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1992

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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Tips, Volume 12, No. 4, 1992, Wolf P. Wolfensberger Dec 1992

Tips, Volume 12, No. 4, 1992, Wolf P. Wolfensberger

Training Institute Publication Series (TIPS)

• Poverty

• "The Man Endowed With Ample Pelf. .. " (Hymn of the Rig-Veda, ancient Hindu sacred writing. ca. 1500 BC)

• Homelessness

• Real Street People Don't Eat Quiche, Continued

• The Language of Theft

• A Renewed Plea for Hobo Songs

• Liberals & Liberators (Slightly edited from Easy Essays by Peter Maurin)

• Surplus Value (anonymous author, Catholic Worker, 57(4), 6&7/1990, p. 7)

• Imprisonment & Punishment

• Violence in Society

• News of the Season

• A Child's View of Retirement in a Mobile Home Park

• The Interface of Religion & Human Service

• …


Development Of Athletes Conceptions Of Sport Officials Authority, David W. Rainey, Nicholas R. Santilli, Kevin Fallon Dec 1992

Development Of Athletes Conceptions Of Sport Officials Authority, David W. Rainey, Nicholas R. Santilli, Kevin Fallon

Psychology

This study examined baseball players' conceptions of umpires' authority. Eighty male players, ages 6-22 years, completed an abbreviated Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks (Furth, 1970), which was used to measure cognitive development. They then heard recorded scenarios describing conflicts with an umpire and a parent. Players indicated if they would argue with the authorities, why they obey the authorities (obedience), and why the authorities get to make decisions (legitimacy). Obedience and legitimacy responses were categorized into Damon's (1977) three levels. Measures of arguing, obedience, and legitimacy were analyzed for four age levels and three levels of cognitive development. Older and …


"The Road Not Taken": A Phenomenological Investigation Of The Experience Of Regret, Daniel Matthew Gordon Dec 1992

"The Road Not Taken": A Phenomenological Investigation Of The Experience Of Regret, Daniel Matthew Gordon

Doctoral Dissertations

The Purpose of this study was to investigate the human experience of regret in order to discover and describe the essential nature of the experience. A phenomenological approach was taken, employing a dialogical interview method. Twelve participants volunteered for an unstructured, open-ended interview in which they were asked to describe their personal experiences of regret.

Analysis of the interview transcripts by thematizing significant statements revealed three essential themes of the experience of regret. The experience of regret is comprised of opportunities/consequences, blaming oneself, and looking back/looking forward.

Opportunities consist of an awareness of a choice, feelings of uncertainty, and a …


Attitudinal And Perceptual Differences Between Experienced And Novice National Park Users, Rebecca Lynne Van Cleave Dec 1992

Attitudinal And Perceptual Differences Between Experienced And Novice National Park Users, Rebecca Lynne Van Cleave

Doctoral Dissertations

One of the primary goals of the National Park Service is to protect the natural environments of its parks. At the same time the Park Service must provide quality experiences for its visitors. At times these two goals may seem mutually exclusive. For the Park Service to maintain a balance between protection and use management must possess a thorough understanding of the visitors to the parks. The present research sought to extend this understanding.

The goals of this research were: to explore differences in attitudes towards and perceptions of Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) by different user groups; to …


Refining Personality Disorder Assessment Procedures: The Relationship Between Mcmi-Ii And Scid-Ii, Robert J. Pass Dec 1992

Refining Personality Disorder Assessment Procedures: The Relationship Between Mcmi-Ii And Scid-Ii, Robert J. Pass

Student Work

The purpose of this study was to examine the compatibility of personality disorder diagnoses made by a self-report questionnaire (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, MCMI-II) and a standardized interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Axis II, SCID-II). Diagnoses of 50 intake clients at NOVA Therapeutic Community's residential facility were compared using Chi-Square analysis. Agreement between the two instruments was promising at the cluster level (p


Examination Of Community Mental Health Services For Persons With Serious Mental Illness: A Descriptive Study Of 31 Counties In Michigan, Pamela C. Werner Dec 1992

Examination Of Community Mental Health Services For Persons With Serious Mental Illness: A Descriptive Study Of 31 Counties In Michigan, Pamela C. Werner

Masters Theses

Thirty-one out of 55 Community Mental Health Boards participated in a survey conducted by the Alliance for the Mentally Ill of Michigan. This study examined a number of variables in the questionnaire using a product-moment correlational analysis.

