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Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Still, We Thrive: Understanding How Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, And Other Men Who Have Sex With Men (Gbtmsm) Experience Structural Barriers & Facilitators To Wellness, Lucas Gergyek Jan 2023

Still, We Thrive: Understanding How Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, And Other Men Who Have Sex With Men (Gbtmsm) Experience Structural Barriers & Facilitators To Wellness, Lucas Gergyek

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Historically and concurrently, structural violence has been a significant force influencing the sexual health and broader health of gay, bisexual, transgender and other men who have sex with men (GBTMSM). Yet to date, the majority of projects exploring the health inequities facing GBTMSM have focused on intrapsychic and behavioural factors as most related to poor health outcomes. As well, these studies are sometimes deficits focused, and fail to evaluate how GBTMSM continue to thrive, and maintain positive health. As a result, the ways in which systems and policies underlie and perpetuate health inequities facing GBTMSM have been somewhat obscured. Connectedly, …


Vapourized Cannabis Extract Administration Impairs Memory And Alters Neural Activity In Laboratory Rats, Megan Chladny Jan 2023

Vapourized Cannabis Extract Administration Impairs Memory And Alters Neural Activity In Laboratory Rats, Megan Chladny

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Although people have smoked cannabis for millennia, administration of cannabis by heating the dried plant material or distilled extracts to a temperature just below the combustion point (i.e., vapourization or "vaping") has rapidly increased over the past few years (Javadi-Payder, Cole, and Taffe, 2018; Manwell, Charchoglyan, Brewer, Matthews, Heipel, and Mallet, 2014). Conversely, most of the cannabinoid research using rodent models has used parenteral routes of administration to examine the effects of purified cannabis extracts such as ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), making it difficult to directly compare laboratory research to human drug use. Building on previous studies showing that THC …


Exploring Individuals’ Views On The Malleability Of Their Moral Self-Concept, Steven Hertz Jan 2022

Exploring Individuals’ Views On The Malleability Of Their Moral Self-Concept, Steven Hertz

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Drawing on work by Carol Dweck, Moral Self-Theory was conceptualized as describing lay views of the moral self-concept as either malleable (incrementalist view) or fixed (entity view) in order to better capture the goal-achievement aspect of morality. To this end, research into the areas of implicit theories of intelligence and personality were drawn upon to explore the possibility that lay views of morality could help inform our understanding of moral behaviour. Three studies were designed to: 1) examine individuals’ perceptions of their moral self-concept over time for evidence of change and assess participants’ opinions towards that change, as well as …


Using Online Training Modules To Enhance Parents' Early Literacy Training Skills And Understanding, Ayodele Sanni Jan 2022

Using Online Training Modules To Enhance Parents' Early Literacy Training Skills And Understanding, Ayodele Sanni

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Parental involvement is considered a crucial factor in developing children’s early literacy and reading skills, especially for children not yet in school. The present study aims to determine whether an online literacy module can increase early literacy knowledge in parents who may not have the training to promote their child’s learning. Additionally, the study examines parent perspectives of online video training and the practicality of the video’s content. To test the hypothesis that parent knowledge will increase after exposure to the online video, 29 Canadian parents (27 mothers, two fathers) with children aged 3 to 5 were provided with supervised …


Thinking About Making A Connection: Exploring The Role Of Metacognition In Recognition Memory For Associative Information, Mario E. Doyle Jan 2022

Thinking About Making A Connection: Exploring The Role Of Metacognition In Recognition Memory For Associative Information, Mario E. Doyle

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In a set of six experiments, the relation between metacognition and associative memory was explored. The purpose was to determine whether the metacognitive behaviors that are used with item memory are also used with associative memory. Different memory systems have separate underlying processes which can cause mnemonic strategies to only be useful for some types of memory. People use metacognition to monitor and control their memory; however, it is uncertain whether metacognitive monitoring and control are the same for different types of memory. The research presented in this dissertation demonstrates the similarities and differences between metacognitive behavior for item and …


Feeling Fat: Theorizing Intergenerational Body Narratives Through Affect, Katie Cook Jan 2022

Feeling Fat: Theorizing Intergenerational Body Narratives Through Affect, Katie Cook

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study set out to understand the intergenerational movement and impact of obesity epidemic and anti-fat narratives that emerged after the 1950s in North America. Embedded in an Anglo-Western, neoliberal context, the current study sought to understand the impact of weight-based messaging on the embodied experiences of parents and their now-adult children. Working within a critical-transformative paradigm and drawing on post-humanism and new materialism, I conducted 19 narrative interviews with individuals born between 1955 and 1990, six of whom were mother-daughter dyads, as well as a body mapping workshop with five self-selecting participants over the course of three sessions. I …


