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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Is It Good To Be Bad? The Potential Buffering Role Of Callous-Unemotional Traits On The Relationship Between Trauma And Juvenile Offending, Kathryn Anne Mcgill May 2023

Is It Good To Be Bad? The Potential Buffering Role Of Callous-Unemotional Traits On The Relationship Between Trauma And Juvenile Offending, Kathryn Anne Mcgill

Theses and Dissertations

Juvenile offending is prevalent, costly, and often difficult to intervene in. Although there are a multitude of factors previously studied that contribute to offending, researchers are still unable to pinpoint all possible variables contributing to juvenile offending. More so, of explored and accepted factors leading to juvenile offending, predictive ability of any specific factor leading to offending is still weak. Thus, study of specific predisposing factors leading to juvenile offending, as well as mediational or moderational variables, is needed. This study explores two previously studied variables in the pathway to juvenile offending: trauma and callous-unemotional traits. Novel study of the …


Adaptive Functioning And Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptom Severity In Childhood: Parent Perception Vs Clinician Rating, Corin Lillian Osborn Jan 2023

Adaptive Functioning And Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptom Severity In Childhood: Parent Perception Vs Clinician Rating, Corin Lillian Osborn

Theses and Dissertations

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurocognitive developmental disorder that impacts over one percent of the population. As of 2016, one in 64 children were diagnosed with ASD by four years of age, with males receiving the diagnosis 3.5 times more often than females (Shaw et al. 2020). Research also indicates that ASD prevalence varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity (Diguiseppi et al., 2016). These differences may be a result of differential access to resources, a connection between SES and race/ethnicity, measure sensitivity to child sex, cultural differences in sensitivity to symptomatology, or a true difference in ASD presentation. …


Latent Profiles Of Psychopathic Traits Among Emerging Adult College Students: Functional And Dysfunctional Psychopathy And Related Outcomes, Lydia J. Stanhope Dec 2022

Latent Profiles Of Psychopathic Traits Among Emerging Adult College Students: Functional And Dysfunctional Psychopathy And Related Outcomes, Lydia J. Stanhope

Theses and Dissertations

Psychopathy research continues to study the adaptability of psychopathic characteristics and differentiate between functional and dysfunctional features. The current study identified latent profiles in emerging adults and compared them across behavioral/cognitive correlates, functional outcomes, aggression types, and also examined gender differences. Results demonstrated that men scored higher across cold-heartedness and fearless dominance profiles, but not self-centered impulsivity. The low psychopathy group had lower proactive aggression than the high psychopathy group; no other differences were observed. Additionally, men and women in the high psychopathy group did not significantly differ regarding experienced outcomes. Lastly, higher psychopathy was not associated with higher proactive …


Examining The Malleability And Influence Of Attributions On Discipline Responses To Child Misbehavior, Jenna E. Russo Dec 2022

Examining The Malleability And Influence Of Attributions On Discipline Responses To Child Misbehavior, Jenna E. Russo

Theses and Dissertations

Attributions of child behavior have been shown to influence discipline responses and ultimately, child developmental trajectories. Research highlights various social-psychological factors in the formation of attributions, largely characterized as stable. However, research also demonstrates the efficacy of attribution retraining (AR) programs in restructuring individuals’ explanations for various outcomes. This study examined a trauma-informed training intervention with an AR component designed to evoke balanced and contextual attributions of child behavior among child-serving professionals. Of particular interest was the malleability and stability of attributions, and their influence on discipline responses. From pre- to post-training, there was a significant decrease in hostile attributions …


Acceptability And Feasibility Of Telehealth Delivered Written Exposure Therapy With College Students, Maya Anais Krek Dec 2022

Acceptability And Feasibility Of Telehealth Delivered Written Exposure Therapy With College Students, Maya Anais Krek

Theses and Dissertations

Full and subthreshold presentations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are both functionally impairing and chronic. Therefore, development of feasible and acceptable treatments for both is imperative. Written Exposure Therapy (WET), a brief five-session in-person PTSD treatment, has the potential to be successfully administered accessibly via a telehealth format due to minimal therapist contact and short duration of treatment. This study explored the feasibility and acceptability of WET delivered via a telehealth format to college students experiencing posttraumatic stress symptoms.

