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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Distinctive Sans Forgetica Font Does Not Benefit Memory Accuracy In The Drm Paradigm, Mark J. Huff, Nicholas P. Maxwell, Anie Mitchell Dec 2022

Distinctive Sans Forgetica Font Does Not Benefit Memory Accuracy In The Drm Paradigm, Mark J. Huff, Nicholas P. Maxwell, Anie Mitchell

Faculty Publications

A common method used by memory scholars to enhance retention is to make materials more challenging to learn—a benefit termed desirable difficulties. Recently, researchers have investigated the efficacy of Sans Forgetica, a perceptually disfluent/distinctive font which may increase processing effort required at study and enhance memory as a result. We examined the effects of Sans Forgetica relative to a standard control font (Arial) on both correct memory and associative memory errors using the Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, to evaluate Sans Forgetica effects on overall memory accuracy. Across four experiments, which included nearly 300 participants, Sans Forgetica was found to …


Evaluation Of Safe Firearm Storage Messaging In A Sample Of Firearm-Owning Us Military Service Members., Michael D. Anestis, Craig J. Bryan, Daniel W. Capron Oct 2022

Evaluation Of Safe Firearm Storage Messaging In A Sample Of Firearm-Owning Us Military Service Members., Michael D. Anestis, Craig J. Bryan, Daniel W. Capron

Faculty Publications

Importance Nearly two-thirds of military suicides involve firearms, and safe firearm storage is rare.

Objective To examine whether US military service members endorse greater openness to safe firearm storage depending on the content of the visual message they are randomly assigned to view.

Design, Setting, and Participants This comparative effectiveness study used a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial design to randomize US military service members to view 1 of 12 visual messages on safe firearm storage. Willingness to use safe firearm storage practices was assessed immediately before and after exposure to the message. Participants were recruited using the KnowledgePanel …


Accountability: Construct Definition And Measurement Of A Virtue Vital To Flourishing, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, Sung Joon Jang, Byron R. Johnson, C. Stephen Evans, Jack W. Berry, Joseph Leman, Robert C. Roberts, John Peteet, Andrew B. Torrance, Ashley N. Hayden Aug 2022

Accountability: Construct Definition And Measurement Of A Virtue Vital To Flourishing, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, Sung Joon Jang, Byron R. Johnson, C. Stephen Evans, Jack W. Berry, Joseph Leman, Robert C. Roberts, John Peteet, Andrew B. Torrance, Ashley N. Hayden

Faculty Publications

Embracing accountability to others for one’s responsibilities within relationships is important for flourishing, yet underexamined. An interdisciplinary team defined the construct of accountability and developed an 11-item single-factor Accountability Scale. In national samples with US census demographic representation (total N = 1257), we conducted psychometric analyses using methods from classical test theory (exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses) and item response theory. The Accountability Scale demonstrated internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and incremental validity. Accountability correlated positively with relational variables (agreeableness, empathy) responsibility-oriented variables (conscientiousness, self-regulation), virtues (gratitude, forgiveness, limitations-owning humility), relational repair, perceived meaning presence, and flourishing, inversely with …


Parental Genetic Contributions To Neonatal Temperament In A Nonhuman Primate (Macaca Mulatta) Model, Elizabeth K. Wood, Jacob N. Hunter, Joseph A. Olsen, Laura Almasay, Stephen G. Lindell, David Goldman, Christina S. Barr, Stephen J. Suomi, Daniel B. Kay, James Dee Higley Aug 2022

Parental Genetic Contributions To Neonatal Temperament In A Nonhuman Primate (Macaca Mulatta) Model, Elizabeth K. Wood, Jacob N. Hunter, Joseph A. Olsen, Laura Almasay, Stephen G. Lindell, David Goldman, Christina S. Barr, Stephen J. Suomi, Daniel B. Kay, James Dee Higley

Faculty Publications

Temperament is an individual’s nature and is widely believed to have a heritable foundation. Few studies, however, have evaluated paternal and maternal contributions to the triadic dimensions of temperament. Rhesus monkeys are widely utilized to model genetic contributions to human development due to their close genetic-relatedness and common temperament structure, providing a powerful translational model for investigating paternal and maternal genetic influences on temperament. The temperament of rhesus monkey infants born to 19 different sires and 50 different dams was assessed during the first month of life by comparing the temperament of paternal or maternal half-siblings reared with their mothers …


Association Of Caregiver Attitudes With Adolescent Hpv Vaccination In 13 Southern Us States, Lavanya Vasudevan, Jan Ostermann, Yunfei Wang, Sayward Harrison, Valerie Yelverton, Laura J. Fish, Charnetta Williams, Emmanuel B. Walter Aug 2022

Association Of Caregiver Attitudes With Adolescent Hpv Vaccination In 13 Southern Us States, Lavanya Vasudevan, Jan Ostermann, Yunfei Wang, Sayward Harrison, Valerie Yelverton, Laura J. Fish, Charnetta Williams, Emmanuel B. Walter

