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1995

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Articles 1 - 30 of 365

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

A Cognitively-Oriented Approach To Task Analysis And Test Development, David A. Dubois, Valerie L. Shalin, Keith R. Levi, Walter C. Borman Dec 1995

A Cognitively-Oriented Approach To Task Analysis And Test Development, David A. Dubois, Valerie L. Shalin, Keith R. Levi, Walter C. Borman

Psychology Faculty Publications

Clear descriptions of job expertise are required to support applications and improvements in personnel training and job performance. This report describes a practical approach to task analysis that integrates the issues, content, and methods of cognitive science and personnel psychology. Cognitively oriented task analysis employs a breadth, then depth, strategy for identifying job expertise. Starting with a task-by-knowledge framework, job expertise is successively elaborated using interviews, expert ratings, and protocol analyses. The application of task analysis results to the development of written performance measures is described to illustrate the contributions of this approach to measurement validity. Task analysis results show …


Job Aids To Improve Association For Behavior Analysis Convention Scheduling, Robert J. Schnarrs Dec 1995

Job Aids To Improve Association For Behavior Analysis Convention Scheduling, Robert J. Schnarrs

Honors Theses

The Association for Behavior Analysis holds an annual convention that includes over 800 events and presentations and 1500 participants. The annual ABA Convention also draws over 2400 attendees. The scheduling and coordination of the annual convention is complex, labor intensive, and expensive. Because of the large amount of information, errors can and do occur.


Cognitive Differentiation And Verbal Ability: A Test Of Two Judgmental Models, Kristine K. Siedis Dec 1995

Cognitive Differentiation And Verbal Ability: A Test Of Two Judgmental Models, Kristine K. Siedis

Student Work

Differences in judgmental models between highly differentiated individuals and poorly differentiated individuals were investigated. Level of cognitive differentiation was determined by participants’ responses to a Repertory Grid technique. Based upon previous research, it was predicted that highly differentiated individuals would engage in judgmental processes that reflected a nonadditive model, while poorly differentiated individuals would engage in more additive judgmental processes. While it was shown that highly differentiated individuals did engage in nonadditive judgmental processes and poorly differentiated individuals did engage in additive judgmental processes, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. The findings are discussed in context …


Student Satisfaction With The Counseling Education Program At The University Of Texas Of The Permian Basin, Christy Hamilton Dec 1995

Student Satisfaction With The Counseling Education Program At The University Of Texas Of The Permian Basin, Christy Hamilton

College of Education

A survey was conducted to assess student satisfaction of the Counseling Education program at the University of Texas of the Permian Basin. The survey was given to currently enrolled counseling education students. Fifty-seven out of 68 students completed the survey. Several recommendations were made based on the results. Overall, the program is perceived as adequately meeting the satisfaction of the students.


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders In Adults And Insecure Attachment, Shirley Lee Bates Dec 1995

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders In Adults And Insecure Attachment, Shirley Lee Bates

College of Arts & Sciences

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and disorders in adults and lack of secure childhood attachment. An additional hypothesis was that obsessive-compulsive individuals would most closely fit an avoidant pattern of adult attachment. A group of obsessive-compulsive adults, a group of adults with other emotional symptoms, and a normal group of adults representing the general population were measured using the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory, the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Attachment Style Questionnaire and Bartholomew’s Four-Group Model of Attachment. Results did not confirm a relationship between insecure childhood attachment and obsessive-compulsiveness. However, obsessive-compulsive subjects …


The Relationship Among Parenting Styles, Home Environments, And Children's Curiosity, Amy Baldwin Crockett Dec 1995

The Relationship Among Parenting Styles, Home Environments, And Children's Curiosity, Amy Baldwin Crockett

Doctoral Dissertations

In this research, the relationships of parenting styles, attitudes, and child-rearing environments with children's curiosity, the relationships of parenting styles and attitudes with child-rearing environments, and the indirect relationships of parenting styles and attitudes with children's curiosity through child-rearing environments were explored. Seventy-four parent-child dyads were recruited from area day care centers. Oldest children between 3 and 6 years old were studied. Parents were administered a demographic information questionnaire, the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory--Revised (HOME), and the Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR). Children were administered the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised (PPVT-R), the Complexity Task, the Preference for …


The Experience Of Place, Rosemary Kehoe Peacher Dec 1995

The Experience Of Place, Rosemary Kehoe Peacher

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the human experience of place. A phenomenological approach was utilized employing an unstructured open-ended dialogical interview method. Twenty participants, including ten younger and older adults, were asked to describe places which were special to them.