Participants (N = 4) were college students who were impacted by at least one traumatic event and had associated posttraumatic stress …


Prior Experiences Of Racial Discrimination Impact Acute Resting-State Connectivity Of The Bnst As A Predictor Of Ptsd In Black Adults, Kevin Petranu Dec 2022

Prior Experiences Of Racial Discrimination Impact Acute Resting-State Connectivity Of The Bnst As A Predictor Of Ptsd In Black Adults, Kevin Petranu

Theses and Dissertations

Altered resting-state activity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) – which mediates anxious arousal and threat monitoring – is implicated in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Experiences of racial discrimination can also increase one’s risk for developing PTSD by eliciting chronic states of hypervigilance, which impair essential resting-state processes related to fear extinction. Considering the frequency in which Black Americans experience racial discrimination, the current study investigated acute BNST resting-state functional connectivity as a predictor of future PTSD symptoms, as well as the impact of racial discrimination on the BNST as a predictor of PTSD. …


Examining The Integrative Impacts Of Trust And Distrust Sub-Dimensions On Employee Discretionary Behavior, Alexandra Silverman Dec 2022

Examining The Integrative Impacts Of Trust And Distrust Sub-Dimensions On Employee Discretionary Behavior, Alexandra Silverman

Theses and Dissertations

While trust and distrust in subordinate-supervisor relationships have been studied and linked to numerous positive and negative discretionary workplace outcomes, research has largely overlooked the impact of their sub-dimensions, competence and intent, in these relationships. Furthermore, although there has been research noting the impact of emotional exhaustion on discretionary behaviors such as OCB and CWB, limited research has examined its impact on the relationship between trust/distrust in supervisors and the discretionary behaviors, as well as those pertaining to the sub-dimensions of trust and distrust and the behavioral outcomes. The current study analyzed a sample of 301 employees in the United …


Intersections Of Gender And Age: Identification And Attributional Processes On Leadership Effectiveness, Kayla Lynne Bigerton Dec 2022

Intersections Of Gender And Age: Identification And Attributional Processes On Leadership Effectiveness, Kayla Lynne Bigerton

Theses and Dissertations

As more women enter leadership roles and the ages of leaders becomes more diverse, there is a need for more intersectional research. An intersectional approach was used to assess the impact of leader gender and age on leadership effectiveness through identification and attributional processes. In doing so, different age conceptualizations were also examined. Gender did not have an impact on identification and attributional processes and age had mixed results. Age similarity was not significantly related to leader identification, but perceived leader age had a negative relationship with idiosyncratic fit. Further, social age was examined with different age ranges representing "young”, …


Is It Undervalued? A Qualitative And Quantitative Review Of The Work Values-Job Performance Relationship, Sherif Al-Qallawi Dec 2022

Is It Undervalued? A Qualitative And Quantitative Review Of The Work Values-Job Performance Relationship, Sherif Al-Qallawi

Theses and Dissertations

Researchers have been calling for greater exploration of the relationship between work values and job performance for about five decades (Goodale, 1973; J.-I. C. Hansen & Wiernik, 2017). The current study integrates research on the relationship between work values and job performance over the course of those five decades to better understand this connection. First, a thorough review of work values is presented, including a discussion of their nature, antecedences, construct clarification (how they differ from other individual differences), construct specification (how they differ from other value-based constructs), operationalization, taxonomy, measurement, group differences, stability, and outcomes. This review also includes …


The Language Of Recruitment: How Minority Status, Racial Minority Centrality, & Linguistic Cues Impact Applicant Perceptions, Clark Waters Dec 2022

The Language Of Recruitment: How Minority Status, Racial Minority Centrality, & Linguistic Cues Impact Applicant Perceptions, Clark Waters

Theses and Dissertations

As color-blindness, the intentional denial of racial differences, continues to occupy corporate policy, expressions and consequences of modern racism in the workplace remain pervasive. Color-blind attitudes can be harmful due to their focus on perceived equality, at the expense of actionable, functional equity. Establishing a culture of racial equity in the workplace requires an understanding of how the language used to discuss race can impact potential applicants’ opinions of the company. To attract a diverse pool of job applicants, the language of recruitment is of particular importance in the current study. Using a vignette-style survey design, a diverse sample of …