Results indicated that family and consumer input is modestly correlated with comprehensive service delivery and staff/consumer education and training. Budget and the active number of mentally ill cases had a low correlation with comprehensive service delivery and staff/consumer education and training. Interagency collaboration was modestly correlated with program evaluation, and comprehensive services available to consumers. Weaknesses were noted in the management structure of …


Detection Of Sexual Cues: An Assessment Of Nonaggressive And Sexually Coercive College Males, Rita Kenyon-Jump Dec 1992

Detection Of Sexual Cues: An Assessment Of Nonaggressive And Sexually Coercive College Males, Rita Kenyon-Jump

Dissertations

Seventy-four nonaggressive and 78 sexually coercive college males, as determined by the Sexual Experiences Survey (Koss & Oros, 1982) and ranging in age from 18-25 years, participated in a study designed to assess their ability to detect specific behavioral cues of female partners’ unwillingness to engage in kissing, genital fondling, and sexual intercourse. Contrary to prediction, a 2 (nonaggression and sexual coercion) X 3 (kissing, fondling, and intercourse) analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant difference between the nonaggressive and sexually coercive males in their ability to detect cues of female unwillingness to engage in kissing, genital fondling, and sexual …


Self-Concepts Of Career Level Ii And Iii Teachers And Career Ladder Eligible Teachers In The Public Schools Of Tennessee, Lois C. Myers Dec 1992

Self-Concepts Of Career Level Ii And Iii Teachers And Career Ladder Eligible Teachers In The Public Schools Of Tennessee, Lois C. Myers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in the self concept of Career Level II and III teachers and teachers who are eligible to apply but have not elected to participate in the Career Ladder Program in the public schools of Tennessee. The technique of causal-comparative research was used in this study. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS), developed by William Fitts, was selected as the appropriate instrument for use in this study. The TSCS is a versatile instrument that measures ten dimensions related to self concept: total level of self esteem, self …


Experimental And Theoretical Analyses Of Instructional Tasks: Reading, Discrimination, And Construction, Satoru Shimamune Dec 1992

Experimental And Theoretical Analyses Of Instructional Tasks: Reading, Discrimination, And Construction, Satoru Shimamune

Dissertations

The effectiveness and efficiency of three kinds of workbooks were compared in teaching behavioral systems analysis to college students. Each workbook contained the same content but utilized different types of instructional tasks. The reading workbook had the definitions, and examples and nonexamples of the concepts to be taught, and the subjects were asked to read them. The discrimination workbook had the same definitions, examples and nonexamples, but the subjects were asked to work on discriminating the examples from the nonexamples. Feedback was given with regard to the correctness of the subjects' responses. The construction workbook had the same definitions of …


Training And Maintenance Of Breast Self-Examination Skills, Bernardine M. Pinto Dec 1992

Training And Maintenance Of Breast Self-Examination Skills, Bernardine M. Pinto

Dissertations

Maintenance of breast self-examination (BSE) skills is crucial to the effectiveness of self-exams in early detection of breast tumors. While researchers have developed an effective technology for training these skills, the maintenance of BSE proficiency is questionable (Pennypacker et al., 1982). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reassessment (and retraining) on the maintenance of BSE skills. Twenty-nine women (ages 25-64) were trained to criterion using the MammaCare training package. Experimental subjects were required to demonstrate their skills at a 2 month reassessment and received retraining if their skills had declined below criterion. Control subjects were …


Neuropsychological Effects Of Short-Term Abstinence In Adolescent Alcoholics, Asiah Mayang Dec 1992

Neuropsychological Effects Of Short-Term Abstinence In Adolescent Alcoholics, Asiah Mayang

Dissertations

The Michigan Neuropsychological Battery (Smith, 1975) was administered to 14 to 17-year-old alcoholics from an inpatient and outpatient substance abuse treatment center within 7 days of their last drink, and again after 28-33 days of abstinence (a = 26). Comparisons were made between this group and an adolescent alcoholic group who did not abstain and was not receiving treatment for their alcohol abuse (n = 15). The non-abstaining group was also given the same test battery twice. Results indicated that subjects who abstained from drinking (experimental group) performed better than subjects who did not abstain (control group) on measures of …


An Arbitrary Matching Training Supplement To The Avc Discrimination Test, Charles P. Butler Dec 1992

An Arbitrary Matching Training Supplement To The Avc Discrimination Test, Charles P. Butler

Masters Theses

Kerr, Meyerson and Flora (1977) devised a series of small learning tasks that could be used to assess developmentally disabled individuals on the typical tasks to be performed in a school setting or sheltered workshop and required only very simple equipment. Davine (1990) suggested that there may be transitional skills between AVC levels IV and V not found by Kerr et al. Davine looked at four experimental steps designed to test this notion. The results of this study were inconclusive. Wilson (1991) tested the same notion by devising a series of non identity matching tasks which were generally found to …


