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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Ch 16 Kulik Trainingchapter 2019-05-23 Final.Pdf, Carol T. Kulik, Mara Olekalns, Ruchi Sinha Dec 2019

Ch 16 Kulik Trainingchapter 2019-05-23 Final.Pdf, Carol T. Kulik, Mara Olekalns, Ruchi Sinha

Mara Olekalns

The story by now is familiar:  Women are reluctant to initiate negotiations in the workplace. When women do negotiate, they ask for too little, they are too willing to accept early offers, andthey are too quick to accommodate. As a result, women are repeatedly disadvantaged in salary, developmental opportunities, and other resources that they need for successful careers.  In this chapter, we consider whether women-focused negotiation training might offer a gendered solution to the gendered problems that women face in workplace negotiations.  Historically, negotiation training has focused on best practices that are treated as gender-blind.  In contrast, women-focused negotiation training assumes that gender matters a …


Acculturative Stress Among Chinese International Students, Jenny Liang, Esther Malm Nov 2019

Acculturative Stress Among Chinese International Students, Jenny Liang, Esther Malm

Jenny Liang


As the world increasingly connects, people from different countries interact for mutual reasons including commerce and education. Relocating to other counties and cultures different from one’s own comes with benefits and challenges linked to cultural differences, adjustment and stress. Acculturative stress is the physical, mental, emotional and physiological tension brought about by culture shock or other related factors that influences the adjustment process one goes through as they transition from ones original culture to a new culture/environment (Berry, 1992)  Several empirical findings show that International students rank high in experiences of Culture shock and acculturative stress.  Acculturative stress has been …


Perceptions Of The Cognitive, Social, And Physical Competence Of Speech Impaired Individuals, Sherri Scofield Nov 2019

Perceptions Of The Cognitive, Social, And Physical Competence Of Speech Impaired Individuals, Sherri Scofield

Sherri Scofield

Listeners' perceptions of the cognitive, social, and physical competence of a speech impaired individual were investigated. Thirty-eight adults (31 female and 7 male) between 19 and 51 years of age listened to prerecorded audiotape interviews; one with a speech impaired speaker, or one with a normally speaking peer. Listeners rated the perceived cognitive, social, and physical competence of both a speech impaired speaker and a normal speaker using a modified version of the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Competence. An independent two-sample t-test statistic resulted in significant difference between the groups in cognitive, social, and physical competence subscales. The …


Sex Differences In Gains Among Hispanic Pre-Kindergartners’ Mental Rotation Skills, Carla Abad, Rosalie Odean, Shannon M. Pruden Nov 2019

Sex Differences In Gains Among Hispanic Pre-Kindergartners’ Mental Rotation Skills, Carla Abad, Rosalie Odean, Shannon M. Pruden

Carla Abad

The current study explores change in mental rotation skills throughout the pre-kindergarten year in a Hispanic population to better understand the development of early sex differences in mental rotation. Ninety-six Hispanic children (M = 4 years 8 months) completed a mental rotation task at the beginning and end of pre-kindergarten. Results suggest Hispanic boys and girls differed in gains on mental rotation ability, with boys improving significantly more than girls during pre-kindergarten on a mental rotation task. This study highlights the significance of studying mental rotation abilities in a Hispanic population of pre-kindergarten aged children and suggests the importance …


Do Storybooks Really Break Children's Gender Stereotypes?, Carla Abad, Shannon M. Pruden Nov 2019

Do Storybooks Really Break Children's Gender Stereotypes?, Carla Abad, Shannon M. Pruden

Carla Abad

A book review on An open book: What and how young children learn from picture and storybooks. Special Issue of Frontiers in Developmental Psychology.

Edited by J.S. Horst and C. Houston-Price


The Development Of Early Spatial Thinking, Carla Abad Nov 2019

The Development Of Early Spatial Thinking, Carla Abad

Carla Abad

The different spatial experiences in the lives of young boys and girls may partly explain sex differences in spatial skills (Baenninger & Newcombe, 1995; Nazareth et al., 2013; Newcombe, Bandura & Taylor, 1983). While several studies have examined the influence of spatial activities on the development of spatial skills (e.g., Nazareth et al., 2013) there currently exists no widely used comprehensive measure to assess children’s concurrent participation in spatial activities and engagement with spatial toys. Study 1 of the current dissertation filled this gap in the field of spatial research through the creation of the Spatial Activity Questionnaire, a comprehensive …


Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda Of Naming And Necessity, By Scott Soames, Heimir Geirsson Nov 2019

Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda Of Naming And Necessity, By Scott Soames, Heimir Geirsson

Heimir Geirsson

n Naming and Necessity Saul Kripke criticized descriptivist theories of proper names and suggested a ‘better picture’ as a replacement. But while the ‘better picture’ that Kripke provided was very interesting and stimulating, it was little more than a sketch of a theory that needed much work and refinement. While Kripke argued that proper names are not synonymous with definite descriptions or clusters of definite descriptions, he was silent on what the semantic contents of names might be. Further, he even speculated in the introduction to his book that the apparatus of propositions might break down given his arguments, thus …


Finding Needles In A Haystack: A Case Study Of Text Mining The Corpus Of 15 Academic Journals, Eric A. Kowalik, Tara Baillargeon, Jennifer M. Cook Oct 2019

Finding Needles In A Haystack: A Case Study Of Text Mining The Corpus Of 15 Academic Journals, Eric A. Kowalik, Tara Baillargeon, Jennifer M. Cook

Eric A. Kowalik

Learn how a team collaborated to develop a text mining process for 7,500 journal articles and 500+ keywords to determine how often, when, and in what context specific terms were used. We share our processes obtaining journal permissions, data conversion, and code writing, which you can replicate to assist researchers.


The Question Of Animal Awareness, Francoise Wemelsfelder Oct 2019

The Question Of Animal Awareness, Francoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

The problem of animal awareness lies at the interface of science and philosophy. As a starting point for the study of phenomena such as awareness, mind, consciousness, etc., we hardly have any reference other than our own human experience and in the context of a nondualistic ontology this can be justified. In philosophy and psychology it appears to be very difficult to give direct operational definitions of terms such as consciousness, etc. So we might expect this to be even more difficult in the study of animals. A detailed knowledge of animals and their behaviour is necessary in order to …


Animal Boredom: Is A Scientific Study Of The Subjective Experiences Of Animals Possible?, Françoise Wemelsfelder Oct 2019

Animal Boredom: Is A Scientific Study Of The Subjective Experiences Of Animals Possible?, Françoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between different meta-scientific frameworks and the science of animal welfare. Animal Boredom 117 During the past few years, I have become more and more convinced that the great difficulty science has in studying subjective experience in its objects, might be related to the denial of any role to subjective experience in the observer as an interpretational guide. Can a quality in the world around us be observed, when this same quality is deliberately excluded from the process of observing?

As a practical example for the discussion described above, the phenomenon …


Impact Of Stress, Fear And Anxiety On The Nociceptive Responses Of Larval Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Impact Of Stress, Fear And Anxiety On The Nociceptive Responses Of Larval Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Both adult and larval zebrafish have been demonstrated to show behavioural responses to noxious stimulation but also to potentially stress- and fear or anxiety- eliciting situations. The pain or nociceptive response can be altered and modulated by these situations in adult fish through a mechanism called stress-induced analgesia. However, this phenomenon has not been described in larval fish yet. Therefore, this study explores the behavioural changes in larval zebrafish after noxious stimulation and exposure to challenges that can trigger a stress, fear or anxiety reaction. Five-day post fertilization zebrafish were exposed to either a stressor (air emersion), a predatory fear …


Hpi Reactivity Does Not Reflect Changes In Personality Among Trout Introduced To Bold Or Shy Social Groups, Jack S. Thomson, Phillip C. Watts, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Hpi Reactivity Does Not Reflect Changes In Personality Among Trout Introduced To Bold Or Shy Social Groups, Jack S. Thomson, Phillip C. Watts, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Physiological stress responses often correlate with personalities (e.g., boldness). However, this relationship can become decoupled, although the mechanisms underlying changes in this relationship are poorly understood. Here we quantify (1) how an individual’s boldness (response to novel objects) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, changes in response to interactions with a population of either bold or shy conspecifics and we (2) measured associated post-stress cortisol levels. Initially-bold trout became shyer regardless of group composition, whereas shy trout remained shy demonstrating that bold individuals are more plastic. Stress-induced plasma cortisol reflected the original personality of fish but not the personality induced …


Do Painful Sensations And Fear Exist In Fish?, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Do Painful Sensations And Fear Exist In Fish?, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The detection of pain and fear in fi sh has been subject to much debate and, since fi sh are a popular experimental model and commercially important in both angling and aquaculture, many procedures that fi sh are subjected to cause injury, fear and stress. These injuries would give rise to the sensation of pain in humans but whether fi sh have the capacity for pain is relatively under explored. Recent evidence has shown that fi sh have the same neural apparatus to detect pain that mammals and humans do, that their brain is active during a potentially painful experience, …