Faculty Publications

Background and objectives: HPV vaccination coverage is lower than that of other adolescent vaccines in the southern US. This study sought to characterize caregiver attitudes associated with adolescent HPV vaccination in the southern US and to inform interventions to promote HPV vaccination. Methods: From December 2019 – January 2020, caregivers of adolescents (ages 9–17 years) living in thir- teen southern US states were recruited from a nationally-representative online survey panel. Caregivers (N = 1,105) completed a cross-sectional survey that assessed general adolescent vaccine attitudes as well as those associated with the HPV vaccine and HPV vaccination decision-making. The primary study …


Perceived Stress And Salivary Biomarkers In Educators: Comparison Among Three Stress Reduction Activities, Doreen Wagner, Sharon M. Pearcey Jul 2022

Perceived Stress And Salivary Biomarkers In Educators: Comparison Among Three Stress Reduction Activities, Doreen Wagner, Sharon M. Pearcey

Faculty Publications

Background: The teaching profession is a potentially stressful occupation with up to 30% of all novice teachers leaving the profession and annual teacher turnover is higher when compared with turnover of all other occupations. This study investigated the effects of a one-time stress reduction activity (meditation, yoga, or aerobic exercise) in university and K-12 educators who were part of one-day seminar on Stress Reduction.

Methods: Participants (N = 26) self-selected their stress reduction activity, completed a demographic questionnaire, educator stress self-assessment tool, and visual analogue scales indicating current stress levels. Salivary cortisol and amylase levels were measured before, immediately after, …


Future Orientation Among Children Affected By Parental Hiv In China: An Exploratory Analysis Of Complex Interactions, Heather L. Mcdaniel, Sayward Harrison, Amanda Fairchild, Xiaoming Li Jul 2022

Future Orientation Among Children Affected By Parental Hiv In China: An Exploratory Analysis Of Complex Interactions, Heather L. Mcdaniel, Sayward Harrison, Amanda Fairchild, Xiaoming Li

Faculty Publications

We utilized an exploratory analytic approach to examine predictors of children's future beliefs, an internal asset associated with resilience among children affected by HIV, with emphasis on complex interactions among multisystem factors. Children (N = 1221) affected by parental HIV in China reported on psychosocial functioning, as well as internal, familial, and community resilience assets. Exploratory data analysis was conducted using a binary segmentation program. Six binary splits on predictors accounted for 22.78% of the variance in future expectation, suggesting interactions between children's perceived control of their future, loneliness, caregiver trust, and social support. Four binary splits accounted for …