The Electrophysiological Correlates Of Text Integration And Direct Vs. Indirect Articles: A Centralized And Lateralized Examination, Deanna C. Hall Jan 2022

The Electrophysiological Correlates Of Text Integration And Direct Vs. Indirect Articles: A Centralized And Lateralized Examination, Deanna C. Hall

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

As we read, we develop mental models of the discourse content called situation models. Situation models are integral to how we keep track of information, and to do so in an ongoing event incoming information needs to be integrated into the model or discarded. The type of information being presented, and its relation to prior data, impacts how that new information is processed. The current research examined discourse passages containing concepts that were either previously mentioned (match), mentioned with a general term (general category), unmentioned in lieu of another concept (mismatch), or completely unmentioned previously (indeterminate), and examined how these …


Agents At Work: Modeling How Space Can Influence People In The Workplace, Jovan Poposki Jan 2022

Agents At Work: Modeling How Space Can Influence People In The Workplace, Jovan Poposki

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

People interact with space in ways that are important to consider when designing an office. Not considering this relationship has led to the dissatisfaction of employees post-occupancy. In this thesis, I present an agent-based model that incorporates several characteristics of agents, such as work ethic and sociability, and explores their behaviours and social interactions in the workplace. The model is first tested on a commercial workspace, varying agent parameters to see how they change the behaviour of the model. I find that agents with extreme personalities are happiest, and show a bimodality in the distribution of time spent in various …


The Untended Garden: How Adoptees Navigate Relationships With First Family Members, Dawn Michele Mccormick Tracz Jan 2022

The Untended Garden: How Adoptees Navigate Relationships With First Family Members, Dawn Michele Mccormick Tracz

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This research explores how people who were adopted over the age of 6 years old in open adoption arrangements navigate ongoing relationships with first family members. It explores perceptions of how a connection with both adoptive and first family members impacts self-concept. Using an interpretivist-constructivist lens, the narratives of four women are presented and analyzed. In addition to qualitative interviews, each participant was invited to create images that represented relationships with significant family members. The narratives are re-presented in detail adhering closely to the teller’s organization and emphases. In the analysis, themes related to relationships with first family members and …


Inducing Kindness To Cope With Social Stress: Comparing Self-Compassion With Cognitive Reappraisal, Cortney Burnham Jan 2022

Inducing Kindness To Cope With Social Stress: Comparing Self-Compassion With Cognitive Reappraisal, Cortney Burnham

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Self-compassion involves being accepting and caring toward oneself when dealing with failure and hardships. Inducing self-compassion has been shown to be helpful, particularly for individuals with high levels of social anxiety. However, few studies have compared a self- compassion intervention to another adaptive strategy. The primary aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a self-compassion induction for social stress compared to another beneficial strategy. Three studies were conducted to compare self-compassion and cognitive reappraisal as strategies for coping with past stressful social situations and current social stress. In Study 1, participants (N = 276) were …


Impact Of Inducing Self-Compassion On The Use Of Safety Behaviours In Social Situations, Kamila Szczyglowski Jan 2022

Impact Of Inducing Self-Compassion On The Use Of Safety Behaviours In Social Situations, Kamila Szczyglowski

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Safety behaviours are commonly used in an attempt to decrease anxiety experienced in social settings. These behaviours, however, have been found to maintain anxiety. Self-compassion has shown promise for reducing anxiety and post-event rumination. The aim of the present studies was to examine the impact of a self-compassion induction on safety behaviours. It was hypothesized that inducing self-compassion would lead to lower safety behaviour use compared to control conditions. For the first two studies, participants were randomly assigned to complete self-compassion inductions or control writing prompts in relation to imagining a pre-determined social situation. Study 3 followed a similar procedure …


“What If This Happiness Doesn’T Last Forever?”: Stressors Faced By Racialized Sogie Refugees, Moni Sadri-Gerrior Jan 2022

“What If This Happiness Doesn’T Last Forever?”: Stressors Faced By Racialized Sogie Refugees, Moni Sadri-Gerrior

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Racialized refugees with diverse SOGIE (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Expression) experience the unique intersection of racism, homo- and/or transphobia, and anti-refugee sentiments. As a result, this group (herein: racialized SOGIE refugees) often face poor mental health and well-being. The purpose of this study is to identify stressors faced by racialized SOGIE refugees in Ontario through the lens of Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and Crenshaw’s intersectionality theory. The interviews from ten racialized SOGIE refugees and two service providers living in Ontario were taken from a larger study looking at the life trajectories of SOGIE refugees. Participants identified both explicit and …