Table X Eidetic Analysis & Phenomenological Concepts, Rodger E. Broome Phd Sep 2019

Table X Eidetic Analysis & Phenomenological Concepts, Rodger E. Broome Phd

Rodger E. Broome


Some novice researchers that are learning the Scientific Descriptive Phenomenological method of research could use a succinct aid to guide their learning. I composed Table 1. below so that beginners might see the connections between the Husserlian Phenomenological concepts and the 5-step* method developed by Amedeo P. Giorgi (1985; 2009). The learning aid might also be a way that beginners can “check their work” to make sure that they have done the analysis based on the phenomenological concepts and their definitions.
When phenomenology addresses the Lived-Experience, it is not the same as the idiomatic phrase life experiences by which people …


Fish Sentience Denial: Muddying The Waters, Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown Sep 2019

Fish Sentience Denial: Muddying The Waters, Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Recent empirical studies have reported evidence that many aquatic species, including fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, have the capacity for nociception and pain, and that their welfare should be taken into consideration. Some sceptics, rejecting the precautionary principle, have denied that any study demonstrates pain or other aspects of sentience in fish. This target article discusses some of the scientific shortcomings of these critiques through a detailed analysis of a study exploring nociception and analgesia in larval zebrafish.


Ample Evidence For Fish Sentience And Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown Sep 2019

Ample Evidence For Fish Sentience And Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The majority of commentaries are supportive of our position on the scepticism that muddies the waters surrounding fish pain and sentience. There is substantial empirical evidence for pain in fish. Animals’ experience of pain cannot be compared to artificial intelligence (AI) because AI can only mimic responses to nociceptive input on the basis of human observations and programming. Accepting that fish are sentient would not be detrimental to the industries reliant on fish. A more proactive discussion between scientists and stakeholders is needed to improve fish welfare for the benefit of all.


Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach Sep 2019

Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Key (2016) affirms that we do not know how the fish brain processes pain but denies — because fish lack a human-like cortex — that fish can feel pain. He affirms that birds, like fish, have a singly-laminated cortex and that the structure of the bird brain is quite different from that of the human brain, yet he does not deny that birds can feel pain. In this commentary we describe how Key cites studies that substantiate mammalian pain but discounts the same kind of data as evidence of fish pain. We suggest that Key's interpretations are illogical, do not …


Social Assemblages And Mating Relationships In Prairie Dogs: A Dna Fingerprint Analysis, Steven E. Travis, Con Slobodchikoff, Paul Kefan Sep 2019

Social Assemblages And Mating Relationships In Prairie Dogs: A Dna Fingerprint Analysis, Steven E. Travis, Con Slobodchikoff, Paul Kefan

Con Slobodchikoff, PhD

Mating system characterizations have been hindered by difficulties in accurately assigning parentage to offspring. We investigated the relationship between social assemblages and mating relationships in a territorial harem polygynous mammal, the Gunnison's prairie dog, using a combination of behavioral and molecular analyses. We demonstrate multiple paternity and an extraordinarily high incidence of extraterritorial fertilizations (i.e., 61% of all progeny), in combination with the existence of female kin groups. On this basis, we conclude that social assemblages alone provide a poor description of the Gunnison's prairie dog mating system, and suggest several potential reasons for the maintenance of territoriality in this …


Geographic Variation In Alarm Calls Of Gunnison's Prairie Dogs, C. N. Slobodchikoff, S. H. Ackers, M. Van Ert Sep 2019

Geographic Variation In Alarm Calls Of Gunnison's Prairie Dogs, C. N. Slobodchikoff, S. H. Ackers, M. Van Ert

Con Slobodchikoff, PhD

Geographic variation in alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) was analyzed at regional and local scales. Alarm calls in response to a common stimulus (the same human) were recorded at four colonies near Flagstaff, Arizona, and at six sites throughout the southwestern United States. The acoustic structure of calls was analyzed for seven call variables. Regional differences fit the prediction of greater differences with increased geographical separation. Differences between colonies at a local scale were not related to geographical distance, suggesting that local dialects exist within a region. Differences in the level of predation by humans …


Mental Illness And Danger To Self, Cynthia V. Ward Sep 2019

Mental Illness And Danger To Self, Cynthia V. Ward

Cynthia V. Ward

No abstract provided.


