Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 413

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

College Students' Engagement And Academic Outcomes In Online Learning During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Thuy Vy Tran, Olivia Aspiras Jan 2022

College Students' Engagement And Academic Outcomes In Online Learning During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Thuy Vy Tran, Olivia Aspiras

Modern Psychological Studies

This study examined the relationship among motivation, engagement, and academic outcomes in online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 41 students enrolled in at least two online classes. They completed a survey measuring motivation, engagement, and academic performance in their online courses. It was hypothesized that greater motivation and engagement would predict greater academic outcomes, and that engagement mediates the relationship between motivation and academic outcomes. Regression analyses showed that both motivation and engagement significantly predicted academic outcomes. Engagement was not a significant mediator between motivation and academic outcomes; rather, mediation analyses found that motivation mediated the relationship between …


Cognitive Biases Incidence In College Students Of A Midwestern Institution, Camilo A. Castelblanco Riveros Jan 2022

Cognitive Biases Incidence In College Students Of A Midwestern Institution, Camilo A. Castelblanco Riveros

Modern Psychological Studies

Cognitive biases, including the misinformation effect, cognitive dissonance, and confirmation bias, are misleading ways of reasoning that can alter our perception of reality. Using questionnaires, this study investigated the extent to which these biases are present in the student community of a Midwestern University. It was hypothesized that a moderate proportion of individuals would show cognitive biases based on the literature and previous experiments. Furthermore, it was expected that participants would employ multiple strategies to justify their behavior and thought processes. With a qualitative design, 81 undergraduate students participated in the study. The research design was observational and statistical analysis …


Are We Giving Them A Fair Chance? Racial Stereotypes And The Juvenile Justice System, Cali K. Bloem, Ashley A. Hansen-Brown Jan 2022

Are We Giving Them A Fair Chance? Racial Stereotypes And The Juvenile Justice System, Cali K. Bloem, Ashley A. Hansen-Brown

Modern Psychological Studies

Prior research indicates that there are racial disparities throughout the criminal justice system and that decision-makers may use stereotypes when determining guilt and deciding on sentences for juveniles. This study looked at sentence disparities between White and Latinx juveniles, as well as potential stereotypes that could be used in decision-making. There were no differences in sentence length and severity between the White and Latinx offender. Additionally, the likelihood of the offender receiving a lesser or greater sentence as an adult did not differ among conditions. Our results also showed that participants with prior juror experience used less stereotypical language in …


An Exploration Of The Relation Between Neighborhood Resource, Crime, And The Development Of Paranoia., Ojus Khanolkar Jan 2022

An Exploration Of The Relation Between Neighborhood Resource, Crime, And The Development Of Paranoia., Ojus Khanolkar

Modern Psychological Studies

Schizophrenia affects 1% of the US population. It is characterized by positive symptoms like paranoia, and hallucinations and negative symptoms like flattened affect, and reduced speech. Stressors like income, crime, diet, and trauma can epigenetically cause schizophrenia. However, is it possible that "schizophrenic" behavior is not indicative of impending psychosis but rather a coping mechanism to environmental stressors? Here, I explore how paranoia could function as a coping mechanism to two stressors-- poverty and crime --through a computer-simulation of the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. Results: paranoia was directly related to increased crime, regardless of poverty level. Crime is also directly related …


The Effect Of Photographs On The Narrative Believability Of Positively And Negatively Framed Stories, Camryn E. Backman, Tammy L. Sonnentag Jan 2022

The Effect Of Photographs On The Narrative Believability Of Positively And Negatively Framed Stories, Camryn E. Backman, Tammy L. Sonnentag

Modern Psychological Studies

Countless news articles are published in print or digital form each day, creating a need to understand what makes stories attractive and believable. Salacious, oftentimes negative, news stories tend to effectively grab readers’ attention (Entman, 1993; Serani, 2011), and when the news stories are accompanied by photographs, readers’ interest in the articles is promoted (Knobloch et al., 2003). However, the extent to which negatively framed stories are perceived as believable is largely unknown. The current study examined whether a story’s valence (i.e., positive or negative) affects the believability of news articles, particularly in the presence of a photograph. It was …


