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Beginning Teachers’ Development Of Inclusive Practices: A Longitudinal Multiple-Case Study Approach, Tsz-Wing Zita Lau Dec 2022

Beginning Teachers’ Development Of Inclusive Practices: A Longitudinal Multiple-Case Study Approach, Tsz-Wing Zita Lau

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Classroom teachers are expected to have the competencies to teach in inclusive classrooms, with the goal of providing diverse learners the support and opportunities they deserve to learn at their best. However, teachers worldwide have reported their teacher education program was inadequate in preparing them to teach in inclusive classrooms. To address this, Sharma (2018) proposed the 3H framework – the three apprenticeships that preservice teachers should be prepared with to become effective inclusive educators: the heart (attitudes and beliefs of inclusive teachers), the head (knowledge and self-efficacy to teach diverse learners), and the hands (inclusive instructional practices). The goal …


Examining Mobile Health App Engagement In A North American Employee Population: A One-Year Longitudinal Observational Study, Nabil Ratanshi Nov 2022

Examining Mobile Health App Engagement In A North American Employee Population: A One-Year Longitudinal Observational Study, Nabil Ratanshi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) apps may help promote physical activity and other health behaviours among office-based workers. Low app engagement, however, leading to little or no effect is typical. OBJECTIVE: To examine engagement with a rewards-based mHealth app and identify factors influencing engagement. METHODS: A one-year observational study was conducted with Canadian and U.S. users of the Sprout at Work app (N=2253; Female: 35.7%; Age: 39.3 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to examine engagement patterns from a ‘multiple-lives’ perspective (i.e., time to first disengagement, re-engagement, second disengagement). Regression models were used to identify factors influencing engagement. RESULTS: After one …


The Coding Flexibility Of Radical Position In Chinese, Zian Chi Nov 2022

The Coding Flexibility Of Radical Position In Chinese, Zian Chi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although there are theories of word recognition/reading predicting a transposed letter (TL)-type effect in Chinese character recognition, specifically, a transposed radical (TR) effect, no empirical demonstrations of TR effects have been reported to this point. As a result, instead of adopting a position-general assumption of radical processing, a position-specific assumption of radical processing has been adopted in most Chinese character recognition models. In the present Experiment 1, computational models were created in order to determine whether models that do not make the position-general assumption can account for any TR effect if one were to be found. In Experiment 2, 3, …


The Social Context Of Nonverbal Behaviour, Alexa S. Clerke Nov 2022

The Social Context Of Nonverbal Behaviour, Alexa S. Clerke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although nonverbal behaviour has long been a topic of research, it is often studied in isolation from social partners and the social environment. This work presents three empirical chapters that reintroduce the social environment to the investigation of nonverbal cue exchange, focusing on the value of social rewards and the perceptive and affiliative functions of nonverbal communication. Findings reported in Chapter 2 indicate that the subjective value of social rewards changes as a function of social media use saliency. Specifically, thinking about a recent social media post, but not a synchronous conversation, increases the value of social rewards, such that …


Understanding Transitional Mental Health And Interpersonal Needs Of Newcomer Youth During Resettlement: Seeking Guidance To Strengthen Mental Health Programming, Anjali Ruparelia Oct 2022

Understanding Transitional Mental Health And Interpersonal Needs Of Newcomer Youth During Resettlement: Seeking Guidance To Strengthen Mental Health Programming, Anjali Ruparelia

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the supports that newcomer youth may need to promote positive well-being and foster healthy relationships during early resettlement. This study employed qualitative methodology using semi-structured interviews with four newcomer youth between the ages of 14 and 21 years old who have been in Canada for at least two years. Interview data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis (RTA). The results indicated that newcomer youth experience significant resettlement challenges and barriers including language barriers, culture shock, and feeling lonely and isolated within their new environments. However, newcomer youth participants also reported that they found various strengths and resources …


The Psychotherapeutic Effects Of Consumer-Grade Eeg Neurofeedback On Mental Health And Well-Being, Madeline Slack Sep 2022

