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USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Examining The Social Validity Of Parent Training: Post-Participation Parent Perceptions And Reflections Of Group Triple P, Nycole C. Kauk Jul 2022

Examining The Social Validity Of Parent Training: Post-Participation Parent Perceptions And Reflections Of Group Triple P, Nycole C. Kauk

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Child behavior problems are highly prevalent and impactful on the child and their family system, bringing both short-term and long-term consequences (Sanders, 2012). Many risk factors for child behavior problems are modifiable via the use of Behavioral Family Interventions, such as behavioral parent training programs (Kazdin, 1991). Behavioral Family Interventions (BFI) modify factors within the family system to minimize modifiable risk factors and engineer protective factors to produce behavior change (Kazdin, 1991). While several manualized behavioral parenting interventions exist, the Triple P parenting program is one of the most researched and effective programs used internationally, particularly the Level 4 package; …


Approach And Avoidance Food Craving: A Dual Cue Reactivity Investigation, Christina Lee Verzijl Jul 2022

Approach And Avoidance Food Craving: A Dual Cue Reactivity Investigation, Christina Lee Verzijl

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recent research suggests that food craving is a motivational process underlying the full spectrum of disordered eating behaviors. The ambivalence model of craving, originally applied to substance use craving, provides a framework through which the push-pull motivational process of food craving and its relation to the range of disordered eating behaviors can be understood. In this perspective, food craving is a multi-dimensional motivational process that involves an individual’s competing desires to both consume (i.e., approach) and not consume (i.e., avoid) certain food. Building on previous literature, the current study tested whether behavioral measures of approach and avoidance food craving (i.e., …


The Integration Of Positive Psychology And Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports To Improve Minoritized Students' Social, Emotional, And Behavioral Outcomes, Jasmine L. Gray Jun 2022

The Integration Of Positive Psychology And Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports To Improve Minoritized Students' Social, Emotional, And Behavioral Outcomes, Jasmine L. Gray

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a culturally adapted 9-session group positive psychology intervention with and without an added peer reporting intervention on student levels of social, emotional, and behavioral functioning. Many studies have evaluated either school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) or positive psychology interventions (PPIs) in isolation, but very few studies have examined the extent to which combining these interventions and approaches may promote complete mental health. The Well-Being Promotion Program is a multitarget positive psychology intervention that has been evaluated in both elementary and middle school populations (Roth et al., 2017; Lenz et al., …


Hope 4 Boys: The Impact Of A Youth Diversion Program, Justine C. Connolly Jun 2022

Hope 4 Boys: The Impact Of A Youth Diversion Program, Justine C. Connolly

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Florida Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) is developing programs targeting first-time nonviolent offenders who might benefit from community-based treatment and positive youth development to prevent these individuals from becoming adult criminals. Thus, the DJJ seeks new and innovative ways to prevent juvenile delinquency and reduce recidivism among first-time nonviolent offenders. The present study aimed to evaluate the Hope 4 Boys program, a juvenile diversion program that addresses the academic and social-emotional needs of juvenile delinquents. The study examined how participation in the program is associated with changes in participants’ levels of hope for the future, life satisfaction, and resiliency …


Equitable Implementation Of The Good Behavior Game, Faith D. Reynolds Jun 2022

Equitable Implementation Of The Good Behavior Game, Faith D. Reynolds

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Exclusionary discipline actions in schools (e.g., suspension, expulsion) are related to short- and long-term negative outcomes for students. For the past several decades, Black students have received disproportionate disciplinary actions in schools compared to their peers. Classroom behavior interventions are an alternative practice to traditional disciplinary actions and are important tools for reducing overall levels of exclusionary discipline. It is imperative to ensure equitable implementation is being used within these behavior interventions to support all students in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a widely used classroom behavior intervention that has been described as a universal behavioral vaccine. …


Prevalence And Predictors Of Careless Responding In Experience Sampling Research, Alexander J. Denison Jun 2022