Gender And Perception Of Music Genre In College Students, Brett C. Richardson, Ryan Yoder, Terry F. Pettijohn Ii Jan 2022

Gender And Perception Of Music Genre In College Students, Brett C. Richardson, Ryan Yoder, Terry F. Pettijohn Ii

Modern Psychological Studies

Sixty-nine college students listed five songs that they enjoy, then classified each song into one of 15 music genre options. Each of the listed songs were assessed for vocalist gender, which was compared to their music genre classifications and the listeners’ gender. Male vocalists were dominant in every genre tested, outnumbering female vocalists 3.7 to 1. Pop was the notably more equitable exception with a ratio of 1.15:1. However, female vocalists were constricted to the pop genre, as 49% of the listed songs with female vocalists were considered to be pop. Additionally, the study found male and female vocalists have …


The Relationship Between Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior And Guilt Versus Shame Proneness, Ashley Kernan, Jeremiah Sullins Jan 2022

The Relationship Between Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior And Guilt Versus Shame Proneness, Ashley Kernan, Jeremiah Sullins

Modern Psychological Studies

This study examined the correlation between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and guilt versus shame proneness. The participants were given an adolescent risk-taking questionnaire that focused on negative high and low risk-taking behaviors and the TOSCA-3 questionnaire. The adolescent risk-taking questionnaire focused on the participants past behaviors from the ages of 13-18. The TOSCA-3 was used to determine if a participant was guilt-prone or shame-prone. The data collected from both instruments were analyzed for whether adolescent risk-taking behaviors were correlated with guilt proneness or shame proneness. The results of the Pearson r correlations indicated a significant negative correlation between adolescent risk-taking, shame …


Battle Of The Sexes: Similarities And Differences In Lay People’S Perceptions About Male And Female Sex Offenders, Felix O. Osagie Jr., Emily Pica Jan 2022

Battle Of The Sexes: Similarities And Differences In Lay People’S Perceptions About Male And Female Sex Offenders, Felix O. Osagie Jr., Emily Pica

Modern Psychological Studies

The aim of this research was to examine public perceptions about male and female sex offenders to help address gender disparities that exist in the justice system and society. Participants (N = 226) completed the revised Community Attitudes Towards Sex Offenders Scale (ATS; Harper & Hogue, 2015) and a questionnaire concerning opinions about female sex offenders. While there were no observed differences in perceptions between gender overall, differences emerged when examining only parents. Parents perceived male sex offenders worse than female sex offenders. This study also brings awareness to gender bias regarding male and female sex offenders. The implication of …


Motivation And Memory: An Analysis Of Performance-Dependent Reward-Based Motivational Effects On Encoding And Retrieval, Joshua D. Wenger Jan 2022

Motivation And Memory: An Analysis Of Performance-Dependent Reward-Based Motivational Effects On Encoding And Retrieval, Joshua D. Wenger

Modern Psychological Studies

Extrinsic reward has been shown to influence memory performance. This study sought to examine the effects of extrinsic reward on the individual processes of encoding/retrieval. Thirty-eight participants were divided into three groups; each underwent a memory task consisting of an encoding phase, filler task, and retrieval phase. The control group did not have an opportunity to receive a reward, unlike the two experimental groups who both had potential to receive a lottery ticket conditional on strong memory performance, although they differed in the times in which they were made aware of the potential reward. An improvement in memory performance primarily …


College Students And Covid-19: Psychological Well-Being And Academic Performance, Skylar S. Raynor Jan 2022

College Students And Covid-19: Psychological Well-Being And Academic Performance, Skylar S. Raynor

Modern Psychological Studies

When the United States declared a national emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic on March 13, 2020, many college students were forced out of campus and back to their homes, altering normal routines and academic environments for students. Recent research suggests potential psychological and academic implications from the pandemic on college students. The goal of the current study was to explore overall psychological well-being and changes in academic performance throughout the COVID-19 pandemic in college students. Psychological well-being was defined as an individual’s levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and social isolation. 89 undergraduate students at Campbell University were asked to …