Inservice Training And Accessing Knowledge: The Perceived Needs Of Parents And Educators Of Children With Special Needs In North Dakota, Randal W. Eckart Dec 1992

Inservice Training And Accessing Knowledge: The Perceived Needs Of Parents And Educators Of Children With Special Needs In North Dakota, Randal W. Eckart

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose and procedure. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed analysis of needs assessment data regarding inservice training and accessing knowledge as perceived by parents, special education teachers, general education teachers, related services providers, and administrators in the state of North Dakota. These five groups were surveyed by the Bureau of Educational Services and Applied Research at the University of North Dakota. Resulting data were statistically analyzed utilizing frequency distributions and percentages to identify perceived needs for accessing knowledge or skills in special education and inservice training.

Conclusions and recommendations. Educators prioritized concerns over programming and instruction …


Lesions Of The Perirhinal Cortex But Not Of The Frontal, Medial Prefrontal, Visual, Or Insular Cortex Block Fear-Potentiated Startle Using A Visual Conditioned Stimulus, Jeffrey B. Rosen, Janice M. Hitchcock, Mindy Miserendino, William A. Falls, Serge Campeau, Michael Davis Dec 1992

Lesions Of The Perirhinal Cortex But Not Of The Frontal, Medial Prefrontal, Visual, Or Insular Cortex Block Fear-Potentiated Startle Using A Visual Conditioned Stimulus, Jeffrey B. Rosen, Janice M. Hitchcock, Mindy Miserendino, William A. Falls, Serge Campeau, Michael Davis

Psychology Faculty Publications

The present study is part of an ongoing series of experiments aimed at delineation of the neural pathways that mediate fear-potentiated startle, a model of conditioned fear in which the acoustic startle reflex is enhanced when elicited in the presence of a light previously paired with shock. A number of cortical areas that might be involved in relaying information about the visual conditioned stimulus (the light) in fear-potentiated startle were investigated. One hundred thirty-five rats were given 10 light-shock pairings on each of 2 consecutive days, and l-2 d later electrolytic or aspiration lesions in various cortical areas were performed. …


Congress And Early Federalist Military Policy: An Examination Of Defense Related Roll Calls In The Second United States Congress, 1792-1793, Elbert S. Barker Iii Dec 1992

Congress And Early Federalist Military Policy: An Examination Of Defense Related Roll Calls In The Second United States Congress, 1792-1793, Elbert S. Barker Iii

Theses and Dissertations

The legislators of the Second United States House of Representatives faced a set of challenging military and political problems when they met in November 1791. The issue of what would be the primary means of the young nation's defense had not yet been determined. The old British and colonial precedents of a militia as the first line of defense were firmly rooted in the minds of most congressmen meeting in Philadelphia. Many of the legislators had been indelibly imprinted with a fear of a large standing army in peacetime from their own personal experiences in the pre-Revolutionary days. Many of …


16pf Traits And Work Performance Among Restaurant Workers, Stephen J. Guastello, Lenore Frigo Dec 1992

16pf Traits And Work Performance Among Restaurant Workers, Stephen J. Guastello, Lenore Frigo

Psychology Faculty Research and Publications

Personality traits have been linked to work performance in a variety of jobs. For as many restaurants as there are in every major city, little is known about the traits that characterize the success of their personnel. Personality traits are thought to be especially relevant to restaurant work because, in the case of the wait staff, interaction with the public is a major part of the job. In the case of the kitchen staff, it is necessary to work under conditions of heat and work load stress, while at the same time make each meal turn out exactly the way …


16pf Personality Profiles For Social Workers: Form A/Form S Comparisons, Stephen J. Guastello Dec 1992

16pf Personality Profiles For Social Workers: Form A/Form S Comparisons, Stephen J. Guastello

Psychology Faculty Research and Publications

The goal of this report was to identify the distinguishing features of 16PF personality profiles for social workers that have been collected with Experimental Form S (prototype of Fifth Edition 16PF Questionnaire). In the analysis, the new profile was compared against known profiles for social workers reported in Cattell et al. (1970). Gender differences in personality scores for these groups were noted. The relevance of the 16PF Empathy composite was discussed.