The Interactive Effects Of Cross-Cultural Competence, Political Skill, And Cultural Distance On Trust And Cohesion, Allyson Clubb Dec 2022

The Interactive Effects Of Cross-Cultural Competence, Political Skill, And Cultural Distance On Trust And Cohesion, Allyson Clubb

Theses and Dissertations

Culturally diverse teams are increasingly common in the modern workforce, yet an inadequate understanding of the unique needs for culturally diverse teams has continued to lead to either sub-optimal or even failed team performance. The current study sought to examine the relationships between cultural distance, team emergent states (trust and cohesion), team composition (cross-cultural competence, 3C; and political skill, PS), and team performance. The research design utilized archival, longitudinal data which included a final sample of 49 teams. It was hypothesized that team-level 3C and PS benefit performance indirectly through their impact on trust and cohesion. Further, it was thought …


The Effect Of Video Model Dosage And Self-Monitoring On Parent's Use Of Language-Promoting Behavior, Kacie Marie Mcgarry Dec 2022

The Effect Of Video Model Dosage And Self-Monitoring On Parent's Use Of Language-Promoting Behavior, Kacie Marie Mcgarry

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has found a disparity between the language trajectories of children within a high, medium, or low-economic-status family. A relationship is reliably found between the language trajectory of toddlers and success throughout school. This study will evaluate a training package to teach parents to engage in behaviors that promote language and assess the training's short-term effect on the trajectories of children (i.e., growing language) within low-socioeconomic backgrounds. Specifically, experimenters will evaluate the impact of the dosage of video modeling, self-evaluation, and self-monitoring on the acquisition of the targeted skills. Data may suggest that the more accurate the individual is …


The Influence Of Language On Thematic Apperception Test Assessment Of Defenses In International Spanish-Speaking College Students, Ilenia Perez-Palen Nov 2022

The Influence Of Language On Thematic Apperception Test Assessment Of Defenses In International Spanish-Speaking College Students, Ilenia Perez-Palen

Theses and Dissertations

Cultural influences, including the use of language, have been shown to affect personality development and are also likely to impact personality assessment results. The influence of language is particularly relevant in story-telling measures such as the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Morgan & Murray, 1935). The purpose of this study was to analyze TAT narratives delivered in English and Spanish to assess the application of defense mechanisms based on the Defense Mechanism Manual (DMM; Cramer, 1991) among Hispanic international students. No study to date has provided insight into Hispanic individuals’ use of language with the TAT, specifically on scores for the …


Helpful Or Harmful: The Impact Of Shame And Guilt On Concealment In Adulthood Following Childhood Trauma, Xiomara Vanessa Senior Oct 2022

Helpful Or Harmful: The Impact Of Shame And Guilt On Concealment In Adulthood Following Childhood Trauma, Xiomara Vanessa Senior

Theses and Dissertations

The current study aimed to examine the moderating role of shame and guilt in the associations between types of childhood maltreatment and levels of self-concealment. Childhood maltreatment has been linked to emotions such as shame and guilt that elicit schemas of self-doubt, incompetence, and failure (Cohen et al., (2011). When an individual internalizes these thoughts and emotions, they may act in maladaptive ways such as avoidance, fear, dissociation, and possible concealment within adulthood (Dorahy & Clearwater, 2012, Smetana et al., 2019). De Seve et al. (2020) recently found that shame proved to be a mediator in the relationship between self-concealment …


The Role Of Internalized Homophobia On Conflict Resolution In Same-Sex Couples, Micaela Dawn Magee Oct 2022

The Role Of Internalized Homophobia On Conflict Resolution In Same-Sex Couples, Micaela Dawn Magee