The Psychotherapeutic Effects Of Consumer-Grade Eeg Neurofeedback On Mental Health And Well-Being, Madeline Slack

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The current study assessed whether pairing mindfulness meditation with consumer-grade neurofeedback (using Muse) would be a feasible and satisfying (i.e., fulfillment and pleasure) intervention for mental health and well-being. This was assessed via a four-day mindfulness program where participants (N=34) were assigned to mindfulness with neurofeedback (n=17) or guided meditation (control; n=17) group. On each day of the program, participants engaged in two mindful sessions (five minutes each) in the morning and afternoon. Participants were administered a series of affective measures before and after the program, as well as throughout. Upon completion, participants were asked to rate …


The Relationship Between The Big-Five Personality Traits And Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis, Parisa Chavoshi Aug 2022

The Relationship Between The Big-Five Personality Traits And Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis, Parisa Chavoshi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide. While multiple etiological factors contribute to depressive symptoms, personality traits have been hypothesized to play a crucial role. To determine the strengths of this association and provide a new approach compared to prior meta-analyses, we conducted a set of meta-analyses to examine the association of the Big-Five personality traits as the most widely accepted personality model and depressive symptoms. We also examined the effects of the facets of each personality dimension in addition to the effects of the moderating variables, including the proportion of females and the type of depression …


A Demonstration Of The Utility Of Formalizing Theory: Mapping, Evaluating, And Testing The Theory Of Devaluation Of Alternatives, Rebecca Koessler Aug 2022

A Demonstration Of The Utility Of Formalizing Theory: Mapping, Evaluating, And Testing The Theory Of Devaluation Of Alternatives, Rebecca Koessler

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Devaluation of alternatives is often identified as a key relationship maintenance strategy that is used to combat the threat of attractive alternatives. However, since the theory was proposed by Johnson and Rusbult (1989), few efforts have been dedicated to evaluating the progression of the theory and assessing the quantity and quality of the existing evidence that claims to corroborate it. The present research fulfilled this need by formalizing the theory of devaluation of alternatives using a metatheoretical approach that involved categorization, deconstruction, reconstruction via theory mapping, and evaluation (Chapter 2). P-curve meta-analyses were used to determine whether p-hacking …


Listening Effort: Separating The Subjective From The Objective, Joseph E. Rovetti Aug 2022

Listening Effort: Separating The Subjective From The Objective, Joseph E. Rovetti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Challenges such as background noise may increase “listening effort.” This construct has been operationalized as the recruitment of cognitive resources during listening (objective effort) or as the self-reported feeling of effort (subjective effort). In the current study, I compared these two dimensions of listening effort directly. Normal-hearing adults listened to highly intelligible passages across several signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), with reaction time on a secondary task (objective effort) and effort ratings (subjective effort) measured in separate blocks. As the SNR became less favourable, subjective effort appeared to increase continuously, while objective effort only began to increase at a much less favourable …


How Do Individuals In Intercultural Romantic Relationships Use Communication Strategies To Maintain Their Relationship? A Qualitative Analysis., Adira Daniel Aug 2022

How Do Individuals In Intercultural Romantic Relationships Use Communication Strategies To Maintain Their Relationship? A Qualitative Analysis., Adira Daniel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Intercultural relationships—romantic relationships where one partner is outside the other’s racial, ethnic, religious, and/or language group—are a growing sociodemographic group. Individuals in such relationships must navigate their cultural differences to mitigate the negative effects of the challenges they face and ameliorate the benefits of their relationship. Culture can impact preferences in communicating about these differences and consequently relationship maintenance. Yet little is known about how intercultural couples communicate about their cultural differences to effectively maintain their relationship. To address this gap, I conducted semi-structured, virtual, interviews with 23 intercultural couples and found that intercultural couples’ overall preference and efficacy …


Examining The Relationships Between Socio-Cognitive Factors And Neural Synchrony During Movie Watching Across Development, Kathleen M. Lyons Aug 2022