Lay Perceptions Of Treating Mental Illness With Psychedelic Assisted Therapy, Dèjah Barksdale, Emily Pica Jan 2022

Lay Perceptions Of Treating Mental Illness With Psychedelic Assisted Therapy, Dèjah Barksdale, Emily Pica

Modern Psychological Studies

With roughly 44.7 million individuals struggling with mental health problems, it is important that new methods of treatment are explored. Currently, the primary method of treatment is Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) for disorders such as: anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but they also provide many detrimental side effects and only decrease symptomology for a short period of time. However, the interest and enthusiasm of many researchers has led to uncovering the true benefits of utilizing psychedelic drugs as a leading treatment for mental health problems. Participants (N = 474) were given a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of …


Racial Disparity In Educational Punishment, Elizabeth R. Wirtz Nov 2021

Racial Disparity In Educational Punishment, Elizabeth R. Wirtz

Modern Psychological Studies

There is a growing epidemic of children of color being disproportionately and inappropriately disciplined due to recommendations for exclusionary educational discipline practices such as suspension and expulsion. Throughout the literature, SES, level of ability, gender, and skin color were essential factors in evaluating students’ suspension risk. The most salient of these factors is race. Implicit bias towards darker-skinned students is the main factor for the discipline gap. This literature review explores the causes and rates that middle school and high school students of color are disproportionately recommended for suspension and expulsion and the consequences of racially discriminatory discipline practices. Exclusionary …


Age Differences With Presentation On Social Media, Sabrina N. Wiesbrock May 2021

Age Differences With Presentation On Social Media, Sabrina N. Wiesbrock

Modern Psychological Studies

This study investigated younger, middle-aged, and older participants’ self-esteem, self-expression, and comfort and regrets with self-expression on social media. It was hypothesized that older adult social media users would show different patterns and relationships in their use and self-expression. Participants included 214 younger- (52%), 135 middle-aged adults (33%), and 61 older-adults (15%). Self-esteem and regrets on social media were both related to comfort with self-expression on social media among older adults. In contrast, self-expression and comfort with self-expression on social media were related for younger- and middle-aged adults, but not older participants. Findings suggest that social media plays a unique …


Why Is The Followers-To-Following Ratio So Important?, Cody E. Harrell, Scott King May 2021

Why Is The Followers-To-Following Ratio So Important?, Cody E. Harrell, Scott King

Modern Psychological Studies

The impact of social media exposure on various aspects of users’ personality and mental health has become a popular topic for psychological research over the past ten years. Instagram provides users with numbers indicating how many accounts they follow and how many accounts follow them. This ratio carries social status, in that someone with more followers than people they follow could be viewed as a more popular user. The current study explores the relationship between Instagram use, user popularity, the Big 5 personality traits, self-esteem, histrionic tendencies, and narcissistic tendencies in a sample of 125 undergraduates. We hypothesized that users …


Writing Fiction; A Phenomenological Study Of The Creative Writing Experience Of Fiction Writers, Konstantinos Mavrakakis, Abigail Chipman May 2021

Writing Fiction; A Phenomenological Study Of The Creative Writing Experience Of Fiction Writers, Konstantinos Mavrakakis, Abigail Chipman

Modern Psychological Studies

While the focus of previous psychological research on artistic creativity has been mainly cognitive, the phenomenology of creativity has been largely neglected. This research aimed to address this gap, exploring how fiction writers experience the creative writing process. Two semi-structured interviews were carried out with published fiction writers. A thematic analysis of these interviews was conducted in order to explore how writers experience the creative writing process. The three common emergent themes that were selected for analysis were firstly, finding your voice, secondly, living between two worlds, and thirdly, facing the challenges of writing. This study generated insight into the …


The Five-Factor Model Of Personality And Problematic Smartphone Use, Alexander K. Knack, Colin R. Harbke May 2021

The Five-Factor Model Of Personality And Problematic Smartphone Use, Alexander K. Knack, Colin R. Harbke