Prevalence And Predictors Of Careless Responding In Experience Sampling Research, Alexander J. Denison

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the current study we examine the prevalence and several predictors of careless responding to an experience sampling (ESM) study. While careless responding has been noted as a potential problem in ESM research, few studies have examined the prevalence of this behavior (Beal, 2015; Berkel et al., 2017; Eisele et al., 2020; Gabriel et al., 2019; Jaso et al., 2021). Using statistical methods of careless response classification, we derive cut scores from data simulation and graphical examination of item correlations, and flag 44.98% of response episodes as careless. A majority of these flagged episodes were the product of overly consistent …


Influences Of Sentence Context And Individual Differences In Lexical Quality On Early Phonological Processing During Silent Reading, Sara Milligan Jun 2022

Influences Of Sentence Context And Individual Differences In Lexical Quality On Early Phonological Processing During Silent Reading, Sara Milligan

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The current thesis investigates the role of sentence context and individual differences in the quality of sub-lexical representations of words in activation of phonological forms during silent reading. More specifically, this study aims to determine how these situational and participant-level factors influence the use of phonology to aid word recognition during parafoveal processing, before a reader directly fixates the word. Therefore, I manipulated sentence constraint in two eye tracking during reading experiments (one using real-word and one using pseudoword parafoveal previews) that utilized the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm (Rayner 1975) and measured individual’s scores on assessments of spelling ability, phonological decoding …


Depersonalized, Dysregulated, And Demanded: The Impact Of Burnout On Appraisal And Emotional Events, Katrina M. Conen Jun 2022

Depersonalized, Dysregulated, And Demanded: The Impact Of Burnout On Appraisal And Emotional Events, Katrina M. Conen

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A widely studied construct, burnout is a chronic disease that is considered to develop over time (Maslach et al., 2001). Burnout has been related to a number of pertinent outcomes including increased job turnover, decreased job satisfaction, and poor mental and physical health outcomes (Ahola, 2007). However, little work has yet to be done concerning the role burnout may play in the appraisal of work events and the subsequent psychological construction of emotional episodes. The current study addresses the tension between the chronic affective dysregulation associated with burnout and the acute construction of an emotional episode. Results support the idea …


Outcomes Of A Telehealth Adaptation Of A Trauma-Based Parent Training Program, Holland Hayford Jun 2022

Outcomes Of A Telehealth Adaptation Of A Trauma-Based Parent Training Program, Holland Hayford

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 25% of children will experience a traumatic event by the age of four. If trauma symptoms remain untreated, these traumatic experiences during early childhood can negatively impact a child’s executive functioning skills, mental health, social interactions, and relational attachments to other individuals. Due to the harmful impact of untreated trauma symptoms on children’s wellbeing and development, several evidence-based interventions have been developed. One such intervention is Smart Start: Parenting Tools for Children with Developmental Delay, Social-Emotional Concerns, and Trauma (version 5), which targets children’s disruptive behaviors and trauma symptoms, caregivers’ parenting stress, and the caregiver-child relationship. This study utilized …


Testing The Effects Of Social Exclusion On Emotional Arousal: An Examination Of The Effects Of Psychological Pain And Rumination, Amanda L. Peterson Jun 2022

Testing The Effects Of Social Exclusion On Emotional Arousal: An Examination Of The Effects Of Psychological Pain And Rumination, Amanda L. Peterson

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The examination of social exclusion and its impact on future emotional responding may prove to be a fruitful area of research in the prevention of suicide. Additionally, there may be other factors (such as the experience of psychological pain and rumination) that may influence how one responds to social exclusion. However, little research has explored individual differences in reactions to social exclusion. As such, the present study explored how social exclusion influences emotional responding to other environmental stimuli, as well as examining how a history of psychological pain and rumination affected how one responds to social exclusion. 503 undergraduate students …


