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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

The Dynamic Negotiated Exchange Model Of Heroism And Heroic Leadership: Lessons From The Covid-19 Pandemic, Scott T. Allison, James K. Beggan Dec 2022

The Dynamic Negotiated Exchange Model Of Heroism And Heroic Leadership: Lessons From The Covid-19 Pandemic, Scott T. Allison, James K. Beggan

Interdisciplinary Journal of Leadership Studies

This article proposes a new model of heroism and heroic leadership that conceptualizes the exchange relationship between heroic leaders and the recipients of heroic action as dynamic and negotiated. Previous exchange models portraying heroic leadership exchange as static and passive are shown to be inadequate under conditions of major societal upheaval. Underlying the Dynamic Negotiated Exchange (DNE) model is the idea that equitable hero–recipient exchange during times of societal crises becomes strained and subject to negotiated revision. The terms of the negotiation are first manifest in media dialogue and then translate to individual or structural reforms offering more equitable exchange …


Grieving Experiences Of Undergraduate College Students, Alexia V. Rehling Aug 2022

Grieving Experiences Of Undergraduate College Students, Alexia V. Rehling

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to compare the well-being of bereaved versus non-bereaved undergraduate students. Additionally, they were asked to report how many losses they have experienced, the characteristics of the most difficult loss, and their experiences with grief. Lastly, data on use of and access to support sources was collected as well as their perceived helpfulness. Results showed that bereaved undergraduates (i.e., those who indicated experiencing at least one significant loss) reported lower well-being than non-bereaved individuals. Further, 4% of participants met the criteria to receive a diagnosis of Prolonged Grief Disorder, 32.4% reported experiencing the separation distress …


Logos And Ethos: Heroism And Social Bildung In China, Jiarui Bai Jun 2022

Logos And Ethos: Heroism And Social Bildung In China, Jiarui Bai

Heroism Science

This article explores how heroism is constructed in China’s sociocultural context of values. It identifies a sociocultural novel, film, and heroic TV program as a mechanism for producing heroism for Chinese society. Furthermore, it explores the heroic principles that are generated by these media and how they inform expected actions in China. The article thus argues that the construction of Chinese heroism embodies specific representations of the expectations of humankind, a kind of “governing by worth” in heroism science. The function of these representations, forming heroic idols, could therefore help individuals become heroes with logos and ethos in pathos, subsuming …


Focus On Hyperfocus: How Adhd Symptoms Impact Difficulty With Disengagement And Inattention, Cameron Mckendrick Apr 2022

Focus On Hyperfocus: How Adhd Symptoms Impact Difficulty With Disengagement And Inattention, Cameron Mckendrick

Honors Theses

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder marked by patterns of inattention and hyperactivity. Hyperfocus (HF) is a concept that has heavily been associated with ADHD; however, it is not part of any diagnostic criteria and the literature pertaining to HF is rather underdeveloped. The present study adds to existing research by examining how HF differentially impacts ADHD populations compared to non-ADHD populations. The three main hypotheses explored in this paper are that ADHD positively predicts HF in the moment, HF in the moment negatively predicts inattention in the moment, and that the correlation between HF and …


Peoples’ Perception Of Race-Based Microaggressions As A Function Of Their Background And Beliefs, Emily Huesman Apr 2022

Peoples’ Perception Of Race-Based Microaggressions As A Function Of Their Background And Beliefs, Emily Huesman

Honors Theses

This current study’s aim was to further address microaggressions and how people perceive these “micro” aggressions based on Political identification, support for the Black Lives Matter movement, and their beliefs surrounding White privilege. Recent literature has shown that racial discrimination in any form can be incredibly detrimental to mental health, however, this study addresses the every-day microaggressions and subtle forms of racism that Black people experience every day and delves further into why these “smaller” forms of racism might not be addressed. This study used a Qualtrics survey to obtain both qualitative and quantitative data on peoples’ beliefs surrounding the …


Hometown Diversity And Race Essentialism: The Role Of Interracial Friendship Quality, Junming Zhang Apr 2022

Hometown Diversity And Race Essentialism: The Role Of Interracial Friendship Quality, Junming Zhang

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between high-quality interracial

friendships and race essentialism among college students who perceived differing levels of racial diversity in their hometowns. Participants, who were recruited from a small, private university in the southeastern United States, included 84 juniors and seniors who reported having at least one other-race close friend. Participants completed a web-based survey about their hometown diversity, friendship quality, and race essentialism. Results from multiple regression analyses revealed two significant interaction effects between hometown diversity and two measures of interracial friendship quality: intimate disclosure and affection. Findings indicated that higher intimate …


The Effect Of The Black Lives Matter Movement On American Attitudes, Isabelle Warren Apr 2022

The Effect Of The Black Lives Matter Movement On American Attitudes, Isabelle Warren