Modern Psychological Studies

Thirteen studies were reviewed to better understand how smartphone ownership and use relate to the five factors of personality (i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism) overall and across three different age groups. Of the 10 studies used to compare problematic smartphone use across age groups, 2 (20%) included adolescent samples, 7 (70%) included young adult samples, and 3 (30%) included adult to older adult samples. Across all samples, problematic smartphone use correlated most strongly with neuroticism (positively) and conscientiousness (negatively). Relatively weaker and more inconsistent correlations with problematic smartphone use were found for openness, extraversion, and agreeableness. Future research should …


The Effect Of Race Of The Perpetrator And Misinformation On Eyewitness Accuracy And Confidence, Rachel A. Wilson, Tammy L. Sonnentag May 2021

The Effect Of Race Of The Perpetrator And Misinformation On Eyewitness Accuracy And Confidence, Rachel A. Wilson, Tammy L. Sonnentag

Modern Psychological Studies

Eyewitnesses are an important component of criminal justice protocol; however, if inaccurate, there are grave consequences. The prevalent use of eyewitness accounts, despite the limits and fallibility of human memory demonstrate the need for research on factors affecting credible eyewitness accounts. The current study examines how the introduction of misinformation affects eyewitness accuracy and confidence when the race/ethnicity of the perpetrator is different from, compared to when the race of the perpetrator is the same as, the race/ethnicity of the eyewitness. A total of 69 White/European participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions where they read a University-Issued …


The Effect Of Self-Regulation On Academic Success Among College Students With Traumatic Life Events, Samantha Long-Mitchell, Aris Karagiorgakis Jan 2021

The Effect Of Self-Regulation On Academic Success Among College Students With Traumatic Life Events, Samantha Long-Mitchell, Aris Karagiorgakis

Modern Psychological Studies

The current study investigated the relationship between traumatic life events, academic performance, and self-regulation to predict why some students persevere in college. Students with more trauma were hypothesized to have lower GPAs, high self-regulators would have higher GPAs, and self-regulation would moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and GPA. There was no significant correlation between traumatic life events and GPA (N = 59). High self-regulators had marginally significant higher GPAs, but self-regulation was not found to moderate the relationship between traumatic life events and GPA. The implications of these findings advance our understanding of the critical variables that may …


The Effects Of Major Depressive Disorder On Cognition And The Brain, Ashlee Stewart, Lauren L. Harburger Jan 2021

The Effects Of Major Depressive Disorder On Cognition And The Brain, Ashlee Stewart, Lauren L. Harburger

Modern Psychological Studies

Major depressive disorder is commonly known for its prevalence and impairing effects on the brain and behavior. One such effect is a decrease in processing speed, which leads to slower response times and an increased difficulty performing tasks that require careful attention. Impairments in spatial ability have also been reported in depressed subjects, which may be linked to impairments in executive functioning. GABA is a neurotransmitter that has been shown to play a role in the symptoms of depression. This review will examine the effects of depression on cognitive functioning and the brain, and will suggest that future research examine …


Anorexia Nervosa And The Family: A Look At Well-Siblings, Parents, And Family Dynamics Through A Family Systems Perspective, Martha Avila-Zavala Jan 2021

Anorexia Nervosa And The Family: A Look At Well-Siblings, Parents, And Family Dynamics Through A Family Systems Perspective, Martha Avila-Zavala

Modern Psychological Studies

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the main, and one of the most common types of eating disorders among adolescent individuals, especially females. It is characterized by limited eating, increased amounts of physical activity, low self-esteem, and extreme criticism of oneself and one’s body. An individual diagnosed with AN is greatly physically, mentally, and emotionally affected by it. However, an AN diagnosis also has a significant impact on the whole family. In recent years, the family has been incorporated into the treatment of an individual diagnosed with AN, which has shown to be effective in the recovery process and in …


Hiv-Related Stigma: A Negative & Intersecting Life Experience, Taylor Beckwith Jan 2021