Theses and Dissertations

A majority of LGBTQ+ members experience sexual minority stress on a near daily basis (Sue et al., 2007). These stressors may foster higher rates of internalized shame towards one’s sexual orientation, commonly known as internalized homophobia (Frost & Meyer, 2009; Khaddouma et al., 2015; Meyer, 2013). Internalized homophobia has been found to negatively impact both mental health outcomes and relationship satisfaction in same-sex couples (Frost & Meyer, 2009; Totenhagen et al., 2018). Higher rates of internalized shame about one’s sexuality may in turn increase relational conflict (Frost & Meyer, 2009; Mohr & Fassinger, 2006). Despite the growing amount of research …


An Examination Of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (Mmpi-3) Profiles Of International Saudi Arabian College Students, Emily Alyssa Leonard Oct 2022

An Examination Of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (Mmpi-3) Profiles Of International Saudi Arabian College Students, Emily Alyssa Leonard

Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown that culture can contribute to differences in personality and shape the way individuals perceive and function in the world. International students are among those affected by cultural differences as they arrive in a new country and go through a period of adjustment. Saudi Arabian students currently make up a large proportion of international students in the United States. Due to wide-spread prejudiced American beliefs about Middle Easterners, they may be exposed to higher levels of discrimination, which can contribute to adjustment problems and increased levels of distress. As a result, some of these students may seek out …


Examining Executive Dysfunction In Dementia: Vascular Etiology As A Contributor To Greater Impairment, Julianne Szemko Oct 2022

Examining Executive Dysfunction In Dementia: Vascular Etiology As A Contributor To Greater Impairment, Julianne Szemko

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The present study examines executive functioning and overall neuropsychological functioning within a memory disorder clinic population with a specific focus on examining performance on the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST) among individuals with and without cerebrovascular disease. Method: This study utilized test data collected between 2018-2022 from the research database at the Health First Memory Disorder Clinic (HFMDC) in Melbourne, Florida. Participants were included if they completed a brief neuropsychological evaluation (BNE) at the HFMDC with the M-WCST, Trail Making Test - Form B (TMT-B), and Color/Word subtest of the Golden Stroop as part of their battery and …


Use Of The Social Cognition And Object Relations Scale-Global To Evaluate The Impact Of Parental Divorce On College Students’ Interpersonal Functioning, Rachel Davenport Oct 2022

Use Of The Social Cognition And Object Relations Scale-Global To Evaluate The Impact Of Parental Divorce On College Students’ Interpersonal Functioning, Rachel Davenport

Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown parental divorce to have long-term impacts on various domains of children’s interpersonal functioning, extending into young adulthood and beyond. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential impacts of parental divorce in college students using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global (SCORS-G) with narratives derived from the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). SCORS-G variables of interest included composite, factor, and dimension scores. Two additional measures of rejection sensitivity, which has been shown to be impacted by parental divorce, and perceived social support, which may mitigate maladaptive outcomes in interpersonal functioning, were also examined. The primary …


Examining The Feasibility Of Implementing A Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery Bibliotherapy For The Treatment Of Psychosocial Distress In Women With Breast Cancer, Juliana A. D'Onofrio Aug 2022

Examining The Feasibility Of Implementing A Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery Bibliotherapy For The Treatment Of Psychosocial Distress In Women With Breast Cancer, Juliana A. D'Onofrio

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for women in the United States. Clinical depression and anxiety occur frequently within this population. Subclinical symptoms are also common and include increased sense of vulnerability, agitation, and grief as well as fears related to pain, creating a burden for one's family, and death. Due to the variety of negative implications women experience from psychosocial distress, improving quality of life and reducing symptomatology becomes imperative. A plethora of research supports the use of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR). Considering the challenges present within traditional psycho-oncological …


Let’S Talk: The Dual Process Model Of Supportive Communication In Peers, Erica Marie Szkody Aug 2022

Let’S Talk: The Dual Process Model Of Supportive Communication In Peers, Erica Marie Szkody

Theses and Dissertations

Supportive messages occur within most relationships. Researchers have found strong relationships between social support and various physical and psychological health outcomes, but the specific mechanisms at work have yet to be fully explored. Many factors contribute to whether a supportive interaction is processed as helpful or supportive by the recipient including relational factors, message content, past experiences, etc. For peer dyads, the context and supportive messages individuals provide their peer may inhibit or contribute to their perception of their peer’s supportive behavior. The current study examined the impact of contextual factors (such as family communication patterns and relationship quality) on …