Interpretation of the interview transcripts revealed five themes descriptive of one's experience of place: Identity, Connection, Security, Possibilities, and Beauty/Awe. The experience of time was interwoven with all five themes.

The theme of Identity comprises the way in which a place can strengthen one's sense of self, provide continuity across the developmental life span, and trigger poignant …


Cardiovascular Responses To The Combination Of Caffeine And The Repeated Acquisition And Performance Procedure, Cristin L. Sullivan Dec 1995

Cardiovascular Responses To The Combination Of Caffeine And The Repeated Acquisition And Performance Procedure, Cristin L. Sullivan

Masters Theses

The present study examined cardiovascular responses to the combination of caffeine (250 mg) and the repeated acquisition and performance procedure (RAPP) in humans. Six male subjects were tested in a within-subject, double-blind design. Repeated measurements of frontalis electromyogram (EMO), hand-skin temperature, heart rate, respiration, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were obtained during pre-drug, post-drug, acquisition, performance, and recovery periods. Measures of rate, percent error, and true error were obtained during the acquisition and performance components of the RAPP. Drug conditions (caffeine and placebo) and test orders (acquisition before performance and performance before acquisition) were pseudo- random across subjects. …


Vicarious Reinforcement Is A Result Of Earlier Learning, Maricel Cigales Dec 1995

Vicarious Reinforcement Is A Result Of Earlier Learning, Maricel Cigales

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The term "vicarious reinforcement" has been used by social-learning theorists to denote imitation that results from the observed reinforcement of behavior performed by a model. This conceptualization is incompatible with that of behavior analysis because it ignores the effect of prior learning on the observer's behavior and violates the definition of reinforcement. Experiment 1 replicated prior findings. Preschool children (N=32) imitated a model's reinforced choice responses, in the absence of direct experience with contingencies. In Experiment 2 (N=48), subjects failed to imitate reinforced modeled behavior when observed behavior contingencies were 'incongruent' with those experienced. The results were interpreted as consistent …


The Relationship Of Coping Behaviors, Resurrection Beliefs And Hopelessness Scores Among Bereaved Spouses Of Hospice Patients, Michael E. Atkinson Dec 1995

The Relationship Of Coping Behaviors, Resurrection Beliefs And Hopelessness Scores Among Bereaved Spouses Of Hospice Patients, Michael E. Atkinson

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Hope is essential to effectively face the trials of life. One of life's most stressful trials is coping with the death of a loved one. Understanding coping differences may promote counseling interventions to benefit individuals who feel hopeless. The Beck Hopelessness Scale (Beck, 1974) and the Ways Of Coping Questionnaire-Revised (WOCQ-R) (Folkman & Lazarus, 1988), were used in a survey of 97 bereaved spouses of hospice patients to answer four questions: (a) Does a relationship exist between coping behaviors and levels of hopelessness? (b) Is there a relationship between resurrection beliefs and hopelessness? (c) Are differences in resurrection beliefs related …


Concurrent Validation Of The Affective Scale Of The Diagnostic Assessment For The Severely Handicapped (Dash) Scale, Richard M. Ostrom Dec 1995

Concurrent Validation Of The Affective Scale Of The Diagnostic Assessment For The Severely Handicapped (Dash) Scale, Richard M. Ostrom

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Sixty-nine severely and profoundly retarded ambulatory clients in a residential setting were administered the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped (DASH) Scale. Three groups of 23 were selected based on previous psychiatric diagnosis and matched for social age. The first group contained clients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder; the second group contained a mix of non-affective psychiatric diagnoses; and the third group included participants with no psychiatric diagnosis. Six one way analyses of variance were conducted. All were significant. Post hoc analyses showed that the DASH effectively discriminated bipolar-disordered participants from those with no psychiatric diagnosis, but not those …