A Many-Analysts Approach To The Relation Between Religiosity And Well-Being, Suzanne Hoogeveen, Alexandra Sarafoglou, Balazs Aczel, Yonathan Aditya, Alexandra J. Alayan, Peter J. Allen, Sacha Altay, Shilaan Alzahawi, Yulmaida Amir, Francis-Vincen Anthony, Obed Kwame Appiah, Quentin D. Atkinson, Adam Baimel, Merve Balkaya-Ince, Michela Balsamo, Sachin Banker, František Bartoš, Mario Becerra, Bertrand Beffara, Julia Beitner, Theiss Bendixen, Jana B. Berkessel, Renatas Berniūnas, Matthew I. Billet, Joseph Billingsley, Tiago Bortolini, Heiko Breitsohl, Amélie Bret, Faith L. Brown, Jennifer Brown, Claudia C. Brumbaugh, Jacek Buczny, Joseph Bulbulia, Saúl Caballero, Leonardo Carlucci, Cheryl L. Carmichael, Marco E. G. V. Cattaneo, Sarah J. Charles, Scott Claessens, Maxinne C. Panagopoulos, Angelo Brandelli Costa, Damien L. Crone, Stefan Czoschke, Christian Czymara, E. Damiano D'Urso, Örjan Dahlström, Anna Dalla Rosa, Henrik Danielsson, Jill De Ron, Ymkje Anna De Vries, Kristy K. Dean, Bryan J. Dik, David J. Disabato, Jaclyn K. Doherty, Tim Draws, Lucas Drouhot, Marin Dujmovic, Yarrow Dunham, Tobias Ebert, Peter A. Edelsbrunner, Anita Eerland, Christian T. Elbaek, Shole Farahmand, Hooman Farahmand, Miguel Farias, Abrey A. Feliccia, Kyle Fischer, Ronald Fischer, Donna Fisher-Thompson, Zoë Francis, Susanne Frick, Lisa K. Frisch, Diogo Geraldes, Emily Gerdin, Linda Geven, Omid Ghasemi, Erwin Gielens, Vukašin Gligorić, Kristin Hagel, Nandor Hajdu, Hannah R. Hamilton, Imaduddin Hamzah, Paul H. P. Hanel, Christopher E. Hawk, Karel K. Himawan, Benjamin C. Holding, Lina E. Homman, Moritz Ingendahl, Hilla Inkilä, Mary L. Inman, Chris-Gabriel Islam, Ozan Isler, David Izydorczyk, Bastian Jaeger, Kathryn A. Johnson, Jonathan Jong, Johannes A. Karl, Erikson Kaszubowski, Benjamin A. Katz, Lucas A. Keefer, Stijn Kelchtermans, John M. Kelly, Richard A. Klein, Bennett Kleinberg, Megan L. Knowles, Marta Kołczyńska, Dave Koller, Julia Krasko, Sarah Kritzler, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Thanos Kyritsis, Todd L. Landes, Ruben Laukenmann, Guy A. Lavender Forsyth, Aryeh Lazar, Barbara J. Lehman, Neil Levy, Ronda F. Lo, Paul Lodder, Jennifer Lorenz, Paweł Łowicki, Albert L. Ly, Esther Maassen, Gina M. Magyar-Russell, Maximilian Maier, Dylan R. Marsh, Nuria Martinez, Marcellin Martinie, Ihan Martoyo, Susan E. Mason, Anne Lundahl Mauritsen, Phil Mcaleer, Thomas Mccauley, Michael Mccullough, Ryan Mckay, Camilla M. Mcmahon, Amelia A. Mcnamara, Kira K. Means, Brett Mercier, Panagiotis Mitkidis, Benoît Monin, Jordan W. Moon, David Moreau, Jonathan Morgan, James Murphy, George Muscatt, Christof Nägel, Tamás Nagy, Ladislas Nalborczyk, Gustav Nilsonne, Pamina Noack, Ara Norenzayan, Michèle B. Nuijten, Anton Olsson-Collentine, Lluis Oviedo, Yuri G. Pavlov, James O. Pawelski, Hannah I. Pearson, Hugo Pedder, Hannah K. Peetz, Michael Pinus, Steven Pirutinsky, Vince Polito, Michaela Porubanova, Michael J. Poulin, Jason M. Prenoveau, Mark A. Prince, John Protzko, Campbell Pryor, Benjamin G. Purzycki, Lin Qiu, Julian Quevedo Pütter, André Rabelo, Milen L. Radell, Jonathan E. Ramsay, Graham Reid, Andrew J. Roberts, Lindsey M. Root Luna, Robert M. Ross, Piotr Roszak, Nirmal Roy, Suvi-Maria K. Saarelainen, Joni Y. Sasaki, Catherine Schaumans, Bruno Schivinski, Marcel C. Schmitt, Sarah A. Schnitker, Martin Schnuerch, Marcel R. Schreiner, Victoria Schüttengruber, Simone Sebben, Suzanne C. Segerstrom, Berenika Seryczyńska, Uffe Shjoedt, Müge Simsek, Willem W. A. Sleegers, Eliot R. Smith, Walter J. Sowden, Marion Späth, Christoph Spörlein, William Stedden, Andrea H. Stoevenbelt, Simon Stuber, Justin Sulik, Christiany Suwartono, Stylianos Syropoulos, Barnabas Szaszi, Peter Szecsi, Ben M. Tappin, Louis Tay, Robert T. Thibault, Burt Thompson, Christian M. Thurn, Josefa Torralba, Shelby D. Tuthill, Ann-Marie Ullein, Robbie C. M. Van Aert, Marcel A. L. M. Van Assen, Patty Van Cappellen, Olmo R. Van Den Akker, Ine Van Der Cruyssen, Jolanda Van Der Noll, Noah N. N. Van Dongen, Caspar J. Van Lissa, Valerie Van Mulukom, Don Van Ravenzwaaij, Casper J. J. Van Zyl, Leigh Ann Vaughn, Bojana Većkalov, Bruno Verschuere, Michelangelo Vianello, Felipe Vilanova, Allon Vishkin, Vera Vogel, Leonie V. D. E. Vogelsmeier, Shoko Watanabe, Cindel J. M. White, Kristina Wiebels, Sera Wiechert, Zachary Z. Willett, Maciej Witkowiak, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, Dylan Wiwad, Robin Wuyts, Dimitris Xygalatas, Xin Yang, Darren J. Yeo, Onurcan Yilmaz, Natalia Zarzeczna, Yitong Zhao, Josjan Zijlmans, Michiel Van Elk, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers Jul 2022