Examining The Relationships Between Socio-Cognitive Factors And Neural Synchrony During Movie Watching Across Development, Kathleen M. Lyons

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

While different cognitive abilities mature, the conscious experiences of children likely become richer and more elaborate. A challenge in investigating relationships between cognitive development and real-world experiences is having measures that assess naturalistic processing. Movie watching offers a solution, since following the plot of a film requires cognitive processes that are similar to real-world experiences. When different adults watch the same film, their brain activity begins to align (known as neural synchrony). The strength of this alignment has been shown to reflect the degree to which different individuals are having a similar experience of the movie. While this phenomenon has …


The Initial Development, Factor Structure, And Psychometric Validation Of The Impostor Phenomenon Assessment (Ipa): A Novel Assessment Of Impostor Phenomenon, Deanna L. Walker Aug 2022

The Initial Development, Factor Structure, And Psychometric Validation Of The Impostor Phenomenon Assessment (Ipa): A Novel Assessment Of Impostor Phenomenon, Deanna L. Walker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite growing attention surrounding impostor phenomenon (also known as “imposter syndrome”), recent reviews have suggested that current measures may be inadequate in capturing the complex and multifaceted nature of this construct (i.e., thoughts, feelings, and behaviours). The objective of my dissertation research program was to clarify the theoretical conceptualization of impostor phenomenon based on experiences in an achievement-oriented setting, and to develop a novel and psychometrically valid method of measuring this construct. I began by conducting an extensive review of the literature and developing an item pool for a novel impostor phenomenon assessment. I then conducted exploratory factor …


Virtual Reality, Mindfulness And Their Associations To Personality Traits, Somer Schaffer Aug 2022

Virtual Reality, Mindfulness And Their Associations To Personality Traits, Somer Schaffer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mindfulness, conceptualized as actively noticing and engaging with oneself and one’s surroundings with a nonjudgmental mind, is associated with many positive outcomes such as healthy relationships, stress reduction, performance engagement, and increased well-being. Virtual reality (VR) technologies offer people immersive experiences to engage with novel environments for entertaining and therapeutic purposes. While in any VR environment, participants may perceive themselves as if they are in the scenes, that is, they experience moment-to-moment awareness and immersion in these virtual environments. Thus, practicing mindfulness meditation with technologies like smartphones and VR has become increasingly popular over the past decade. However, little research …


The Spacing Effect In Remote Information-Integration Category Learning, Anthony Cruz Aug 2022

The Spacing Effect In Remote Information-Integration Category Learning, Anthony Cruz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present study examined whether the temporal distribution of procedural category learning experiences would impact learning outcomes. Participants completed the remote category learning study on a smartphone in one of two learning conditions: Massed (control) or distributed. Consistent with expectations, distributed learners reached higher accuracy levels. This effect disappeared after accounting for reaction time differences, suggesting that it was driven by attentional mechanisms. Distribution may have made participants more likely discover the optimal categorization strategy and more robust to sensory habituation. Counter to previous findings, participants favored distributed learning. These results suggest that adult category learning is facilitated by temporal …


Culture And Classification: Investigating Analytic Vs. Holistic Thinking Styles, Neha Khemani Aug 2022

Culture And Classification: Investigating Analytic Vs. Holistic Thinking Styles, Neha Khemani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This paper sought to explore cultural preferences for analytic and holistic thinking in classification. Experiment 1 paired the Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (SHJ) tasks with the Analysis-Holism scale (AHS) and a demographics questionnaire. Effects of culture on learning rates, alongside the feasibility of online data collection, were assessed. Learning difficulty differences among the six SHJ category sets were observed. Further, as predicted, higher holistic thinking correlated positively with the family resemblance task. Experiment 2 replicated the Norenzayan et al. (2002) task. Unlike in the original study, the effect of instructional condition was not significant across our full sample. Nevertheless, the …