Evaluating Math To Mastery Using Brief Experimental Analysis Procedures, Gianna Gambera Aug 2022

Evaluating Math To Mastery Using Brief Experimental Analysis Procedures, Gianna Gambera

Theses and Dissertations

Math to Mastery (MTM) is a multi-component math intervention that has demonstrated effective results in building math fluency and skill acquisition. Few studies have explored the use of brief experimental analysis (BEA) procedures to create an individualized, abbreviated MTM intervention to address skill deficits in basic math. The purpose of this current study is to analyze the utility of randomizing BEA procedures to effectively identify necessary mathematic components to create a more efficient intervention that will yield the highest math gains among participants. Researchers used an alternating treatment design with an extended analysis phase to address basic math skills. Participants …


Does Anxiety Sensitivity Mediate Age-Related Differences In Anxiety In Middle-Aged And Older Adults?, Katherine F. Peterson Aug 2022

Does Anxiety Sensitivity Mediate Age-Related Differences In Anxiety In Middle-Aged And Older Adults?, Katherine F. Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety is a mental illness that can have significant deleterious impacts on an individual’s functioning. Although anxiety has been studied in older adults, there is conflicting evidence on differences in anxiety as a function of age. Anxiety sensitivity is a construct that is positively related to anxiety but has limited research in older adults. Extant literature suggests that older adults experience less anxiety sensitivity than do younger adults. According to Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, this may be due to older adults letting go of the things that make them anxious. The current study proposed that age impacts self-rated anxiety such that …


The Acceptability And Feasibility Of Virtual Parent Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Groups: A Feasibility Study, Abigail Elizabeth Moretti Aug 2022

The Acceptability And Feasibility Of Virtual Parent Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Groups: A Feasibility Study, Abigail Elizabeth Moretti

Theses and Dissertations

Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience higher rates of anxiety, depression, and poor overall well-being, particularly when their child also engages in challenging behavior (e.g., self-injury, aggression, property destruction). Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), which encourages psychological flexibility and attending to the present moment, is particularly suited for this population because parents of children with ASD experience high stress levels and difficulty with adaptive coping. The aim of the current study is to examine the feasibility and acceptability of implementing virtual ACT groups with parents of children with ASD and co-occurring challenging behavior. Participants attended an in-person …


Development And Evaluation Of A Spiritual Distress Screener For Use In Healthcare Settings, Sarah G. Salcone Aug 2022

Development And Evaluation Of A Spiritual Distress Screener For Use In Healthcare Settings, Sarah G. Salcone

Theses and Dissertations

Spirituality and religion can play an integral role in physical and mental health outcomes in positive and negative ways (Pargament, 2013; Rosmarin, 2018). While there are established screener items to determine positive utilization of spirituality, there are no existing screener measures for spiritual struggles. The Religious and Spiritual Struggles scale (RSS; Exline et al., 2014) is considered the gold standard for measuring spiritual struggles yet is too lengthy to be used as a screener. The present study sought to develop a brief spiritual distress screener for use in healthcare settings. Phase 1 of the study utilized secondary datasets in which …


Exploring The Interplay Of Moral Injury Outcomes And Intimate Relationship Functioning Among Combat Veterans With Trauma-Related Problems, Paola Fernandez Aug 2022

Exploring The Interplay Of Moral Injury Outcomes And Intimate Relationship Functioning Among Combat Veterans With Trauma-Related Problems, Paola Fernandez

Theses and Dissertations

Moral injury (MI) can be conceptualized as a social construct with implications for the individual as seen through symptoms of shame and isolation, and self-harming behaviors such as increase in substance abuse and risk-taking activities (Litz et al. 2009). Despite the probable impact on social relationships, research has not yet looked at the impact of MI outcomes on close social relationships in US service members and veterans (SM/V). Using a sample of 65 combat veterans, a multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine whether scores on the Expressions of Moral Injury Scale (EMIS-M) (Currier et al., 2017) uniquely predicted scores …