A Many-Analysts Approach To The Relation Between Religiosity And Well-Being, Suzanne Hoogeveen, Alexandra Sarafoglou, Balazs Aczel, Yonathan Aditya, Alexandra J. Alayan, Peter J. Allen, Sacha Altay, Shilaan Alzahawi, Yulmaida Amir, Francis-Vincen Anthony, Obed Kwame Appiah, Quentin D. Atkinson, Adam Baimel, Merve Balkaya-Ince, Michela Balsamo, Sachin Banker, František Bartoš, Mario Becerra, Bertrand Beffara, Julia Beitner, Theiss Bendixen, Jana B. Berkessel, Renatas Berniūnas, Matthew I. Billet, Joseph Billingsley, Tiago Bortolini, Heiko Breitsohl, Amélie Bret, Faith L. Brown, Jennifer Brown, Claudia C. Brumbaugh, Jacek Buczny, Joseph Bulbulia, Saúl Caballero, Leonardo Carlucci, Cheryl L. Carmichael, Marco E. G. V. Cattaneo, Sarah J. Charles, Scott Claessens, Maxinne C. Panagopoulos, Angelo Brandelli Costa, Damien L. Crone, Stefan Czoschke, Christian Czymara, E. Damiano D'Urso, Örjan Dahlström, Anna Dalla Rosa, Henrik Danielsson, Jill De Ron, Ymkje Anna De Vries, Kristy K. Dean, Bryan J. Dik, David J. Disabato, Jaclyn K. Doherty, Tim Draws, Lucas Drouhot, Marin Dujmovic, Yarrow Dunham, Tobias Ebert, Peter A. Edelsbrunner, Anita Eerland, Christian T. Elbaek, Shole Farahmand, Hooman Farahmand, Miguel Farias, Abrey A. Feliccia, Kyle Fischer, Ronald Fischer, Donna Fisher-Thompson, Zoë Francis, Susanne Frick, Lisa K. Frisch, Diogo Geraldes, Emily Gerdin, Linda Geven, Omid Ghasemi, Erwin Gielens, Vukašin Gligorić, Kristin Hagel, Nandor Hajdu, Hannah R. Hamilton, Imaduddin Hamzah, Paul H. P. Hanel, Christopher E. Hawk, Karel K. Himawan, Benjamin C. Holding, Lina E. Homman, Moritz Ingendahl, Hilla Inkilä, Mary L. Inman, Chris-Gabriel Islam, Ozan Isler, David Izydorczyk, Bastian Jaeger, Kathryn A. Johnson, Jonathan Jong, Johannes A. Karl, Erikson Kaszubowski, Benjamin A. Katz, Lucas A. Keefer, Stijn Kelchtermans, John M. Kelly, Richard A. Klein, Bennett Kleinberg, Megan L. Knowles, Marta Kołczyńska, Dave Koller, Julia Krasko, Sarah Kritzler, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Thanos Kyritsis, Todd L. Landes, Ruben Laukenmann, Guy A. Lavender Forsyth, Aryeh Lazar, Barbara J. Lehman, Neil Levy, Ronda F. Lo, Paul Lodder, Jennifer Lorenz, Paweł Łowicki, Albert L. Ly, Esther Maassen, Gina M. Magyar-Russell, Maximilian Maier, Dylan R. Marsh, Nuria Martinez, Marcellin Martinie, Ihan Martoyo, Susan E. Mason, Anne Lundahl Mauritsen, Phil Mcaleer, Thomas Mccauley, Michael Mccullough, Ryan Mckay, Camilla M. Mcmahon, Amelia A. Mcnamara, Kira K. Means, Brett Mercier, Panagiotis Mitkidis, Benoît Monin, Jordan W. Moon, David Moreau, Jonathan Morgan, James Murphy, George Muscatt, Christof Nägel, Tamás Nagy, Ladislas Nalborczyk, Gustav Nilsonne, Pamina Noack, Ara Norenzayan, Michèle B. Nuijten, Anton Olsson-Collentine, Lluis Oviedo, Yuri G. Pavlov, James O. Pawelski, Hannah I. Pearson, Hugo Pedder, Hannah K. Peetz, Michael Pinus, Steven Pirutinsky, Vince Polito, Michaela Porubanova, Michael J. Poulin, Jason M. Prenoveau, Mark A. Prince, John Protzko, Campbell Pryor, Benjamin G. Purzycki, Lin Qiu, Julian Quevedo Pütter, André Rabelo, Milen L. Radell, Jonathan E. Ramsay, Graham Reid, Andrew J. Roberts, Lindsey M. Root Luna, Robert M. Ross, Piotr Roszak, Nirmal Roy, Suvi-Maria K. Saarelainen, Joni Y. Sasaki, Catherine Schaumans, Bruno Schivinski, Marcel C. Schmitt, Sarah A. Schnitker, Martin Schnuerch, Marcel R. Schreiner, Victoria Schüttengruber, Simone Sebben, Suzanne C. Segerstrom, Berenika Seryczyńska, Uffe Shjoedt, Müge Simsek, Willem W. A. Sleegers, Eliot R. Smith, Walter J. Sowden, Marion Späth, Christoph Spörlein, William Stedden, Andrea H. Stoevenbelt, Simon Stuber, Justin Sulik, Christiany Suwartono, Stylianos Syropoulos, Barnabas Szaszi, Peter Szecsi, Ben M. Tappin, Louis Tay, Robert T. Thibault, Burt Thompson, Christian M. Thurn, Josefa Torralba, Shelby D. Tuthill, Ann-Marie Ullein, Robbie C. M. Van Aert, Marcel A. L. M. Van Assen, Patty Van Cappellen, Olmo R. Van Den Akker, Ine Van Der Cruyssen, Jolanda Van Der Noll, Noah N. N. Van Dongen, Caspar J. Van Lissa, Valerie Van Mulukom, Don Van Ravenzwaaij, Casper J. J. Van Zyl, Leigh Ann Vaughn, Bojana Većkalov, Bruno Verschuere, Michelangelo Vianello, Felipe Vilanova, Allon Vishkin, Vera Vogel, Leonie V. D. E. Vogelsmeier, Shoko Watanabe, Cindel J. M. White, Kristina Wiebels, Sera Wiechert, Zachary Z. Willett, Maciej Witkowiak, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, Dylan Wiwad, Robin Wuyts, Dimitris Xygalatas, Xin Yang, Darren J. Yeo, Onurcan Yilmaz, Natalia Zarzeczna, Yitong Zhao, Josjan Zijlmans, Michiel Van Elk, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers

Faculty Publications

The relation between religiosity and well-being is one of the most researched topics in the psychology of religion, yet the directionality and robustness of the effect remains debated. Here, we adopted a many-analysts approach to assess the robustness of this relation based on a new cross-cultural dataset (N = 10, 535 participants from 24 countries). We recruited 120 analysis teams to investigate (1) whether religious people self-report higher well-being, and (2) whether the relation between religiosity and self-reported well-being depends on perceived cultural norms of religion (i.e., whether it is considered normal and desirable to be religious in a given …


The Impact Of Psychological Distress Due To Covid-19 On College Student Career Development, Sara Driver, Emily Bullock-Yowell Jul 2022

The Impact Of Psychological Distress Due To Covid-19 On College Student Career Development, Sara Driver, Emily Bullock-Yowell

Faculty Publications

The COVID-19 pandemic has been an ongoing public health crisis and continues to create a variety of challenges (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Since the challenges of COVID-19 seem to be particularly salient for traditional college-age students (Kujawa et al., 2020) and career development is a corner stone of development at this stage, the current study investigated what impact the COVID-19 pandemic-related stress has on the psychological distress, career-development self-efficacy, and career decidedness of a sample of college students. Three hundred one students from a southeastern United States university participated in the study. We hypothesize 1) Impacts from …


Intraneuronal Β-Amyloid Accumulation: Aging Hiv-1 Human And Hiv-1 Transgenic Rat Brain, Hailong Li, Kristen A. Mclaurin, Charles F. Mactutus, Benjamin Linkins, Wenfei Huang, Sulie L. Chang, Rosemarie M. Booze Jun 2022

Intraneuronal Β-Amyloid Accumulation: Aging Hiv-1 Human And Hiv-1 Transgenic Rat Brain, Hailong Li, Kristen A. Mclaurin, Charles F. Mactutus, Benjamin Linkins, Wenfei Huang, Sulie L. Chang, Rosemarie M. Booze

Faculty Publications

The prevalence of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is significantly greater in older, relative to younger, HIV-1 seropositive individuals; the neural pathogenesis of HAND in older HIV-1 seropositive individuals, however, remains elusive. To address this knowledge gap, abnormal protein aggregates (i.e., β-amyloid) were investigated in the brains of aging (>12 months of age) HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. In aging HIV-1 Tg rats, double immunohistochemistry staining revealed abnormal intraneuronal β-amyloid accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, relative to F344/N control rats. Notably, in HIV-1 Tg animals, increased β-amyloid accumulation occurred in the absence of any genotypic changes in …


The Interplay Between Perceived Usability And Quality In Visual Design For Tablet Game Interfaces, Uttam Kokil, Tracy Harwood Jun 2022

The Interplay Between Perceived Usability And Quality In Visual Design For Tablet Game Interfaces, Uttam Kokil, Tracy Harwood

Faculty Publications

Research in human-computer interaction (HCI) has shown inconsistencies in the relationship between users’ perception of usability and the quality of visual design in digital products. Research is lacking in the gaming domain for visual design in user interfaces on tablet screens. Despite extensive research on visual aesthetics and perceived usability, best practices offer limited guidance for game interfaces from a user-centered design perspective.

The objectives of this study are twofold: to employ a design-oriented methodology to create a real iOS tablet game app from start to finish using ideation, focus groups, iterative prototyping, usability testing, and empirically evaluating game participants’ …


Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik May 2022

Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik

Faculty Publications

While studies have demonstrated concept formation in animals, only humans are known to label concepts to use them in mental simulations or predictions. To investigate whether other animals use labels comparably, we studied cross-modal, individual recognition in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that use signature whistles as labels for conspecifics in their own communication. First, we tested whether dolphins could use gustatory stimuli and found that they could distinguish between water and urine samples, as well as between urine from familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Then, we paired playbacks of signature whistles of known animals with urine samples from either the same …


Perceptions Of Risk, Work, And Lifestyle Changes On Mental Health Of Healthcare Workers Amidst The Covid-19 Pandemic, Awatef Ergai, Leeanna Spiva, Lin Li, Ryan Breshears, Ginny Q. Zhan May 2022

Perceptions Of Risk, Work, And Lifestyle Changes On Mental Health Of Healthcare Workers Amidst The Covid-19 Pandemic, Awatef Ergai, Leeanna Spiva, Lin Li, Ryan Breshears, Ginny Q. Zhan

Faculty Publications

The COVID-19 outbreak is significantly affecting the mental health of healthcare workers worldwide. This study aims to investigate mental health outcomes of healthcare workers in a health system located in the Southeastern US during the first peak of the pandemic and examine the association of specific factors on the mental well-being of healthcare workers. A cross-sectional survey of 388 healthcare workers was conducted. Data were collected using a 79-item questionnaire, which included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) instrument, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, and …


Key Stakeholder Perspectives On Challenges And Opportunities For Rural Hpv Vaccination In North And South Carolina, Laura J. Fish, Sayward Harrison, Jodi-Ann Mcdonald, Valerie Yelverton, Charnetta Williams, Emmanuel B. Walter, Lavanya Vasudevan Apr 2022