Revisiting Cognitive Dissonance: A Closer Look At The Core Assumptions Of A Classic Theory, Mikayla V. Colthirst-Reid Aug 2022

Revisiting Cognitive Dissonance: A Closer Look At The Core Assumptions Of A Classic Theory, Mikayla V. Colthirst-Reid

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cognitive dissonance is a well-established and highly cited psychological theory. However, many of its basic assumptions have come under recent criticism concerning methodological design, variable manipulation, and measurement of dissonance as a unique psychological phenomenon distinct from general negative affect. A within-subjects design compared measures of dissonance-related affect at baseline to the same affect measures across varying magnitudes of belief-behaviour inconsistency via a counter-attitudinal task. The study also measured belief change in response to dissonance conditions and explored relationships between dissonance experience and individual difference variables (extraversion, religiosity, and political orientation). Results did not support an increase of dissonance relative …


Using Spoken Narratives To Measure Listening Engagement In Children, Sarah Bobbitt Aug 2022

Using Spoken Narratives To Measure Listening Engagement In Children, Sarah Bobbitt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite the rising popularity of audiobooks and podcasts, research on children listening to spoken stories remains in its infancy. In addition, the use of spoken stories could significantly improve studies of listening engagement in children. Thus, the present study sought to 1) explore how children aged 8-13 years engage with these novel media and 2) determine which stories might be most engaging to children in this age group. Fifty-two parents of children aged 8-13 years completed an online survey which asked about their children’s listening habits. Results of the survey then informed the development of four engaging stories (and two …


An Interview Study Of Beliefs About Confidentiality And Attitudes Towards Disclosure Of Moral Injury In The Canadian Armed Forces, Cassidy Trahair Aug 2022

An Interview Study Of Beliefs About Confidentiality And Attitudes Towards Disclosure Of Moral Injury In The Canadian Armed Forces, Cassidy Trahair

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Military members often encounter potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) during their service. These encounters can put them at higher risk for developing moral injury, defined as the psychological distress following morally-transgressive situations. If untreated, this can lead to negative health outcomes like depression, suicide ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the rate of help-seeking among military members experiencing mental health issues is low. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate barriers to mental health help-seeking among individuals with CAF experience, including perceived confidentiality of information, and whether PMIEs impact the decision-making process. The sample consisted of 9 individuals with CAF experience …


Examining The Structure And Outcomes Of Work Motivation Profiles: A Mindset-Based Approach, Leonid V. Beletski Aug 2022

Examining The Structure And Outcomes Of Work Motivation Profiles: A Mindset-Based Approach, Leonid V. Beletski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Self-determination theory (SDT) distinguishes between both quality and quantity of motivation. Motivation within SDT has been treated both as a unidimensional (autonomy continuum) and multidimensional (motivation types) construct. Recently, Meyer et al. (2022) suggested that drawing a distinction between reasons for exerting effort and the mindset experienced while exerting effort may help reconcile the two approaches. Using profile analyses, Meyer and colleagues demonstrated that reasons for engaging in an activity combine in ways that are not unambiguously interpretable from an SDT standpoint. In the present study (N = 500), we replicate the results of Meyer et al. using reason-based motivation …


Developmental Differences In The Learning And Consolidation Of Linguistic Regularities, Sarah Berger Jul 2022

Developmental Differences In The Learning And Consolidation Of Linguistic Regularities, Sarah Berger

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Relative to adults, children have a well-known advantage for learning linguistic regularities, which could be partially driven by their deeper sleep. To examine the relationship between consolidation and language learning across development, children and adults learned a novel article system with an implicit grammatical rule. Participants performed a judgment task on phrases containing the novel articles before and after a night of EEG-monitored sleep. We found that rule sensitivity emerged rapidly in children, whereas it did not emerge until the second session in adults. Children demonstrated better generalization of the rule than adults. Consolidation effects showed a developmental double dissociation, …


Temperament And Individual Differences In Category Learning, Tianshu Zhu Jul 2022