A Study Of Ninth Grade Students' Satisfaction With School And Self-Esteem In Two Grade Organization Patterns, Marcia Jane Brokenik Fivizzani Dec 1992

A Study Of Ninth Grade Students' Satisfaction With School And Self-Esteem In Two Grade Organization Patterns, Marcia Jane Brokenik Fivizzani

Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on ninth grade students attending school in two grade organization patterns, 7 through 9 and 9 through 12. Students' satisfaction levels with school as measured by the NASSP Student Satisfaction Survey and students' self-esteem measures on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were assessed to determine whether a relationship between grade organization, gender, satisfaction with school, and self-esteem existed. Ninth graders from one upper midwest community who attended a four-year high school (N=317) or a 7 through 9 junior high school

Findings revealed that both schools scored within the average range on all subscales of the Student Satisfaction Survey. …


The Influence Of Processing Instructions At Encoding And Retrieval On Face Recognition Accuracy, Garrett L. Berman Nov 1992

The Influence Of Processing Instructions At Encoding And Retrieval On Face Recognition Accuracy, Garrett L. Berman

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Whereas previous research has demonstrated that trait ratings of faces at encoding leads to enhanced recognition accuracy as compared to feature ratings, this set of experiments examines whether ratings given after encoding and just prior to recognition influence face recognition accuracy. In Experiment 1 subjects who made feature ratings just prior to recognition were significantly less accurate than subjects who made no ratings or trait ratings. In Experiment 2 ratings were manipulated at both encoding and retrieval. The retrieval effect was smaller and nonsignificant, but a combined probability analysis showed that it was significant when results from both experiments are …


The Problems Of Assessing Change In Hopelessness Among Employees In Employee Assistance Programs, James Paul Porowski Nov 1992

The Problems Of Assessing Change In Hopelessness Among Employees In Employee Assistance Programs, James Paul Porowski

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Hope has been designated by many theorists as playing an important part in both psychological and physical healing. However, to this point, whether or not time-limited psychotherapy can increase the level of hope in clients has not been adequately investigated. This study sought to measure the level of hope in participants pre-therapy and post-therapy by the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). It also sought to explore the special problems that are encountered when conducting research within an Employee Assistance Program. Three hypotheses were proposed. The first stated that groups would differ in pretest hopelessness levels according to type of presenting problem. …


Perception/Action: An Holistic Approach, John M. Flach Oct 1992

Perception/Action: An Holistic Approach, John M. Flach

Psychology Faculty Publications

A general systems approach is taken to studying the emergent properties of the human perception/action system. Two task domains, the control of locomotion and the recognition of objects, are used to study human performance. The locomotion task involves the control of altitude. Experiments are described that will manipulate the type of texture, the speed of forward motion, and altitude. A general hypothesis is presented that performance in the altitude control task is a function of the signal-to-noise ratio within the flow field--where signal refers to optical activity resulting from change of altitude and noise refers to optical activity resulting from …


Subjective Fatigue In A-6, F-14, And F/A-18 Aircrews During Operations Desert Shield And Storm, C. A. Dejohn, S. A. Shappell, D. F. Neri Oct 1992

Subjective Fatigue In A-6, F-14, And F/A-18 Aircrews During Operations Desert Shield And Storm, C. A. Dejohn, S. A. Shappell, D. F. Neri

Publications

Fatigue occurring during naval air combat can reduce performance, impair operational effectiveness, and compromise safety. This study examines the effect of combat missions on the subjective fatigue of naval aircrews deployed aboard USS AMERICA during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Fatigue was determined using three questionnaires that were completed before and after each mission. Although fatigue significantly increased during combat missions, it usually returned to preflight levels by the next day without noticeably increasing as the operation progressed. We feel that judicious aircrew scheduling on the part of operational planners was one of the most important factors contributing to this …


Psychoanalytic Object-Relations Theory And Western Orthodox Theology: Toward An Integrative Dialogue, Bruce H. Pickle Sep 1992

Psychoanalytic Object-Relations Theory And Western Orthodox Theology: Toward An Integrative Dialogue, Bruce H. Pickle

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

This is a study of humankind from the perspectives of a representative from psychology, the psychoanalytic British object-relations physician and psychoanalyst, William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn, M.D. (1889 to 1965), and from theology, the Western Orthodox Christian Dominican theologian and Doctor of the Church, St. Thomas Aquinas, O.P. (Order of Preachers) (1225 to 1274).