Key Stakeholder Perspectives On Challenges And Opportunities For Rural Hpv Vaccination In North And South Carolina, Laura J. Fish, Sayward Harrison, Jodi-Ann Mcdonald, Valerie Yelverton, Charnetta Williams, Emmanuel B. Walter, Lavanya Vasudevan

Faculty Publications

The objective of this study was to identify factors at the individual, provider, and systems levels that serve as challenges or opportunities for increasing adolescent vaccination—including Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination—in rural communities in the southern United States (US). As part of a broader study to increase HPV vaccine uptake in the southern US, we conducted in-depth interviews with vaccination stakeholders representing public health and education agencies in North Carolina (NC) and South Carolina (SC). Fourteen key stakeholders were recruited using purposive sampling to obtain insights into challenges and solutions to rural-urban disparities in HPV vaccination coverage. Stakeholders were also queried …


Thalamic Shape Abnormalities Differentially Relate To Cognitive Performance In Early-Onset And Adult-Onset Schizophrenia, Derin J. Cobia, Chaz Rich, Matthew J. Smith, Pedro Engel Gonzalez, Will Cronenwett, John G. Csernansky, Lei Wang Apr 2022

Thalamic Shape Abnormalities Differentially Relate To Cognitive Performance In Early-Onset And Adult-Onset Schizophrenia, Derin J. Cobia, Chaz Rich, Matthew J. Smith, Pedro Engel Gonzalez, Will Cronenwett, John G. Csernansky, Lei Wang

Faculty Publications

Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) shares many biological and clinical features with adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS), but may represent a unique subgroup with greater susceptibility for disease onset and worsened symptomatology and progression, which could potentially derive from exaggerated neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Neurobiological explanations of schizophrenia have emphasized the involvement of deep-brain structures, particularly alterations of the thalamus, which have been linked to core features of the disorder. The aim of this study was to compare thalamic shape abnormalities between EOS and AOS subjects and determine whether unique behavioral profiles related to these differences. It was hypothesized abnormal thalamic shape would be observed in …


Maternal Depression Moderated By Family Resources When Children Have Developmental Disabilities., Timothy B. Smith, Terisa P. Gabrielsen Apr 2022

Maternal Depression Moderated By Family Resources When Children Have Developmental Disabilities., Timothy B. Smith, Terisa P. Gabrielsen

Faculty Publications

Children with developmental disabilities require extensive parental involvement in intervention, but parents with depression may be less able to intervene effectively. We examined prevalence of depression symptoms and predictors among 131 mothers of children with disabilities enrolled in early childhood special education. Participants completed several self-report measures of depression and child and family functioning. Children were directly evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory. One year later, 68 mothers repeated self-report measures. Participants (30%) reported elevated depression symptoms across time. Depression scores were correlated with parental stress and family resources. An interaction between higher maternal depression and higher child functioning with …


The Eschatological Hope Scale: Construct Development And Measurement Of Theistic Eschatological Hope, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, M. Elizabeth Lewis Hall, Julie J. Exline, David C. Wang, Lindsey M. Root Luna, Daryl R. Van Tongeren, David G. Myers, Alexis D. Abernethy, John D. Witvliet Apr 2022

The Eschatological Hope Scale: Construct Development And Measurement Of Theistic Eschatological Hope, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, M. Elizabeth Lewis Hall, Julie J. Exline, David C. Wang, Lindsey M. Root Luna, Daryl R. Van Tongeren, David G. Myers, Alexis D. Abernethy, John D. Witvliet

Faculty Publications

This study aimed to expand psychological research on hope by contributing a construct and scale to measure central dimensions of theistic eschatological hope derived from Christian scriptures. Eschatological hope was conceptualized as the anticipation that God will make all things new, raising people to everlasting life with God in joyful celebration, including people from every culture and nation, ending all personal pain and suffering, eliminating all societal evil and harm, and bringing reconciliation and healing to all of creation. We developed the Eschatological Hope Scale with three studies (N = 1,466). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the single-factor structure …


A Resilience-Based Intervention To Mitigate The Effect Of Hiv-Related Stigma: Protocol For A Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomized Trial, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Xueying Yang, Sayward Harrison, Cheuk Chi Tam, Zhiyong Shen, Yuejiao Zhou Mar 2022

A Resilience-Based Intervention To Mitigate The Effect Of Hiv-Related Stigma: Protocol For A Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomized Trial, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Xueying Yang, Sayward Harrison, Cheuk Chi Tam, Zhiyong Shen, Yuejiao Zhou

Faculty Publications

Background: Despite decades of global efforts to tackle HIV-related stigma, previous interventions designed to reduce stigma have had limited effects that were typically in the small- to-moderate range. The knowledge gaps and challenges for combating HIV-related stigma are rooted both in the complexity of the stigma and in the limitations of current conceptualizations of stigma reduction efforts. Recent research has shown the promise of resilience-based approaches that focus on the development of strengths, competencies, resources, and capacities of people living with HIV (PLWH) and their key supporting systems (e.g., family members and healthcare providers) to prevent, reduce, and mitigate the …


Accountability And Autonomy, Motivation, And Psychiatric Treatment, John R. Peteet, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, C. Stephen Evans Mar 2022