Boredom, Interoceptive Ability, And Emotional Eating, Erica Ahlich May 2022

Boredom, Interoceptive Ability, And Emotional Eating, Erica Ahlich

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Emotional eating is a commonly described phenomenon reported by individuals across the weight spectrum. Not only does existing evidence suggest it is not an effective emotion regulation strategy, but emotional eating is also associated with difficulty losing weight during weight loss interventions and other negative health outcomes. The majority of existing work in the area of emotional eating has focused on the broad dimensions of negative and positive affect. Yet, there are data suggesting that different emotions appear to produce different changes in eating behaviors, suggesting the importance of investigating the influence of discrete emotions on eating. The lack of …


Qualitative Examination Of Sex Therapists' Perspectives Regarding Women With Low Sexual Desire, Tatiana C. Bryan Mar 2022

Qualitative Examination Of Sex Therapists' Perspectives Regarding Women With Low Sexual Desire, Tatiana C. Bryan

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Female sexual desire disorder is often discussed in the literature, but there is a paucity of data on how sex therapists conceptualize and treat this disorder. To address a gap in the current literature, this study collected the perspectives and attitudes of clinicians working with patients presenting with low sexual desire. This qualitative study aimed to understand how sex therapists’ conceptualization of female sexual desire disorder is used to make decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and assessing patient progress. Grounded theory methodology was used to examine the attitudes and beliefs held by sex therapists. Results were used to generate a framework …


Individual Differences In Response To Hostile And Benevolent Sexism In A Stem Interview Context: The Moderating Role Of Behavioral Activation, Elizabeth Kiebel Mar 2022

Individual Differences In Response To Hostile And Benevolent Sexism In A Stem Interview Context: The Moderating Role Of Behavioral Activation, Elizabeth Kiebel

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Women continue to face sexism in workplace contexts, especially those that are male dominated, such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Yet, women often fail to confront the sexism they experience, despite confrontation being an effective way to cope with and prevent future harassment (Fitzgerald et al., 1995; Magley, 2002). To date, no one has assessed the potential moderating role of personality differences related to approach motivation on women’s confrontation of sexism. In this study, women were exposed to either a hostilely sexist or benevolently sexist question during a mock job interview that was purportedly being conducted as part …


Breast Health Esteem To Motivate Breast Health Behavioral Intentions: An Application Of The Terror Management Health Model, Emily P. Courtney Mar 2022

Breast Health Esteem To Motivate Breast Health Behavioral Intentions: An Application Of The Terror Management Health Model, Emily P. Courtney

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is a pervasive disease affecting millions of people, and a family history of the disease can put individuals at a significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer over the course of one’s lifetime. In turn, women with a family history often perceive themselves as more susceptible to breast cancer. Further, women who have lost family members to breast cancer likely associate the disease itself with death to a greater extent. In addition to this increased risk perception, women with a family history might intertwine breast health with feelings of esteem. It follows that those feelings of esteem should …


Why Don’T They Just Ask?: Barriers To Directly Requesting Affirmative Sexual Consent By Gender And Sexual Orientation, Jessica A. Jordan Mar 2022

Why Don’T They Just Ask?: Barriers To Directly Requesting Affirmative Sexual Consent By Gender And Sexual Orientation, Jessica A. Jordan

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Most young adults report a discomfort with verbally and explicitly asking for sexual consent from a partner. Social scientists have theorized this discomfort is driven by conformity to rigid gender roles, sexual scripts, and peer norms, although little research has directly examined the relationship between these barriers and consent behaviors. Most consent research has focused on heterosexual individuals, and even fewer studies have compared the sexual consent attitudes and behaviors of heterosexual and sexual minority individuals. Through a series of three studies, I examined the reasons heterosexual and sexual minority young adults hesitate to ask a new partner for sexual …


Distributed Leadership: Formal Leadership, Barriers, And Facilitators For Multi-Tiered Systems Of Support, Joseph D. Latimer Mar 2022

Distributed Leadership: Formal Leadership, Barriers, And Facilitators For Multi-Tiered Systems Of Support, Joseph D. Latimer