Hiv-Related Stigma: A Negative & Intersecting Life Experience, Taylor Beckwith

Modern Psychological Studies

In 2016, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affected over 1.1 million people in the United States. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) medications have allowed HIV-positive individuals to live longer lives, but this has meant greater exposure to HIV-related stigma. This literature review examines how HIV exists as a chronic disease and how HIV-related stigma contributes to a negative life experience. The concept of intersectionality is used to analyze the overlapping identities of (a) gay, bisexual men, (b) women, (c) and youth and adolescents. Even though individuals may be managing their diagnosis, added stress, stigma, and maladaptive coping mechanisms can lead to negative health …


Precursors And Outcomes: A Look At Mental Health In Relation To Homelessness, Mercedes Pinillo Jan 2021

Precursors And Outcomes: A Look At Mental Health In Relation To Homelessness, Mercedes Pinillo

Modern Psychological Studies

The homeless epidemic has reached new heights with over half a million individuals reporting experiencing homelessness in the past year alone. Mental health problems such as bipolar/mood disorders, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found as predictors of homelessness. Mental health problems such as fear, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideations have been identified as outcomes of experiencing homelessness. Treatment options follow either the housing-first or treatment-first model. Housing-first treatments yield better and longer-lasting results of housing stability and improved mental health than treatment-first services. A lack of proper funding and mental health problems were found to be barriers …


Adaptive Decision-Making As A Mediator Between Self-Complexity And Stress, Jeremy L. Foust, Stephanie B. Richman Jan 2021

Adaptive Decision-Making As A Mediator Between Self-Complexity And Stress, Jeremy L. Foust, Stephanie B. Richman

Modern Psychological Studies

Abstract Empirical studies have indicated a relationship between self-complexity and stress, such that greater self-complexity is associated with reduced stress. In addition, previous research has suggested that greater self-complexity allows for more advantageous decisions. Finally, previous studies have demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between adaptive decision-making and stress, such that increased stress is associated with a decreased ability to make adaptive decisions, which, in turn, increases future stress. However, no research to date has examined the mechanism behind these relationships. We hypothesized that greater self-complexity would lead to less stress and this relationship would be mediated by increased adaptive decision-making. Fifty-six …


Diagnosis Disclosure: The Impact Of Gender And Stigma, Sarah E. Gerrish Jan 2021

Diagnosis Disclosure: The Impact Of Gender And Stigma, Sarah E. Gerrish

Modern Psychological Studies

Existing literature has indicated that there may be a relationship between diagnosis disclosure and gender as it has been asserted that men and women perceive the diagnosis of a mental health disorder differently. Specifically, men report higher levels of perceived stigma when considering a mental health diagnosis and women report a higher likelihood of disclosing a mental health diagnosis to others. The purpose of this current study was to investigate how individuals perceive an illness diagnosis disclosure via an online survey as it was hypothesized that men would be less likely than women to disclose any illness and that all …


The Impact Of An Attorney’S Speaking Fluency When Delivering An Opening Statement On Juror Decisions, Truley A. Juneau, Paige E. Northern, Sarah "Uma" Tauber Jan 2021

The Impact Of An Attorney’S Speaking Fluency When Delivering An Opening Statement On Juror Decisions, Truley A. Juneau, Paige E. Northern, Sarah "Uma" Tauber

Modern Psychological Studies

A wealth of research has focused on factors that impact jurors’ decisions based on the information made available to them in court. However, in no prior research has the impact of how well an attorney delivers an opening statement been isolated to evaluate its direct impact on jurors’ decisions. To explore this issue, students were randomly assigned to read a fluent or disfluent version of an opening statement. The fluency of the attorney’s opening statement did not impact liability ratings or ratings of the likelihood of hiring the defendant. By contrast, the fluency of the attorney’s opening statement significantly influenced …


Hidden Links: Trait Anxiety And The Hostile Attribution Bias, Sarah Gracia, Ashley A. Hansen-Brown Jan 2021

Hidden Links: Trait Anxiety And The Hostile Attribution Bias, Sarah Gracia, Ashley A. Hansen-Brown

