The purpose of this research is to test the effects of work redesign as implemented at two for-profit hospitals using a measurement tool developed specifically for work redesign. The intent is to compare the hospitals separately as each work …


An Investigation Of Peripheral Localization Errors In Older Adults, Eric Stephens Dec 1996

An Investigation Of Peripheral Localization Errors In Older Adults, Eric Stephens

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In a typical useful field of view (UFOV) paradigm, an observer must correctly identify a center target while simultaneously localizing a peripheral target. Previous research has shown that many older adults have difficulty locating the peripheral target in the UFOV paradigm when compared to younger adults (Sekuler & Ball, 1986; Scialfa, Kline, & Lyman, 1987; Ball, Beard, Roenker, Miller, & Griggs, 1988; Ball, Roenker, & Bruni, 1990; Scialfa, Thomas, & Joffe, 1994). However, the reason for this difficulty is not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to test two potential explanations for the difficulty that some older adults …


Patient Adherence In Chronic Illness: Personality And Coping In Context, John Wiebe, Alan Christensen Nov 1996

Patient Adherence In Chronic Illness: Personality And Coping In Context, John Wiebe, Alan Christensen

Alan J. Christensen

Previous reviews have concluded that there is no evidence for a predictable association between person factors and regimen adherence in chronic illness. The brief current review of the literature reveals that past work has been limited by the lack of a common structural theory of personality and the failure to consider the interaction of person factors with disease and treatment context. Application of the five-factor model of personality to adherence research will reduce divergence in the field and and in the orientation and interpretation of future work. Evidence suggests that an interactive perspective recognizing the moderating influence of contextual factors …


The Psychopolitics Of Language And Communication, Ibpp Editor Nov 1996

The Psychopolitics Of Language And Communication, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The editor discusses political issues connected by linguistic and communicative discord and controversy.


Dissonance In The Mideast, Ibpp Editor Nov 1996

Dissonance In The Mideast, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The editor discusses political violence and the concept of cognitive dissonance in the context of Israel, Palestine, and the Middle East.


The Psychology Of Moral Judgment: Applications For Counterintelligence And Personnel Security, Ibpp Editor Nov 1996

The Psychology Of Moral Judgment: Applications For Counterintelligence And Personnel Security, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The editor discusses psychological aspects of moral development, referencing the work of Lawrence Kohlberg, in the context of espionage.


An Ethological Approach To Information Warfare, Ibpp Editor Nov 1996

An Ethological Approach To Information Warfare, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The editor discusses the concept of information warfare from a historical perspective..


Hutus And Tutsis: A Case For Cognitive Complexity And Social Intelligence In Foreign Policy, Ibpp Editor Nov 1996

Hutus And Tutsis: A Case For Cognitive Complexity And Social Intelligence In Foreign Policy, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The editor discusses concepts of cognitive complexity and social intelligence in the context foreign policy. Political violence among Tutsi and Hutu ethnic groups is emphasized.


Courts, Political Violence, And Problems With Witness Testimony, Ibpp Editor Nov 1996

Courts, Political Violence, And Problems With Witness Testimony, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The editor discusses the concept of witness testimony from a legal and psychological perspective.