Temperament And Individual Differences In Category Learning, Tianshu Zhu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Objectives. Individuals can differ in their strategic approach in learning the same categorization task, researchers have sought to study what specific stable individual differences traits can help explain these differences. This dissertation first surveyed extant literature on the impact of trait differences on category learning then examined the effect of temperament traits on these dependent variables. Chapter 2 (scoping review): This scoping review synthesized the past literature that examined the relationship between sources of stable individual differences and category learning performance and strategy use outcomes. Five database platforms were searched to identify relevant articles, cross-referencing was also performed. Sixty-nine studies …


How Narcissism Relates To Social Rank Dynamics In Teams, Tianyue Xu Jul 2022

How Narcissism Relates To Social Rank Dynamics In Teams, Tianyue Xu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Team performance can be impaired when two team members both believe they outrank one another in status (upward-status disagreement; USD; Kilduff et al., 2016). Drawing from the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept (Back et al., 2013), the current study examined how two forms of narcissism distinctively relate to USDs across a team’s lifecycle. Gathering data at four time points, I studied over 126 small task teams from inception to dissolution. The results indicate that narcissistic admiration did not predict one’s status perception tendency or absolute status. However, narcissistic admiration predicted the number of USDs one experiences during team formation and …


Early Childhood Impulsivity And Parenting Predict Trajectories Of Externalizing Psychopathology, Emma Stewart Jul 2022

Early Childhood Impulsivity And Parenting Predict Trajectories Of Externalizing Psychopathology, Emma Stewart

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parenting is a consistent predictor of child externalizing symptoms; however, the role of caregiving variability (i.e., variation in a caregiver’s parenting behaviour) is poorly understood. We examined whether characteristic parenting style and parenting variability predicted externalizing symptoms in 409 children (Mage = 3.43 at baseline, 208 girls). We assessed parent positive affectivity (PPA), hostility, and parenting structure at child age three using three behavioural tasks designed to vary in context, examining variability by modeling a latent difference score reflecting the range for each dimension. We assessed children’s symptoms at ages three, five, eight, and 11. Lower hostility predicted fewer …


The Impact Of An Online Self-Compassion Intervention On Thwarted Belongingness And Perceived Burdensomeness, Genevieve M. Bianchini Jul 2022

The Impact Of An Online Self-Compassion Intervention On Thwarted Belongingness And Perceived Burdensomeness, Genevieve M. Bianchini

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Interventions that target thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB) may reduce suicidal thoughts and behaviours (Joiner, 2005). Self-compassion describes being open and kind towards oneself (Neff, 2003a) and is negatively associated with TB, PB, and suicidality. The current research examined the impact of a brief, virtual, self-compassion intervention on TB and PB in a young adult sample. Study 1 included an open trial to examine initial effectiveness and acceptability of the intervention. Self-compassion significantly increased over time; however, there were no changes in TB or PB. Study 2 included a randomized controlled trial comparing two control conditions to the …


Characterizing And Predicting Canadian Adolescents’ Internalizing Symptoms In The First Year Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Haley Elizabeth Green Jun 2022

Characterizing And Predicting Canadian Adolescents’ Internalizing Symptoms In The First Year Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Haley Elizabeth Green

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Most studies of adolescents’ internalizing symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic have included few data waves, limiting long-term conclusions about adolescents’ mental health during the pandemic. Collecting only a few waves of data precludes examination of intraindividual symptom variability, which may have implications for adjustment beyond mean symptoms. We characterized mean n = 192 adolescents’ internalizing symptoms from March 2020-April 2021 and used mixed effect location scale models to examine established risk factors as predictors of mean trends and intraindividual variability in adolescents’ internalizing symptoms. Adolescents’ symptoms were relatively stable and low over the first year of the pandemic; severity peaked …


Interpersonal Problems And Suicidal Ideation In Daily Life: Examining The Moderating Role Of Social Problem-Solving, Brianna M. Meddaoui Jun 2022