Perceived Fairness Of A Child-Care Subsidy In A Temporary Agency: An Equity Theory Approach, Pamela Bermudez Dec 1995

Perceived Fairness Of A Child-Care Subsidy In A Temporary Agency: An Equity Theory Approach, Pamela Bermudez

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to extend research findings on perceived equity into the context of the contingent workforce by examining employees' perceived fairness of a child-care subsidy (i.e., distributive justice perception) in a temporary employment agency. The variables of interest to the study were perceived fairness, comparison other, input importance, organizational responsibility and family-friendliness. The variables were examined on three levels of subsidy status (i.e., subsidy group, parents/no-subsidy group, and nonparents group). A cover letter and a questionnaire regarding perceived fairness of the child-care subsidy were mailed to all employees who had worked for the temporary agency in …


Loss Associated With Chronic Illness: Application Of The Roy Adaptation Model, Linda M. Dehaan Nov 1995

Loss Associated With Chronic Illness: Application Of The Roy Adaptation Model, Linda M. Dehaan

Masters Theses

The Roy Adaptation Model guided this pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study to test an intervention addressing loss associated with chronic illness. Differences in adaptation and well-being were evaluated between control (n = 20) and experimental groups (n = 20) 30 days after intervention. Adaptation was measured by PAIS-SR scores and analyzed using ANCOVA to adjust for pretest differences. T-test and Mann-Whitney U was used to evaluate well-being as measured by the Global Well-being Scale. Changes in adaptation were not significantly different between groups, but well-being improved 12.8% in the experimental group as compared with 1.4% in the control group. Inconsistency of results …


Social Support As A Buffer Of The Relationship Between Work And Family Involvement And Work-Family Conflict, Tracy Lynn Monzon Nov 1995

Social Support As A Buffer Of The Relationship Between Work And Family Involvement And Work-Family Conflict, Tracy Lynn Monzon

Dissertations and Theses

With dual-career couples and single-parent families on the rise, adults may find themselves overloaded with work and family responsibilities, resulting in the experience of work-family conflict (WFC). Further, employers appear to be demanding more from their employees, while giving less. Therefore, it is important to discover ways in which to manage the conflict between the work and family domains. Since level of involvement within a particular domain has been previously demonstrated to have a positive effect on WFC, the present study examined the possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between work and family involvement and WFC. Surveys …


Perception/Action: An Holistic Approach Ii, John M. Flach Nov 1995

Perception/Action: An Holistic Approach Ii, John M. Flach

Psychology Faculty Publications

This final report reviews three years of research focused on the coordination of perception and action. Human performance has been evaluated within the framework of a closed-loop system where perception and action are intimately coupled. Four problems have been studied: the control of locomotion, dynamic occlusion, depth perception, and minimally invasive surgery. Studies of the control of locomotion have shown that for control of altitude there was an interaction between the flow structure (splay or depression angle) and the event dynamic (hover or forward flight). Results showed that in hover conditions, depression angle specifies altitude changes most reliably; but in …


The 1994 Aca Model Legislation For Licensed Professional Counselors, Harriet L. Glosoff, James M. Benshoff, Thomas W. Hosie, Dennis R. Maki Nov 1995

The 1994 Aca Model Legislation For Licensed Professional Counselors, Harriet L. Glosoff, James M. Benshoff, Thomas W. Hosie, Dennis R. Maki

Department of Counseling Scholarship and Creative Works

Model legislation seeks to facilitate uniformity of counselor licensure laws and promote accepted professional standards. The text of the model bill as endorsed by the 1994 American Counseling Association Governing Council is provided with commentary accompanying those sections in which significant changes have occurred. The article concludes with 15 specific suggestions based on experiences gained in the development and implementation of previous legislation for licensed professional counselors.


O.J. Simpson Verdict Raises Questions About Jury System, Aubrey Immelman Oct 1995

O.J. Simpson Verdict Raises Questions About Jury System, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This opinion column examines whether conformity pressures, confirmation bias, and belief perseverance could have influenced jury deliberations and the verdict in The State of California v. O. J. Simpson.