Impression Management Among Municipal Employees As A Barrier To Engagement: An Explorative Study, Alicia Bevan Jan 2022

Impression Management Among Municipal Employees As A Barrier To Engagement: An Explorative Study, Alicia Bevan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

As municipalities adapt to the climate crisis through mitigation and adaptation strategies it is important that all citizens are meaningfully included in local-level planning and decision-making. Authentic, long-term relationships need to be built between municipal actors and citizens so that municipal development benefits all citizens and is informed by a diverse array of perspectives that truly represents the local context and those within it. There are, however, barriers to fostering genuine relationships and meaningful engagement between municipal governments and their citizens; one such barrier is ‘organizational impression management’ – that is, presenting an ideal or overly positive impression of the …


First Language Loss And Maintenance In Adolescents And Young Adults From Immigrant Backgrounds, Wanxin Li Jan 2022

First Language Loss And Maintenance In Adolescents And Young Adults From Immigrant Backgrounds, Wanxin Li

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Abstract

Language attrition is a documented phenomenon that occurs when individuals progressively lose their first language (Schmid et al., 2007). This is particularly common among individuals who relocate to a country that speaks a foreign language that differs from their first language, as the societal language eventually becomes their dominant language. Deterioration and loss of the first language (L1) may result in consequences such as loss of ethnic and cultural identity, leading to the loss of a link to one’s country of origin (Cho & Krashen, 1998). Thus, the present study examined factors that may contribute to L1 attrition. The …


An Examination Of External Threats On Romantic Behaviour In People With Low Self-Esteem, Melanie Christoforou Jan 2022

An Examination Of External Threats On Romantic Behaviour In People With Low Self-Esteem, Melanie Christoforou

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Establishing close bonds with others is more difficult for those with lower (vs. higher) self-esteem, especially when interpersonal risk is salient. The literature on risk regulation has focused predominantly on how self-esteem moderates responses to internal relationship concerns such as relationship insecurities and acute doubts about a romantic partner’s regard. However, little research has examined how people react when external forces, such as financial strain and health concerns, threaten to jeopardize their bonds with their romantic partners. The present research examines whether self-esteem affects how people regulate relational risk elicited by external stressors. I also examine whether self-protective responses differ …


When A Seat At The Table Is Not Enough: A Participatory Action Research Study On Collaborative Partnerships In Ontario Developmental Services Organizations, Kaylagh Vanwyck Jan 2022

When A Seat At The Table Is Not Enough: A Participatory Action Research Study On Collaborative Partnerships In Ontario Developmental Services Organizations, Kaylagh Vanwyck

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Historically, Ontario’s developmental services (DS) has evolved largely guided by the knowledge and direction of non-disabled service providers and government. However, the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities promotes the participation of people labeled with disabilities in decision-making processes about the programs and policies that impact their lives. Existing theories and literature reveal the importance of collaborative partnerships where power is shared with service users through participatory decision-making, shared leadership, and opportunities to participate with influence. Four self-advocates labeled with developmental disabilities collaborated as co-researchers in this participatory action research study to explore what model of collaborative …


B-Sure (Bereavement Support Research): The Differential Experiences Of Peer And Professional Support In Grief, Andrea Crowley Jan 2022

B-Sure (Bereavement Support Research): The Differential Experiences Of Peer And Professional Support In Grief, Andrea Crowley

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Abstract

The project aimed to investigate the differential experiences of those who have received peer or professional support for grief and bereavement. Although much is known with regards to the perceived impacts of peer and professional support in general, there is little research surrounding these support types in the context of grief and bereavement, the potential for these support types to be complementary, and how the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted the experiences of those receiving these forms of support. The main goal of this project was to address a significant gap in the literature by investigating the following questions: …


Community Stress And Resilience During Covid-19: Assessing The Emotional Profile Of The City Of Hamilton Using A Social Media Analysis, Senyo Agbeyaka Jan 2022

Community Stress And Resilience During Covid-19: Assessing The Emotional Profile Of The City Of Hamilton Using A Social Media Analysis, Senyo Agbeyaka

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study investigated stress and resilience at the neighbourhood level in Hamilton Ontario in pre- and peri-pandemic conditions using a social media analysis. Sentiment analysis of geo-located Twitter posts produced within Hamilton census tract boundaries was conducted using Stresscapes and EMOTIVE, validated software that extract and code emotional information from human language expressions about stress and hope (a proxy for stress), respectively. Baseline levels of both emotions were measured using aggregate scores at the census tract level in Hamilton from tweets produced during two pre-pandemic periods (March 2019 to July 2019; and August 2019 to February 2020), with a replication …