Accountability And Autonomy, Motivation, And Psychiatric Treatment, John R. Peteet, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, C. Stephen Evans

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Accountability As A Key Virtue In Mental Health And Human Flourishing, John R. Peteet, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, C. Stephen Evans Mar 2022

Accountability As A Key Virtue In Mental Health And Human Flourishing, John R. Peteet, Charlotte Vanoyen-Witvliet, C. Stephen Evans

Faculty Publications

We propose that accountability plays an implicit, important, and relatively unexamined role in psychiatry. People generally think of accountability as a relation in which one party is held accountable by another. In this paper, we examine accountability as a virtue, drawing on philosophy, psychiatry, and psychology to examine what it means to welcome being accountable in an excellent way that promotes flourishing. When people manifest accountability as a virtue, they are both responsive to others they owe a response, and they are responsible for their attitudes and actions in light of these relationships. Psychiatric treatment often aims to correct disordered …


Moral Disengagement Mechanisms Predict Cyber Aggression Among Emerging Adults, Taylor R. Nocera, Eric R. Dahlen, Alison Poor, Jacqueline Strowd, Amanda Dortch, Erica C. Van Overloop Feb 2022

Moral Disengagement Mechanisms Predict Cyber Aggression Among Emerging Adults, Taylor R. Nocera, Eric R. Dahlen, Alison Poor, Jacqueline Strowd, Amanda Dortch, Erica C. Van Overloop

Faculty Publications

The Internet has given rise to many new communication tools (e.g., social media, text messaging), which, while beneficial in many respects, have become a means for aggressing against others. As evidence of the adverse correlates of cyber aggression mounts, improved understanding of the mechanisms that facilitate electronic aggression is needed. Moral disengagement (i.e., cognitive processes through which individuals disengage from their moral values) has been shown to predict cyber aggression when assessed as a unitary construct. The present study investigated the eight moral disengagement mechanisms measured by the Moral Disengagement Measure (Detert et al., 2008) and their relationships to four …


The Effects Of Team Surface-Level Diversity On Creativity & Innovation, Roman Mitchell Jan 2022

The Effects Of Team Surface-Level Diversity On Creativity & Innovation, Roman Mitchell

Faculty Publications

During the last 20 years, the global marketplace has become more competitive due to increased globalization, aggressive market competition, and changing customer demands. This has forced organizations to assemble teams with diverse knowledge, skills, and abilities to remain competitive. However, previous meta-analytic investigations examining the relationship between team surface-level diversity (i.e., race or gender identity), creativity, and innovation have indicated a small negative relationship. Despite the said positive effects of team diversity, theory and empirical evidence suggests that increased surface-level team diversity leads to decreased team collaboration, team cohesion, and diminished creativity and innovation (Bell, 2007).

This study explores the …


Family History Of Fxtas Is Associated With Age-Related Cognitive-Linguistic Decline Among Mothers With The Fmr1 Premutation, Jessica Klusek, Amanda Fairchild, Carly Moser, Marsha R. Mailick, Angela John Thurman, Leonard Abbeduto Jan 2022

Family History Of Fxtas Is Associated With Age-Related Cognitive-Linguistic Decline Among Mothers With The Fmr1 Premutation, Jessica Klusek, Amanda Fairchild, Carly Moser, Marsha R. Mailick, Angela John Thurman, Leonard Abbeduto

Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Women who carry a premutation allele of the FMR1 gene are at increased vulnerability to an array of age-related symptoms and disorders, including age-related decline in select cognitive skills. However, the risk factors for age-related decline are poorly understood, including the potential role of family history and genetic factors. In other forms of pathological aging, early decline in syntactic complexity is observed and predicts the later onset of neurodegenerative disease. To shed light on the earliest signs of degeneration, the present study characterized longitudinal changes in the syntactic complexity of women with the FMR1 premutation across midlife, and associations …


Postseptic Cognitive Impairment And Expression Of Apoe In Peripheral Blood: The Cognition After Sepsis (Cass) Observational Pilot Study, Samuel M. Brown, Sarah J. Beesley, Chris Stubben, Emily L. Wilson, Angela P. Presson, Colin Grissom, Colin Maguire, Matthew T. Rondina, Ramona O. Hopkins Jan 2022

Postseptic Cognitive Impairment And Expression Of Apoe In Peripheral Blood: The Cognition After Sepsis (Cass) Observational Pilot Study, Samuel M. Brown, Sarah J. Beesley, Chris Stubben, Emily L. Wilson, Angela P. Presson, Colin Grissom, Colin Maguire, Matthew T. Rondina, Ramona O. Hopkins

Faculty Publications

Background: Cognitive impairment after sepsis is an important clinical problem. Determinants of postseptic cognitive impairment are not well understood. We thus undertook a systems biology approach to exploring a possible role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in postseptic cognitive impairment.

Design: Prospective, observational cohort. Setting: Intermountain Medical Center, a tertiary referral center in Utah.

Patients/Participants: Patients with sepsis admitted to study intensive care units. Interventions: None.