Modern Psychological Studies

The hostile attribution bias (HAB) is a tendency to interpret malevolent intentions when confronted by ambiguous actions of others. This project examines the relationship between HAB and trait anxiety and whether a metacognitive manipulation reduces HAB. In Study 1, our results showed that trait anxiety and HAB had a positive correlation using both methods of detecting hostility, even when negative affect was accounted for. In Study 2, overall analyses revealed that compared to a true control condition, the metacognition manipulation reduced the link between trait anxiety and HAB. This study needs to be replicated before we can definitively draw conclusions, …


Emotion In Motion: Investigating The Relationship Between Interpersonal Motor Coordination And Emotional States, Margaret D. Hall, Veronica Romero Jan 2021

Emotion In Motion: Investigating The Relationship Between Interpersonal Motor Coordination And Emotional States, Margaret D. Hall, Veronica Romero

Modern Psychological Studies

The present study investigated the relationship between a person’s emotional state and interpersonal coordination. Researchers primed fifty-one participants to either be angry or happy through a writing prompt. Participants did an arm curl activity while watching a video-taped confederate doing arm curls at a set pace with a congruent or incongruent emotion. The participants were told that this video was a projected live stream. Finally, participants completed measures of post-activity emotions and rapport with and likeability toward the confederate. Our experimental design included an independent samples t-tests to examine the effect of congruency on interpersonal coordination, post-activities, and rapport with …


The Relationship Between Homonegativity, Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance, Harasser And Target Sex, And Perceptions Of Sexual Harassment, Emily J. Ready, Hannah S. Bologna, Leilani B. Goodmon, Patrick Smith Jan 2021

The Relationship Between Homonegativity, Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance, Harasser And Target Sex, And Perceptions Of Sexual Harassment, Emily J. Ready, Hannah S. Bologna, Leilani B. Goodmon, Patrick Smith

Modern Psychological Studies

The current purpose was to determine the relationship between participant homonegativity, sexual harassment myth acceptance, and perceptions of sexual harassment where the gender of the target and harasser varied. Contrary to the hypothesis, higher and lower homonegativity participants did not differ in their perceptions of harassment severity, realism, or consequence and higher homonegativity participants did not report any differences in perceptions between the different-sex and same-sex scenarios. However as hypothesized, participant homonegativity was positively correlated with sexual harassment myth acceptance. Interestingly, participants higher in homonegativity or sexual harassment myth acceptance were more likely to rate the harassment as less severe …


Student Perceptions Of Stress And Relaxation At The Beginning And End Of The Week, Molly M. Hudson, Emily Halvorson, Jaylee Oliver, Katrina Johnson, Gracelyn Lane, Kristen Black Dec 2020

Student Perceptions Of Stress And Relaxation At The Beginning And End Of The Week, Molly M. Hudson, Emily Halvorson, Jaylee Oliver, Katrina Johnson, Gracelyn Lane, Kristen Black

Modern Psychological Studies

This study examined whether student perceptions of stress, their level of relaxation remorse, and their health symptoms varied at the beginning verses the end of the week. We also examined how stress and relaxation remorse correlate with health symptoms at the beginning verses the end of the week. The findings of this study indicate that students have more relaxation remorse, perceived stress, and health symptoms on Monday than on Friday; additionally, students reported fewer coping activities on Monday than on Friday. Our results also indicate that students’ level perceived stress and relaxation remorse relate to their level of health symptoms. …


Effects Of An Aqua-Titanium Necklace On Running Speed When Examined At The Individual And Group Levels, Nathan A. Weber, Mychal A. Machado, Duane D. Wood Dec 2020

Effects Of An Aqua-Titanium Necklace On Running Speed When Examined At The Individual And Group Levels, Nathan A. Weber, Mychal A. Machado, Duane D. Wood

Modern Psychological Studies

Results from previous evaluations of athletic wearables infused with Aqua Titanium have been mixed with respect to ergogenic effectiveness. This might be due to exclusive reliance on group designs in previous studies. The purpose of our study was to evaluate and compare the individual and group differences in responsiveness to an Aqua-Titanium necklace. Using a single-subject (reversal) design, we measured the running speed of 10 healthy adults across baseline (no necklace), test (Aqua-Titanium necklace) and placebo conditions using a 61-m indoor track. The entire sample was then considered for group analyses. Results showed that our single-subject and group analyses produced …