Decipher The Effect Of Gamification In Harnessing Boredom And Improving Performance, Zhuoyi Zhao Jan 2021

Decipher The Effect Of Gamification In Harnessing Boredom And Improving Performance, Zhuoyi Zhao

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

My thesis investigates the effectiveness of gamification in harnessing boredom and improving performance in a repetitive work process. In video games, “loot” rewards are unpredictable, intermittent gains used to motivate players to repeat boring actions. In a 2 X 2 experiment, I examine how loot rewards in point form may impact 1) disengagement, which is an immediate outcome of boredom, and 2) performance in settings where the points have and do not have cash value, respectively. More specifically, I manipulate the level of point reward unpredictability (fixed versus loot) and whether point rewards have cash value (absent versus present).

In …


Mother-Child Shared Story Telling Of Wordless And Worded Picture Books: A Within-Subject Design Study Of Preschool Children, Katherine Reid, Alexandra Gottardo Jan 2021

Mother-Child Shared Story Telling Of Wordless And Worded Picture Books: A Within-Subject Design Study Of Preschool Children, Katherine Reid, Alexandra Gottardo

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Issues pertinent to developmental psychology and education often intersect. For example, both literatures can inform the assessment of differences in early literacy and school readiness, as well as how to bridge the literacy gap for children coming from different backgrounds. In times of COVID-19, it is especially important that we research the impact of strategies that are accessible to all, and can be utilized both in the home, and in more formal learning environments. This study assessed how the use of wordless picture books impacted the quality and quantity of language output, and engagement in dialogue between mother and child. …


Is It Just A Dream? How Attributions For Successful And Unsuccessful Social Mobility Attempts Maintain The Myth Of The American Dream, Erin Shanahan Jan 2021

Is It Just A Dream? How Attributions For Successful And Unsuccessful Social Mobility Attempts Maintain The Myth Of The American Dream, Erin Shanahan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Despite rising inequality making upward social mobility difficult, faith in the American Dream persists. Why is this the case? In six studies (five pre-registered), we demonstrate that in scenarios where hard work and ability are held constant, people praise the hard work and talent of individuals who successfully move up the social ladder while derogating these same characteristics among individuals who do not; a pattern of attributions which is likely to reinforce the American Dream. Further, conservatives explain mobility failure particularly in terms of personal shortcomings whereas liberals look to systemic disadvantages, attributions that in turn predicted lowered and heightened …


To Like Or To Want? Exploring The Psychobiological Processes Of Human Food Reward, Angela Mastroianni Jan 2021

To Like Or To Want? Exploring The Psychobiological Processes Of Human Food Reward, Angela Mastroianni

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The Incentive Salience Theory (IST; Berridge and Robinson, 1998; 2016) has shown that wanting (craving) and liking (affective) processes can affect eating behaviour differently in animals. These processes often correlate but can dissociate (change differently) under certain circumstances as they rely on separate neural mechanisms (Berridge, 1996). More recently, work has been testing the IST in people by comparing broad food categories (Finlayson et al. 2007a; 2008). The results have been inconsistent, sparking debate about the theory's value for studying human feeding (Havermans, 2011; 2012).

This dissertation's aim was to explore if IST wanting and liking are independent processes controlling …


Bicultural Identity And Academic Achievement: The Second-Generation Immigrant Student Experience, Karimeh Haddad Jan 2021

Bicultural Identity And Academic Achievement: The Second-Generation Immigrant Student Experience, Karimeh Haddad

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

By comparing the academic success and internal processes of immigrant groups, this study aimed to explore the impact of immigration status (first, second, and third-generation) and cultural backgrounds on academic achievement on a holistic level. By measuring acculturation, parental expectations, self-efficacy, goal adjustment, motivation, control beliefs, and vocabulary knowledge of university students, the combination of constructs best correlated to academic achievement was studied with determinants of demographics playing a key role. In addition to quantitative analyses, in-depth interviews supplemented the analyses and further gave insight to the backgrounds of the target population, second-generation immigrant students. The results indicated that there …


Cambridge-North Dumfries Ontario Health Team: An Exploratory Evaluation Of Service Integration Planning, Megan Strazds-Esenbergs Jan 2021

Cambridge-North Dumfries Ontario Health Team: An Exploratory Evaluation Of Service Integration Planning, Megan Strazds-Esenbergs

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Introduction: Approaches to health care have shifted from individual treatment delivered by one health care provider, to an integrated care approach across health and social sectors involving multiple health care providers who are collaborating across sectors. A main focus of this research was to investigate the planning and development of the Cambridge-North Dumfries Ontario Health Team (CND-OHT). The CND-OHT is currently one of 42 Ontario Health Teams that are being implemented in the province according to integrated care (IC) principles.