Interpersonal Problems And Suicidal Ideation In Daily Life: Examining The Moderating Role Of Social Problem-Solving, Brianna M. Meddaoui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with significant impairment in interpersonal functioning and risk of suicidal ideation (SI). One mechanism underlying interpersonal problems in BPD is deficits in social problem-solving. Using ecological momentary assessment, this study investigated how acute interpersonal problems (conflict, social isolation, lack of support, and rejection) were associated with daily SI in adolescents presenting with BPD features. Perceived rejection (β = 0.05, SE = 0.02, p = .03), support (β = 0.09, SE = 0.02, p < .001), and conflict (β = 6.07, SE = 1.30, p < .001) were associated with SI concurrently. Those with weaker social problem-solving abilities were more likely to experience SI in response to perceived rejection (β = -0.3, SE = 0.01, p = .04). This study contributes …


Opening A Crack To Let The Light In: An Exploration Of An Online Group Adolescent Compassion Focussed Therapy Intervention, Euan Pb Fraser Tait Jun 2022

Opening A Crack To Let The Light In: An Exploration Of An Online Group Adolescent Compassion Focussed Therapy Intervention, Euan Pb Fraser Tait

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The current study’s goal is to expand the adolescent compassion focused therapy (CFT) literature by exploring participant experiences of a novel CFT protocol which was delivered in an online group therapy format. This study is a mixed methods approach using surveys, open-ended questionnaires, and interviews to explore participants’ experience and expression of feelings of inadequacy (FOI) and self-compassion. Thematic analysis findings revealed that participants struggled primarily with FOI relating to evaluative contexts such as school and sports and that these FOI also carried with them implications of self-worth and perfectionism. Through participating in the program, participants were able to de-shame …


Co-Rumination In Social Networks, Samantha M. Jones Jun 2022

Co-Rumination In Social Networks, Samantha M. Jones

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although co-rumination is associated with positive relationship perceptions, individuals that engage in this behaviour often report fewer friends and peer difficulties. Those with a tendency to co-ruminate also report elevated levels of internalizing symptoms. Thus, the tendency to co-ruminate may put individuals at risk of depressive and anxious symptoms as well as social problems as they make the challenging transition to university and build new social networks. I analyzed social network data from 458 first year undergraduate students during their first university semester. Co-rumination within a particular relationship was associated with greater tie strength and socio-emotional multiplexity. Co-rumination was positively …


Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: Effective Risk Management With Male Perpetrators, Simrat K. Tung Jun 2022

Addressing Intimate Partner Violence: Effective Risk Management With Male Perpetrators, Simrat K. Tung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research aimed to identify the competencies required of intimate partner violence (IPV) specialists to effectively manage risk posed by male perpetrators of violence. Two methods were utilized– a scoping review of existing literature, and semi-structured interviews with 19 experts in the field. Researchers analyzed 140 documents and the transcribed interviews, extracting and compiling excerpts relating to competencies for assessing and managing risk and safety. Reflexive thematic analysis and methodological data triangulation were used to identify and compare competencies derived from literature and practice-based knowledge. Triangulation revealed overlap for themes of knowledge about IPV, promoting safety, assessing risk, collaborating with …


Appearance- Versus Function-Based Verbal Cues During Exercise In Young Non-Exercising Women, Maclean Press Jun 2022

Appearance- Versus Function-Based Verbal Cues During Exercise In Young Non-Exercising Women, Maclean Press

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This experimental study assessed the acute effects of appearance- versus function-based verbal cues during exercise on indices of self-objectification and exercise engagement among young women non-exercisers. Participants were randomized into one of three exercise conditions (appearance, neutral, function), where an instructor delivered verbal cues during a 20-minute treadmill exercise task. Participants completed a baseline assessment of trait self-objectification, and a post-manipulation survey examining psychological states (self-objectification, body shame, social physique anxiety, flow, and interoceptive awareness) and exercise engagement (intent to exercise, exercise enjoyment, exercise motivation). The total sample included 102 women (Mage = 20.2 years, SDage = …