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently, educators are exposed to an increased environment of accountability, which prioritizes student academic achievement. That environment of accountability is reinforced by multiple pieces of legislation that also call attention to the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS). Even with these federal mandates, educators are continuously overwhelmed implementing MTSS and often leverage distributed leadership practices such as school leadership teams to carry out school improvement tasks. Both distributed leadership practices and MTSS are directly impacted by the practices of formal leadership (i.e., principals). In addition, enablers of and barriers to distributed leadership for MTSS should be investigated. This current …


Predicting Future Well-Being Among United States Youth Who Attempted Suicide And Survived, Bingjie Tong Mar 2022

Predicting Future Well-Being Among United States Youth Who Attempted Suicide And Survived, Bingjie Tong

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

After a non-fatal suicide attempt, survivors commonly endorse the goal of building a life worth living; however, there have been few investigations of good outcomes after non-fatal suicide attempts. Our prior study of a national sample of United States youth found that 7 years after a non-fatal suicide attempt, approximately 13% of adolescents (75 out of 574) achieved a well-being profile at or above the top quartile of non-suicidal peers, a status which we term as good future well-being (FWB). The present investigation focused on potential predictors of FWB, including self-esteem, positive mood, family connectedness, and school belongingness, drawn from …


The Need To Address Religious Diversity At Work: An All-Inclusive Model Of Spirituality At Work, Ivonne Valero Cázares Mar 2022

The Need To Address Religious Diversity At Work: An All-Inclusive Model Of Spirituality At Work, Ivonne Valero Cázares

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis discusses the importance of embracing religion and spirituality in the workplace as an aspect of workplace diversity. This document aims to help us understand the definition of spirituality at the workplace and its constituents.

We conducted a literature review from predominant scholars about the salience of spirituality and religion at the workplace and its relevance to building meaning, connectedness, and a sense of belonging. We will also review Maslow's theory of Human Needs, his research on human peak-experiences, and its correlation to self-actualization and transcendence.

We will present a new model of Spirituality and Religion at the workplace …


Individual Differences In Posttraumatic Growth Following Bone Marrow Transplantation, Michelle Renee Widows Mar 2022

Individual Differences In Posttraumatic Growth Following Bone Marrow Transplantation, Michelle Renee Widows

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prior research suggests that the diagnosis and treatment of cancer can result in the experience of positive outcomes, or positive growth. Based on Schaefer and Moos' (1992) model of adaptation of life crises, the current study examined the predictive utility of personality traits, coping, and social support in accounting for variability in posttraumatic growth and whether trauma appraisals, social constraint, and mental health were associated with the degree of posttraumatic growth in cancer patients who had undergone bone marrow transplantation. Participants were 53 females and 19 males treated with BMT an average of 24 months previously. Qualitative reports of posttraumatic …


Creating A Short, Public-Domain Version Of The Cpai-2: Using An Algorithmic Approach To Develop Public-Domain Measures Of Indigenous Personality Traits, Mukhunth Raghavan Mar 2022

Creating A Short, Public-Domain Version Of The Cpai-2: Using An Algorithmic Approach To Develop Public-Domain Measures Of Indigenous Personality Traits, Mukhunth Raghavan

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this study we aimed to create a short, public-domain analogue of the Cross-Cultural (Chinese) Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI-2; F. M. Cheung et al., 1996). Emic (culture-specific) traits measured by the CPAI-2 are purportedly specific to the Chinese culture and argued to not be fully captured by the consensus Big Five personality trait taxonomy. Research suggests that CPAI-2 traits may have unique predictive power, especially in non-Western contexts. However, research has been hampered by several limitations of the measure. The inventory is proprietary and long, with 341 items forming 28 scales and four factors. Cross-cultural personality research would benefit from …


Do Suicide Attempt Survivors Have Reduced Long-Term Well-Being? A Study Of Veterans Across Three Nationally Representative Cohorts, Bradley A. Brown Jan 2022

Do Suicide Attempt Survivors Have Reduced Long-Term Well-Being? A Study Of Veterans Across Three Nationally Representative Cohorts, Bradley A. Brown