The exploratory evaluation addressed a gap related to exploring initial planning and development of the CND-OHT IC team. In …


Exploring Body Image Through The Injury And Rehabilitation Process Of Female Intercollegiate Gymnasts: A Multi-Case Study, Morgan Miller Jan 2021

Exploring Body Image Through The Injury And Rehabilitation Process Of Female Intercollegiate Gymnasts: A Multi-Case Study, Morgan Miller

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Injury is a known inherent risk when participating in any physical activity. In particular, gymnasts exhibit high overuse and traumatic injury rates, attributed to the nature and volume of their training. The resulting injury and rehabilitation process can present many challenges, which are unique to each individual. During this time, body image perceptions may change which could potentially lead to unique cognitive, emotional, and behavioural responses. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore body image throughout the injured female gymnasts’ rehabilitation experience and their return to intercollegiate sport. Participants included three National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division …


Second Generation Christian Korean Canadians: Exploring Their Lived Experiences Of Mental Health Issues And Services, Kyoung Jung Kim Jan 2021

Second Generation Christian Korean Canadians: Exploring Their Lived Experiences Of Mental Health Issues And Services, Kyoung Jung Kim

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Abstract

This study explores the lived experiences of second-generation Christian Korean Canadian young adults with mental health issues (MHI) and their use of health services (MHS). In addition, this study asked this cohort to discuss their beliefs about the views their parents held about MHI and MHS. All research participants were born and raised in Canada by Korean born immigrant parents. This study was descriptive, phenomenological, and qualitative in nature; it consisted of in-depth interviews with six male and six female participants. In their experience with MHI, seven participants experienced fear and sadness (depression and anxiety) and three of them …


A Tale Of Two Tweets: What Factors Predict Forgiveness Of Past Transgressions On Social Media?, Andrew Dawson Jan 2021

A Tale Of Two Tweets: What Factors Predict Forgiveness Of Past Transgressions On Social Media?, Andrew Dawson

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

As more and more of our lives take place online, we are developing a very public and permanent record of our past views and actions. It is increasingly common for public figures to have their current image tarnished by their mistakes and transgressions in what is often the distant past. Although factors such as the passage of time and age of the actor are typically given consideration in moral judgement, they may be swept away by identity and politics when the transgressions are viewed along partisan lines. Three experiments (N = 2,018) found that judgements of a public figure …


A Low Self-Esteem Perspective On Support Provision, Alexandra Hirniak Jan 2021

A Low Self-Esteem Perspective On Support Provision, Alexandra Hirniak

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Social support is an essential part of personal and relationship well-being. However, not all relationship partners may be equally willing to provide social support to close others. Due to their tendencies toward pessimism (Baumeister et al., 2003) and self-protective biases (Murray et al., 2003, 2008) individuals with lower (vs. higher) self-esteem may have biased perceptions about their own efficacy when it comes to providing support, as well as the consequences and benefits of support provision. These biased beliefs could mediate the relationship between provider self-esteem and support provision. In the present research, I examine how self-esteem affects social support provision. …


The Perceived Deservingness Of Narcissistic Individuals, Danielle Lynch Jan 2021

The Perceived Deservingness Of Narcissistic Individuals, Danielle Lynch

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Previous research has explored how narcissism relates to empathy and deservingness. It has been suggested that not only do narcissistic individuals lack empathy for others, but also that others lack empathy for narcissists when they experience misfortunes. It is not clear if this is because the narcissists’ own behaviour is believed to have contributed to the misfortune or because of their over-arching personality. The present research aimed to explore how narcissism affects empathy and perceptions of deservingness. Study 1 (N=962) investigated whether the target person’s amount of control over the negative outcome influenced how deserving they were perceived …


Investigating The Inhibition Of The Return Of Attention In The Tactile Domain, Robert Plax Jan 2021

Investigating The Inhibition Of The Return Of Attention In The Tactile Domain, Robert Plax

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Purpose: The time-course needed to elicit tactile inhibition of return (IOR) has not been well-defined due to the paucity of research in this area especially studies investigating spatial discrimination. Reportedly tactile IOR uses higher-order mental representations to orient attention spatially yet the properties of low-level dermatomal maps may better account for how IOR orients tactile attention in space although its contribution is unclear. The present study sought to establish a time-course that evokes IOR in a unimodal tactile spatial discrimination task and decouples the contribution of the dermatome from higher-order representations. Methods: Two conditions containing distinct tactile cue-target paradigms designed …