Resources And The Evolution Of Social Behavior, Con Slobodchikoff Sep 2019

Resources And The Evolution Of Social Behavior, Con Slobodchikoff

Con Slobodchikoff, PhD

No abstract provided.


Why The Supreme Court Cares About Elites, Not The American People, Lawrence Baum, Neal Devins Sep 2019

Why The Supreme Court Cares About Elites, Not The American People, Lawrence Baum, Neal Devins

Neal E. Devins

Supreme Court Justices care more about the views of academics, journalists, and other elites than they do about public opinion. This is true of nearly all Justices and is especially true of swing Justices, who often cast the critical votes in the Court’s most visible decisions. In this Article, we will explain why we think this is so and, in so doing, challenge both the dominant political science models of judicial behavior and the significant work of Barry Friedman, Jeffrey Rosen, and others who link Supreme Court decision making to public opinion.


Why States Should Ban Adolescent Driving (Cont'd), Vivian E. Hamilton Sep 2019

Why States Should Ban Adolescent Driving (Cont'd), Vivian E. Hamilton

Vivian E. Hamilton

No abstract provided.


Why States Should Ban Adolescent Driving, Vivian E. Hamilton Sep 2019

Why States Should Ban Adolescent Driving, Vivian E. Hamilton

Vivian E. Hamilton

No abstract provided.


Adulthood In Law And Culture, Vivian E. Hamilton Sep 2019

Adulthood In Law And Culture, Vivian E. Hamilton

Vivian E. Hamilton

Young people today come of age in a cultural and economic milieu that prolongs their attainment of the traditional markers of adulthood. Their subjective conceptions of the transition to adulthood also depart radically from the traditional conception, with its emphasis on discrete transition events (including marriage and entry into the workforce). Instead, the modern transition to adulthood is a gradual process comprising the acquisition of general capabilities, rather than the achievement of externally constructed events. The state-established age of legal majority stands in marked contrast to this gradual and prolonged process. Not only does it categorically establish the inception of …


Justifying Racial Reform, Davison M. Douglas Sep 2019

Justifying Racial Reform, Davison M. Douglas

Davison M. Douglas

No abstract provided.


From 'Health Home' To 'Health Neighborhood': A Behavioral Health Care Summit In Marin County, Carlos Molina Sep 2019

From 'Health Home' To 'Health Neighborhood': A Behavioral Health Care Summit In Marin County, Carlos Molina

Carlos Molina

A presentation on behavioral healthcare resources in Marin County, California.


Dynamics Among Borderline Personality And Anxiety Features In Psychotherapy Outpatients: An Exploration Of Nomothetic And Idiographic Patterns, William D. Ellison, K. N. Levy, M. G. Newman, A. L. Pincus, S. J. Wilson, P. C. M. Molenaar Sep 2019

Dynamics Among Borderline Personality And Anxiety Features In Psychotherapy Outpatients: An Exploration Of Nomothetic And Idiographic Patterns, William D. Ellison, K. N. Levy, M. G. Newman, A. L. Pincus, S. J. Wilson, P. C. M. Molenaar

William D Ellison

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) involves instability in self-concept, emotions, and behavior. However, the dynamic, longitudinal relations among BPD symptoms and between these symptoms and other problematic emotional experiences are poorly understood. It is also unclear whether these dynamics are the same across persons (including across diagnostic boundaries), specific to individuals with BPD, or idiographic. The current study uses ecological momentary assessment and Group Iterative Multiple Model Estimation (GIMME), a novel, data-driven approach to identifying dynamic patterns in time-series data at group, subgroup, and individual levels, to investigate the dynamic connections among select features of BPD (anger, impulsivity, and identity disturbance) …


Raising Consciousness About Chicken Consciousness, Bernard Rollin Sep 2019

Raising Consciousness About Chicken Consciousness, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

The topics explored by Marino are definitive, and should work well to lay to rest forever the widespread belief that chickens have no personality, are unintelligent, or in any other way lack a mental life.


Far More To Sheep Than Meets The Casual Eye, Bernard Rollin Sep 2019

Far More To Sheep Than Meets The Casual Eye, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Marino & Merskin’s survey of the cognitive and social capacities of sheep is an eye-opener about the individuality and emotionality of this most maligned of all farm animals. My own eyes had already been opened by an adopted orphaned lamb, so much more like a dog as a companion animal than the mindless robot I had been conditioned to expect. I am morally certain that Marino & Merskin’s survey will have a similar effect on readers open to changing their minds.