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prior suicide attempts are known to elevate the risk for re-attempting suicide and death by suicide. However, most people who attempt suicide will neither die by suicide nor re-attempt suicide. Establishing comprehensive knowledge about the prognosis of suicide attempts would be valuable for multiple stakeholders, including suicide attempt survivors, their loved ones, and mental health professionals treating suicidal patients. Nearly all work on functioning after a non-fatal suicide attempt centers on elevated risk, and the effects of a suicide attempt on long-term psychological well-being are unknown. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by comparing psychological well-being among …


Good Intentions Go Awry: Investigation Of Unhelpful Supportive Leadership, Cheryl E. Gray Nov 2021

Good Intentions Go Awry: Investigation Of Unhelpful Supportive Leadership, Cheryl E. Gray

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In studies of the dark side of leadership, leaders are often depicted as bad people who engage in abusive behaviors. While some leaders have self-serving motives and engage in cruel behaviors, negative leadership outcomes are not limited to abusive supervisors. This research casts light on an understudied form of negative leadership: unhelpful supportive leadership. Unhelpful supportive leadership characterizes leaders who perform supportive acts that the recipient believes were intended to benefit them but are perceived as unhelpful or harmful. Results of two quantitative survey studies (Study 1: N = 1,257 employees; Study 2: N = 161 employee-supervisor dyads) demonstrate that …


Decisions And How Doctors Make Them: Modeling Multilevel Decision-Making Within Diagnostic Medicine, Michelle S. Kaplan Nov 2021

Decisions And How Doctors Make Them: Modeling Multilevel Decision-Making Within Diagnostic Medicine, Michelle S. Kaplan

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Effective decision-making is critical and necessary for organizational success across a wide range of occupations, situations, and industries. However, decision making, by its nature, is not always a direct process of a single decision leading to a direct outcome. Rather, it can often become a multilevel process whereby one decision’s outcome leads to information that is used in subsequent larger or other types of decisions. The decision-making process then becomes progressively more complex and more difficult to navigate as these decisions compound within one another. Thus, decision-makers must find an appropriate way to approach such decisions. Understanding the multilevel nature …


Hello Traitor: An Examination Of Individual Differences In Perceptions Of Technology-Related Incivility, David J. Howard Nov 2021

Hello Traitor: An Examination Of Individual Differences In Perceptions Of Technology-Related Incivility, David J. Howard

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Workplace incivility is unfortunately common among employees in today’s workplace. The increase in usage of email, texting, smartphones, and social media for interpersonal workplace communication has led to an increase of these mediums being used in an uncivil manner. While there has been a growth of general workplace incivility research conducted in the past two decades, the extant literature lacks sufficient primary studies that examine technology-related workplace incivility. This research project aims to add to the burgeoning literature in the technology-related incivility content domain. First, it examined the prevalence of email incivility reported by workers and found a much lower …


Effectiveness Of An Early Literacy Intervention For Increasing Teen Parents' Child-Directed Speech And Conversational Turns, Deborah H. Christie Nov 2021

Effectiveness Of An Early Literacy Intervention For Increasing Teen Parents' Child-Directed Speech And Conversational Turns, Deborah H. Christie

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Children’s language ability upon entry to kindergarten is a powerful predictor of reading achievement throughout elementary school; yet disparities in children’s language growth have been detected as early as 18 months of age. These disparities have been linked to the quantity and quality of speech provided to children as they are learning to talk. The current study employed a single-case multiple-baseline across participants experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of an early literacy intervention to increase teen parents’ child-directed speech and conversational turns. The intervention was delivered one-on-one via videoconferencing by a teen parent peer coach. Participants included teen parents …


Cool Under Fire: Psychopathic Traits And Decision-Making In Law Enforcement-Oriented Populations, Sean J. Mckinley Nov 2021

Cool Under Fire: Psychopathic Traits And Decision-Making In Law Enforcement-Oriented Populations, Sean J. Mckinley