Honors Theses

The present research focuses on changing attitudes towards Black Lives Matter (BLM)

and racism. Black Lives Matter was founded in 2013, but came to a political and social forefront following the death of George Floyd in the summer of 2020. Based on research that large-scale movements have the capability of creating long term attitudinal changes, this research seeks to address the significance of BLM on attitudes in undergraduate students. Participants were recruited from University of Richmond Introduction to Psychology courses over the Fall 2020, Spring 2021, Fall 2021, and Spring 2022 semesters. They completed a survey assessing their attitudes towards …


Does Adhd Strengthen The Relationship Between Depression/Anxiety And Avoidance?, Ryan Wigginton Apr 2022

Does Adhd Strengthen The Relationship Between Depression/Anxiety And Avoidance?, Ryan Wigginton

Honors Theses

Objective: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a diagnosis often

comorbid with depression and anxiety-related disorders. Research is also indicative of a relationship between ADHD, depression, anxiety, and avoidance-related behaviors. I hypothesize that the relationship between ADHD and avoidance will be moderated by symptoms of depression and anxiety in neuro-typical college students that have not received a clinical mental health diagnosis. Method: 101 college students at the University of Richmond attended a baseline visit with a research assistant and completed baseline scale measures for symptoms of ADHD, depression, generalized anxiety, and avoidance. I used multiple regression and Hayes’ PROCESS program to analyze …


Barriers To Care, Depressive Symptoms, And Moderating Factors Among Patients With Esrd, Amarachukwu O. Nwangwu Apr 2022

Barriers To Care, Depressive Symptoms, And Moderating Factors Among Patients With Esrd, Amarachukwu O. Nwangwu

Honors Theses

End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is the fifth and final stage of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and has been reported to have the highest prevalence rate in the United States, with about 2,242 cases per million in the total population in 2017 (Johansen et al., 2021). Current studies document a high prevalence of depression among patients with ESRD which may lead to increased mortality (Shirazian et al., 2017). Additionally, barriers in access to care, which may be understood as the barriers that prevent individuals from seeking mental health services, has been linked to increased levels of undertreatment (Clement et al., 2012). …


Stigma And Anxiety As Barriers To Help-Seeking Among University Of Richmond Students, Allison Walters Apr 2022

Stigma And Anxiety As Barriers To Help-Seeking Among University Of Richmond Students, Allison Walters

Honors Theses

There is a growing need for mental health services in the United States due to increased rates of psychopathology. Emerging adults, ages ranging from 18 to 24 years, experience high rates of psychopathology and thus have a strong need for available mental health treatments (Eisenberg et al., 2007). Despite this need and the efficacy of mental health treatment as a whole, there are many barriers to treatment utilization, including stigma. This study examines level of anxiety and stigma as barriers to help-seeking using data collected through the Healthy Minds Survey at the University of Richmond. Moderation analyses revealed that anxiety …


Falling For Moses: The Role Of Stroop Inhibition And Language Expertise, Isabella Holmgren Apr 2022

Falling For Moses: The Role Of Stroop Inhibition And Language Expertise, Isabella Holmgren

Honors Theses

When presented with the question, “How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the Ark?”, people often respond “2”, despite knowing that Noah is the Biblical figure who is said to have taken animals on the ark. This phenomenon where people fail to detect inaccuracies in text has come to be known as the Moses Illusion (Erickson & Mattson, 1981). The current study was designed to investigate Moses illusion rates in a multiple-choice format. Further, participants were assessed on two cognitive constructs: language experience and cognitive inhibition. Results showed robust rates of the Moses illusion using the multiple-choice …


The Effect Of Early Cross-Race Socialization On Black Lives Matter Attitudes, Elizabeth Popovich Apr 2022

The Effect Of Early Cross-Race Socialization On Black Lives Matter Attitudes, Elizabeth Popovich

Honors Theses

The present study investigated the effect of early cross-race socialization within the family, school, and neighborhood on current support for Black Lives Matter and anti-racist attitudes. Specifically, this study will examine the variables of whether participants’ families talked about race and the diversity of schools and neighborhoods. 98 female participants, 36 male participants, and 2 n.a. participants were recruited from the University of Richmond’s Introduction to Psychology class (N= 136) and were asked to complete an anonymous survey on their attitudes regarding Black Lives Matter. Based on the results, there was no clear influence of early cross-race socialization on current …


Individual Differences In Processing Of Garden-Path Sentences: The Role Of Obsessive- Compulsive Personality Traits, Antonio Cardoso Apr 2022

Individual Differences In Processing Of Garden-Path Sentences: The Role Of Obsessive- Compulsive Personality Traits, Antonio Cardoso

Honors Theses

A great deal of previous research has investigated the real-time processing and offline interpretation of garden path (GP) sentences. This work has shown that GP sentences cause substantial processing disruptions, as revealed by regressive eye movements during reading, as well as incorrect answers to comprehension questions. The current study was designed to investigate whether variability in the processing of GP sentences could be explained by individual differences in personality traits, specifically obsessive-compulsive personality traits. In an eyetracking while reading experiment, participants read GP sentences with both a comma manipulation and a verb type manipulation. Results replicated previous findings in that …