These theorist/practitioners share a common scientific and philosophical method dedicated to the discovery of reality under God. Each believed that a person's nature is relationally based. Both believed that the person is a psyche and soma, a psychological and biological, unity. Each believed that turning from real …


Utah Families- The Issues They Face, Ted W. Warstadt, Larry Forthun Sep 1992

Utah Families- The Issues They Face, Ted W. Warstadt, Larry Forthun

All Archived Publications

With the wide variety of difficulties that our society faces and the limited funding available to address these concerns, it is important to identify and prioritize critical family issues. Because the family is a major contributor to individual and societal development, it is important to focus attention on issues which have a direct impact on family functioning. In identifying issues it is also helpful to understand demographic and geographic influences which may contribute to an individual's perceived urgency of a given issue. This can assist policy makers in their efforts to appropriately allocate limited funds to the best suited and …


Mountain Goat Removal In Olympic National Park: A Case Study Of The Role Of Organizational Culture In Individual Risk Decisions And Behavior, Seth Tuler, Gary E. Machlis, Roger E. Kasperson Sep 1992

Mountain Goat Removal In Olympic National Park: A Case Study Of The Role Of Organizational Culture In Individual Risk Decisions And Behavior, Seth Tuler, Gary E. Machlis, Roger E. Kasperson

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (1990-2002)

Using a case study, the authors explore the mediating role of organizational culture in individual Risk-taking decisions and behaviors. They argue that organizational culture can establish unique conditions that lead to highly reliable performance of high-Risk, undesired tasks. The authors also discuss the need for further research and its implications for Risk management.


Testing The Role Of Technical Information In Public Risk Perception, Branden B. Johnson, Peter M. Sandman, Paul Miller Sep 1992

Testing The Role Of Technical Information In Public Risk Perception, Branden B. Johnson, Peter M. Sandman, Paul Miller

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (1990-2002)

It is widely believed that more detail about health effects and likely exposure routes is apt to reduce citizens' concerns about low-probability Risks. The authors' study suggests that providing such detail may not be as useful as, e.g., addressing public concerns and keeping citizens current on officials' actions.


The Relationship Between Cognitive Maturity And Information About Health Problems Among School Age Children, Lisa D. Lieberman, Noreeen Clark, Karen V. Krone, Mario Orlandi, Ernst L. Wynder Sep 1992

The Relationship Between Cognitive Maturity And Information About Health Problems Among School Age Children, Lisa D. Lieberman, Noreeen Clark, Karen V. Krone, Mario Orlandi, Ernst L. Wynder

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

This study of urban, multi-ethnic children was undertaken to explore the relationships between age, cognitive developmental capability (termed ‘cognitive maturity’) and accuracy of information about health problems. A total of 299 children in the first, second and third grades from six public and one private school hi New York City were individually interviewed using an open-ended set of questions. Findings indicated that having accurate health information is not the same as comprehending the abstract internal nature of the ‘facts’. Results supported Piaget's levels of cognitive development applied to the area of health. Findings also showed that age is a better …


Loss Of Control, Attributions, And Helplessness In The Homeless, Shawn M. Burn Aug 1992

Loss Of Control, Attributions, And Helplessness In The Homeless, Shawn M. Burn

Psychology and Child Development

Control has emerged as an important psychological variable. The purpose of this project was to extend the concept of environmental control to the homeless shelter environment. Data from interviews conducted with residents of a homeless shelter supported the hypothesis that perceived loss of control over the shelter environment would be positively related to giving up on finding a home and employment. The hypothesis that the helplessness created by low control environments is consistent with the external, stable attributional style of “universal” helplessness was partially supported. Suggestions for future research are provided. Changes in the shelter environment are recommended for the …


Tips, Volume 12, No. 2 & 3, 1992, Wolf P. Wolfensberger Aug 1992

Tips, Volume 12, No. 2 & 3, 1992, Wolf P. Wolfensberger

Training Institute Publication Series (TIPS)

• The Realities of Human Services in a Post-Primary Production Economy: Overview

• Examples of Our Post-Primary Production Economy Outside of Human Services

• Clients as Commodities in a Post-Primary Production Human Service System

• The Extent of Human Services in a Post-Primary Production Economy

• Illustrations of the Perversity of the Human Service Sector in a Post-Primary Production Economy

• Human Services as a Displaced Substitute for the Real Thing

• Care Bear Psychotechnology

• Giving Money to Services Instead of to Needy People

• Now This We Call Real Habilitation

• Expansion of Clientage by Defining Ever More …


Crying Women: An Investigation Of The Lived Experience Of Women With And Without Cancer, Jean W. Hunt Aug 1992

Crying Women: An Investigation Of The Lived Experience Of Women With And Without Cancer, Jean W. Hunt

Doctoral Dissertations

This study attempts a more holistic perspective on cancer and the emotions than previous research which has tended to focus on either biological, psychological or social aspects individually. Crying was chosen as an aspect of human existence which simultaneously implicates biological, psychological and social aspects of being human. Over a 30-day period, frequency and intensity of crying behavior was tracked in a group of 27 women with cancer and 22 women without. Women in this study ranged from 20 to 69 years of age. Among women with cancer, fifteen were participants in therapist facilitated psychosocial support groups and eleven were …