Methods: We obtained peripheral blood for deep sequencing of RNA and followed up survivors at 6 months with a battery of cognitive instruments. We defined cognitive impairment based on the 6-month Hayling test of executive …


The Contributions Of Immediate Retrieval And Spaced Retrieval To Word Learning In Preschoolers With Developmental Language Disorder, Laurence B. Leonard, Justin B. Kueser, Patricia Deevy, Eileen Haebig, Jeffrey D. Karpicke, Christine Weber Jan 2022

The Contributions Of Immediate Retrieval And Spaced Retrieval To Word Learning In Preschoolers With Developmental Language Disorder, Laurence B. Leonard, Justin B. Kueser, Patricia Deevy, Eileen Haebig, Jeffrey D. Karpicke, Christine Weber

Faculty Publications

Background and Aims: Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) benefit from word learning procedures that include a mix of immediate retrieval and spaced retrieval trials. In this study, we examine the relative contribution of these two types of retrieval.

Methods: We examine data from Haebig et al. (2019) in their study that compared an immediate retrieval condition and a condition of spaced retrieval that also included immediate retrieval trials. Participants were 4- and 5-year old children with DLD and same-age peers with typical language development. Each child learned novel (made-up) words referring to unusual plants and animals in both conditions. …


Understanding Spiritual Well-Being Among Critical Incident Stress Management-Trained First Responders, Harvey Burnett Jan 2022

Understanding Spiritual Well-Being Among Critical Incident Stress Management-Trained First Responders, Harvey Burnett

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Occupational Characteristics Of Psychology Baccalaureate Graduates, Adam Butler, Michael Gasser Jan 2022

Occupational Characteristics Of Psychology Baccalaureate Graduates, Adam Butler, Michael Gasser

Faculty Publications

Although the field of psychology is classically associated with a career path in mental health services, career options for graduates with a baccalaureate degree in psychology are far broader. Yet, we do not have a good understanding of the occupational spectrum for psychology graduates or of the skills necessary to excel in those positions. The goal of the present study was to identify the characteristics of occupations held by alumni with a baccalaureate degree in psychology. Understanding these occupational characteristics is useful for career advising and for developing job-relevant skills in the psychology major.


Neurodevelopmental Processes In The Prefrontal Cortex Derailed By Chronic Hiv-1 Viral Protein Exposure, Kristen A. Mclaurin, Hailong Li, Rosemarie M. Booze, Charles F. Mactutus Nov 2021

Neurodevelopmental Processes In The Prefrontal Cortex Derailed By Chronic Hiv-1 Viral Protein Exposure, Kristen A. Mclaurin, Hailong Li, Rosemarie M. Booze, Charles F. Mactutus

Faculty Publications

Due to the widespread access to, and implementation of, combination antiretroviral therapy, individuals perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are living into adolescence and adulthood. Perinatally infected adolescents living with HIV-1 (pALHIV) are plagued by progressive, chronic neurocognitive impairments; the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these deficits, however, remain understudied. A longitudinal experimental design from postnatal day (PD) 30 to PD 180 was utilized to establish the development of pyramidal neurons, and associated dendritic spines, from layers II-III of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) and control animals. Three putative neuroinflammatory markers (i.e., IL-1β, IL-6, and …


Sexual Dimorphism In Titi Monkeys’ Digit (2d:4d) Ratio Is Associated With Maternal Urinary Sex Hormones During Pregnancy, Alexander Baxter, Elizabeth K. Wood, Lynea R. Witczak, Karen L. Bales, James Dee Higley Nov 2021

Sexual Dimorphism In Titi Monkeys’ Digit (2d:4d) Ratio Is Associated With Maternal Urinary Sex Hormones During Pregnancy, Alexander Baxter, Elizabeth K. Wood, Lynea R. Witczak, Karen L. Bales, James Dee Higley

Faculty Publications

The second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio is a sexually-dimorphic biomarker for prenatal sex hormone exposure. We investigated whether titi monkeys (Plecturocebus cupreus) exhibit sexually-dimorphic 2D:4D ratio, and whether variation in 2D:4D ratio correlates with maternal testosterone and estrogen levels during early pregnancy. Subjects were 61 adult titi monkeys (32 males, 29 females). For 26 subjects, maternal urine samples were collected approximately 15–20 weeks before birth and assayed for testosterone and estrone conjugate (E1C). Titi monkeys exhibited a human-like pattern of sexual dimorphism in right-hand 2D:4D ratio, with females exhibiting higher 2D:4D ratio than males (β = −0.29, p = .023). For …


A Scoping Review Investigating Relationships Between Depression, Anxiety, And The Prep Care Continuum In The United States, Sarah J. Miller, Sayward Harrison, Kamla Devi Sanasi-Bhola Oct 2021

A Scoping Review Investigating Relationships Between Depression, Anxiety, And The Prep Care Continuum In The United States, Sarah J. Miller, Sayward Harrison, Kamla Devi Sanasi-Bhola

Faculty Publications

Men who have sex with men and transgender women in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a once-a-day pill to prevent HIV. Due to stigma and discrimination, sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations are also at risk for depression and anxiety. This scoping review sought to identify literature addressing relationships between the PrEP care continuum, depression, and anxiety among SGM individuals and others at high risk for HIV. We conducted a systematic review of four databases (i.e., PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, Google Scholar) and identified 692 unique articles that …