Transitional Objects And Dissociative Phenomena In Adult Psychotherapy: Learning To Use Blankets And Teddy Bears, Diane A. Suffridge Oct 1995

Transitional Objects And Dissociative Phenomena In Adult Psychotherapy: Learning To Use Blankets And Teddy Bears, Diane A. Suffridge

Diane A. Suffridge

No abstract available


The Capital Jury Project: The Role Of Responsibility And How Psychology Can Inform The Law, Steven J. Sherman Oct 1995

The Capital Jury Project: The Role Of Responsibility And How Psychology Can Inform The Law, Steven J. Sherman

Indiana Law Journal

Symposium: The Capital Jury Project


Mmpi And Rorschach Findings Of Individuals Approved For Gender Reassignment Surgery, Gregory Ralph Caron Oct 1995

Mmpi And Rorschach Findings Of Individuals Approved For Gender Reassignment Surgery, Gregory Ralph Caron

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Both clinical experience and empirical data from psychological tests present a picture of extreme clinical variation among those individuals who request gender reassignment surgery. Results of past empirical studies utilizing the MMPI and the Rorschach Test have tended to be equivocal regarding the level and nature of psychopathology associated with samples of gender dysphorics. These past studies are considered limited particularly in terms of methodological problems related to statistical power. This present study examined the nature and degree of psychopathology in a sample of candidates approved for gender reassignment surgery as reflected on their MMPI-2 clinical scale values and scores …


Views Of Feminist Family Therapy: A Q-Methodological Inquiry, Bronwen Cheek Oct 1995

Views Of Feminist Family Therapy: A Q-Methodological Inquiry, Bronwen Cheek

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The feminist critique of family therapy has had a growing impact on theory and practice for almost two decades (Hare-Mustin, 1978; Bograd, 1990). Writings on feminist family therapy (FFT) reveal both common and diverse opinions about what FFT is. The present study examined how views of FFT are segmented using Q-methodology (Stephenson, 1953; Brown, 1980; McKeown & Thomas, 1988), a small-sample empirical technique for identifying emergent viewpoints and studying their similarities and differences. A Q-sort instrument of 60 statements was constructed to sample diverse discourse on FFT. Magraw's (1992) interviews with leading experts in FFT served as a primary source …


Affective Reactions, Social Support And Willingness To Self-Disclose To Hiv Seropositive Individuals: Impact Of Sexual Orientation And Responsibility For The Infection, Susan Paige Sherburne Oct 1995

Affective Reactions, Social Support And Willingness To Self-Disclose To Hiv Seropositive Individuals: Impact Of Sexual Orientation And Responsibility For The Infection, Susan Paige Sherburne

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

An attributional model of controllability suggests that perceptions of someone's controllability of an event lead to anger and rejection, whereas perceptions of uncontrollability lead to pity and helping. This study examined the impact of an HIV victim's sexual orientation and "responsibility" for infection on subjects' affective responses, self-disclosure to the person, social support, and liking and trust for the person. Subjects received messages from their "partner" (a confederate) stating that he had just learned he was HIV positive. The message either stated that he was heterosexual or homosexual, and that he had either only one partner or many partners. Subjects …


Quality Of Life In Chronic Illness, Alan Christensen Sep 1995

Quality Of Life In Chronic Illness, Alan Christensen

Alan J. Christensen

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of High School Student And Adult Expectations Of Leader Behavior, Charles Edward Beyer Sep 1995

A Comparison Of High School Student And Adult Expectations Of Leader Behavior, Charles Edward Beyer

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the type of activity or type of role played within an activity influenced expectations of leader behavior. One-hundred forty-five adult leaders, student leaders, and student group members of high school basketball teams, bands, journalism staffs, and student government associations were surveyed regarding their expectations of ideal adult leaders, student leaders, and leaders in general across eight leadership constructs. Multivariate analysis of variance results suggest that the type of activity influences group expectations of adult activity leaders. Results also suggest that women expect more consideration from student leaders and leaders in general …


School Of Social And Systemic Studies Department Of Family Therapy M.S. Program Student Handbook [1995], Nova Southeastern University Sep 1995

School Of Social And Systemic Studies Department Of Family Therapy M.S. Program Student Handbook [1995], Nova Southeastern University

CPS Postgraduate Course Catalogs

No abstract provided.