Psychospiritual Experiences Of Belonging: A Mixed-Method Study Of Veterans With Combat Trauma, Nicholas A. Fadoir Aug 2022

Psychospiritual Experiences Of Belonging: A Mixed-Method Study Of Veterans With Combat Trauma, Nicholas A. Fadoir

Theses and Dissertations

Belongingness is a fundamental human motivation to be a part of something larger than oneself. Many combat Veterans who return to civilian life lack a sense of belonging and, in turn, possess elevated rates of depression, substance use, and suicide. Compounding these issues, Veterans may separate from the military bearing psychosocial-spiritual war injuries, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and moral injury. Recently, spiritually integrated treatment interventions have addressed the psychological, moral, and spiritual effects of combat trauma. However, Veteran mental health interventions and supports must also acknowledge the ways a loss of belonging further impacts the psychosocial-spiritual functioning of returning …


How Valuable Are Clinical Neuropsychological Assessments? A Meta-Analysis Of Neuropsychological Tests With Comparison To Common Medical Tests And Treatments, Murphy N. Harrell Aug 2022

How Valuable Are Clinical Neuropsychological Assessments? A Meta-Analysis Of Neuropsychological Tests With Comparison To Common Medical Tests And Treatments, Murphy N. Harrell

Theses and Dissertations

There has been a general decrease in neuropsychological assessments at a time when medical diagnostic technology and treatments have expanded, leading to a faulty assumption that medical tests and healthcare treatments provide more reliable or valid data than psychological assessments. A landmark report from the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Psychological Assessment Work Group (PAWG) found that validity coefficients for many psychological tests were indistinguishable from those of medical tests (Meyer et al., 2001). An updated systematic review of the advancement in neuropsychological testing is essential to the continued advancement of the value of neuropsychological assessment in healthcare. This meta-analysis sought …


Threat Detection From Phenotypic Facial Features, Melissa L. Kern Aug 2022

Threat Detection From Phenotypic Facial Features, Melissa L. Kern

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated people's ability to accurately and quickly make snap judgments of trustworthiness from viewing individuals' faces (Todorov, Pakrashi, & Oosterhof, 2009; Willis & Todorov, 2006). The study of how human beings make meaningful predictions from phenotypic facial features about trustworthiness, among other traits, warrants additional scrutiny and investigation. Further, other research suggests the facial width to height ratio (fWHR) is a more specific indicator used by human beings to gauge, often accurately gauge, trustworthiness with some accuracy. As such, past research found participants rated people with larger fWHRs as less trustworthy and more aggressive (Carré & McCormick, …


Leveraging Technology To Assess Caregiver Stress And Quality Of Life, Kristina R. Shekoouh Aug 2022

Leveraging Technology To Assess Caregiver Stress And Quality Of Life, Kristina R. Shekoouh

Theses and Dissertations

Caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) report high levels of caregiver stress and burden, poor health outcomes, and low quality of life. Resourcefulness, a collection of cognitive-behavioral skills, has been identified as a protective factor associated with more adaptive functioning and greater life satisfaction among diverse caregiver samples which may further impact caregiver well-being. Little research has focused on the role of resourcefulness on caregiver stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Further, no studies to date have evaluated caregivers of children with ASD through real-time data using mobile ecological momentary assessment (mEMA). The current study addresses the …


Testing The Psychology Of Working Theory Among Economically Marginalized Workers, Willy Anthony Diaz Tapia Aug 2022

Testing The Psychology Of Working Theory Among Economically Marginalized Workers, Willy Anthony Diaz Tapia

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

TESTING THE PSYCHOLOGY OF WORKING THEORY AMONG ECONOMICALLY MARGINALIZED WORKERS

byWilly Anthony Diaz Tapia The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2022 Under the Supervision of Professor Kelsey Autin In 2018, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that approximately 39.7 million U.S. Americans lived in poverty of which 6.9 million were considered the working poor. People from economically marginalized communities experience significant challenges in many areas of life and work is no exception; yet their work lives continue to be underrepresented in vocational literature. The Psychology of Working Theory (PWT) is one of the first vocational theories developed explicitly to better understand and …