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Law enforcement is an occupation that is typically characterized by high stress, physical danger, and potential for use of excessive force to subdue suspects of criminal activity. Compared to other jobs, the law enforcement profession is considered a high-stakes occupation that has the potential to greatly impact public safety, and officers must face daily dangers not experienced in other professions. While much research has focused on traditional models of personality and police performance (i.e., Big Five traits; Schneider, 2002; Twersky-Glasner, 2005), there may be utility in examining police officer performance through the lens of the triarchic psychopathy domains (Patrick, Fowles, …


Testing The Congruence Of Espousals And Enactments Predicting Team Innovation, Rylan M. Charlton Nov 2021

Testing The Congruence Of Espousals And Enactments Predicting Team Innovation, Rylan M. Charlton

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study employs a social identity perspective (Hogg, 2008) to test whether perceptions of both espoused and enacted values drive team innovation, and tests whether both their level and congruence determine their impact on innovation. This relationship is tested in a multilevel latent polynomial regression model (MLPM) framework (Zyphur, Zammuto, & Zhang, 2016). The study also leverages block variable procedures (e.g., Edwards & Cable, 2009) to model the combined effects of espoused and enacted values, and tests whether these combined effects mediate between leader behavior and team innovation. This represents the first test of Zohar and Hofmann’s (2012) proposition that …


Cultural Values As A Moderator Of The Emotion Suppression To Strain Relationship: A Comparison Of Two Dominant Theoretical Mechanisms, Roxanne C. Lawrence Oct 2021

Cultural Values As A Moderator Of The Emotion Suppression To Strain Relationship: A Comparison Of Two Dominant Theoretical Mechanisms, Roxanne C. Lawrence

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although the relationship between emotion regulation and deleterious health outcomes is a robust finding in Western cultures, studies show that this effect is attenuated in non-Western cultures. The present study employed an experience sampling method to examine the mitigating effect of cultural values (i.e., individual-level collectivism) on the relationship between emotion regulation and employee strain (i.e., job satisfaction and anxiety) through the theoretical models of emotional dissonance and resource loss (operationalized as inauthenticity and emotional exhaustion). Using data collected from 182 adults working in the service industry, I ran a multilevel path analysis to test the study’s hypotheses. Results indicated …


Barriers And Motivating Factors To Parent Involvement In The Well-Being Promotion Program, Alexis C. Elvy Oct 2021

Barriers And Motivating Factors To Parent Involvement In The Well-Being Promotion Program, Alexis C. Elvy

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Well-Being Promotion Program (WBPP) is a school-based positive psychology intervention implemented in both primary and secondary schools to increase subjective well-being in children and adolescents. Through the inclusion of a parent information session and weekly parent contacts, parents of students enrolled in the program are encouraged to enhance their child’s generalization of positive activities and relationship building skills. However, previous implementation of the WBPP provides evidence for the existence of barriers to parental involvement in the intervention. Although the literature on parental involvement in school-based positive psychology interventions is sparse, research conducted with a variety of school-based and clinical …


Unintended Consequences? Testing The Effects Of Adolescent-Targeted Anti-Vaping Media Upon Adult Smokers, Leslie E. Sawyer Oct 2021

Unintended Consequences? Testing The Effects Of Adolescent-Targeted Anti-Vaping Media Upon Adult Smokers, Leslie E. Sawyer

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A great deal of controversy surrounds e-cigarettes, with some arguing that protection of youth and non-users is paramount and others maintaining that these products are beneficial from a harm reduction perspective for use by adult smokers for switching from combustible cigarettes and for smoking cessation. Opponents of e-cigarettes have allocated tremendous funds toward advertising campaigns aimed at youth deterrence; however, to date, the effects of these ads upon adult smokers have yet to be examined. The current study used a between-subjects experimental design to investigate the effects of an FDA-distributed youth-targeted anti-vaping PSA, “Vaping is an Epidemic,” upon adult smokers …