Glucagon Produces Delayed Increase In Drinking-Associated Food Intake, Brian A. Carr, Paul J. Kulkowsky Sep 1995

Glucagon Produces Delayed Increase In Drinking-Associated Food Intake, Brian A. Carr, Paul J. Kulkowsky

Modern Psychological Studies

Glucagon is a pancreatic hormone and a brain-gut peptide thought to function as a short-term satiety signal in control of food intake. This study examined effects of glucagon injection on intake of alcohol, food, and water. Overnight water-deprived female and male Wistar rats (Ns = 10) were given access to 5% w/v ethanol and Purina chow. After adaptation to this schedule, rats received intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 0, 200, or 400 g/kg of glucagon, at 0 or 30 min prior to alcohol access. Food intake was significantly increased by glucagon at 30-60 min after either time of injection (0 or …


The Effect Of The Nmda Noncompetitive Antagonist Ketamine On Serial Learning In Rats, Brooks Snider, David M. Compton, Robert Foster Sep 1995

The Effect Of The Nmda Noncompetitive Antagonist Ketamine On Serial Learning In Rats, Brooks Snider, David M. Compton, Robert Foster

Modern Psychological Studies

Past research has demonstrated that Nmethyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists disrupt the acquisition of a variety of spatial and non-spatial tasks. In the present investigation, the effects of the NMDA antagonist, ketamine, were examined in a task with minimal spatial demands. Twenty-six male Long-Evans rats, approximately 5 months of age at the beginning of training, served as the subjects. Before training began, all rats were reduced to 85% of their free feeding weight and maintained with this 15% reduction throughout training. After injections of ketamine or saline, rats were trained to respond in a runway to a nonmonotonic serial pattern …


The Role Of Gender In The Processing Of Dating Scripts, Krista M. Reed, Lea T. Adams Sep 1995

The Role Of Gender In The Processing Of Dating Scripts, Krista M. Reed, Lea T. Adams

Modern Psychological Studies

The issues under investigation were gender differences in either content or memory discrimination of dating scripts and general examination for differences in memory of typical and atypical events using the script pointer plus tag (SP+T) hypothesis. A total of 52 female and 54 male undergraduates participated. Subjects were enrolled in introductory psychology classes at a large midwest university and were primarily Caucasian, single, and between the ages of 18-21 years. In Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the study, items that would possibly occur in 4 different dating scenarios were generated and then rated for typicality. Males and females both …


Students' Sophistication Level And Confidence In Testing Procedures Predicts Susceptibility To The Barnum Effect, Thomas R. Rutledge Sep 1995

Students' Sophistication Level And Confidence In Testing Procedures Predicts Susceptibility To The Barnum Effect, Thomas R. Rutledge

Modern Psychological Studies

The present study examined the relationship between students' level of sophistication and confidence in personality assessment procedures with their susceptibility to the Barnum effect— the tendency for individuals to accept highly generalized, ambiguous profiles as accurate descriptions of their personality. Thirty-five university students (22 females, 13 males, mean age 26) completed a brief personality questionnaire under the impression they would be receiving an interpretation from a) a masters level clinician, b) a clinical psychologist (PhD), or c) a form of computer assessment. A pretest asking for the subject's age, sophistication, and their perceptions of the three assessment sources accompanied the …


Recovery From Stroke Involving The Left Middle Cerebral Artery, Lori Walter Sep 1995

Recovery From Stroke Involving The Left Middle Cerebral Artery, Lori Walter

Modern Psychological Studies

The rehabilitative treatment of a 73-yearold male who suffered from a left middle cerebral artery (MCA) thrombotic infarct was observed to analyze the effects of age and psychological and social factors on stroke recovery. The patient was assessed as having minimal verbalization, right side neglect, right hemiparesis, right hemisensory deficits, decreased balance and mild dysphasia. After 29 days of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy, he showed improvement in activities of daily living, walking, and communication. He was discharged 33 days poststroke (DPS). Age of the patient and severity of the stroke seemed to be poor predictors of stroke …