What Does “Avoidance Mode” Feel Like? The Association Between Avoidance Awareness And Negative Affect In The Moment, Mamie Ziegler Apr 2022

What Does “Avoidance Mode” Feel Like? The Association Between Avoidance Awareness And Negative Affect In The Moment, Mamie Ziegler

Honors Theses

For students in an academic setting, task avoidance is a common behavioral strategy used to cope with the unpleasant emotions associated with schoolwork and completing assignments. However, when this form of behavioral avoidance becomes a pattern, it has the potential to lead to negative long-term consequences–such as worse academic outcomes and increased stress. To counteract maladaptive behaviors such as task avoidance, a certain level of self-awareness of such behaviors may be necessary–even if this awareness leads to more negative emotions at first. To analyze the relationship between student task avoidance and emotions, the following study utilizes ecological momentary assessment (EMA) …


Do Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion (Dei) Initiatives Cause More Harm Than Good?: Extending Research To The Domain Of Lgbtq+ Discrimination, Lindsay Everhart Apr 2022

Do Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion (Dei) Initiatives Cause More Harm Than Good?: Extending Research To The Domain Of Lgbtq+ Discrimination, Lindsay Everhart

Honors Theses

Workplace diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) initiatives have been shown to delegitimize discrimination claims made by members of low-status groups, namely women and people of color (Dover et al., 2020; Kaiser et al., 2013). Previous research attributes this effect to the fact that DEI initiatives send signals of organizational fairness, thus causing individuals to overestimate the fairness of the organization and overlook discrimination claims. Given the fact that up to 40% of LGBTQ+ employees in one survey reported some form of workplace harassment due to their sexual orientation or gender identity, it is imperative that this line of research is …


Investigating The Relationship Between Classroom Sense Of Belonging, Friendship Quality, And Peer Victimization., Addi Mansini Apr 2022

Investigating The Relationship Between Classroom Sense Of Belonging, Friendship Quality, And Peer Victimization., Addi Mansini

Honors Theses

Research examining the predictors of peer victimization, the experience of being aggressed upon by one’s peers, is important because studies have shown that peer victimization can have negative mental health and academic outcomes. This research aimed to examine classroom sense of belonging, the degree to which children feel that they are a valuable part of their class, as a predictor of peer victimization, with the hypothesis that high classroom belonging would be predictive of lower peer victimization among third through fifth grade students (N = 233; 119 female; Mage at recruitment = 9.48, SD = .68). A second objective was …


Demographic Disparities In College Students’ Psychological Adjustment During Covid-19, Anna Marston Apr 2022

Demographic Disparities In College Students’ Psychological Adjustment During Covid-19, Anna Marston

Honors Theses

The goal of the present study was to explore psychological adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic in undergraduate college students. Since March 2020, undergraduates have endured extended lockdowns, quarantines, and social distancing efforts that may affect mental health, especially for historically marginalized groups such as women and people of color. Furthermore, research on coping styles suggests that those who cope with a stressor such as a pandemic in healthy, adaptive ways may be protected against psychological difficulty. In February/March 2021 (Time 1) and again in April/May 2021 (Time 2), college students (N = 277) from two residential liberal arts institutions were …


Understanding Why Some Whistleblowers Are Venerated And Others Vilified, Christopher D. E. Atkinson, Eric D. Wesselmann, Daniel G. Lannin Apr 2022

Understanding Why Some Whistleblowers Are Venerated And Others Vilified, Christopher D. E. Atkinson, Eric D. Wesselmann, Daniel G. Lannin

Heroism Science

Whistleblowers are individuals who witness a moral infraction committed within their organization and report this infraction publicly to hold the group accountable. Whistleblowers often face ridicule, vilification, and exclusion both within their group and sometimes within broader society. Thus, whistleblowers put themselves at personal risk to adhere to their moral code and protect others; these criteria commonly classify someone as a hero. We argue diverse reactions to whistleblowers are influenced by numerous situational factors that influence perceptions of a whistleblower’s intentions as well as the expected consequences of their whistleblowing. Whether a whistleblower is viewed as a virtuous reformer (i.e., …


In Pursuit Of Important Goals: Nostalgia Fosters Heroic Perceptions Via Social Connectedness, Margaret A. Kneuer, Jeffrey D. Green, Scott T. Allison Mar 2022

In Pursuit Of Important Goals: Nostalgia Fosters Heroic Perceptions Via Social Connectedness, Margaret A. Kneuer, Jeffrey D. Green, Scott T. Allison

Heroism Science

Research on the theoretical order causally linking heroism to social connectedness and inspiration does not exist to our knowledge (Allison & Green, 2020). We propose that nostalgia is a source of heroism because of the social nature of nostalgic memories. We designed two studies, one correlational and one experimental, to test how nostalgia relates to pursuit of an important goal, through increasing social connectedness, heroic perceptions, and inspiration. Online participants completed an ordinary writing task (Study 1) or were randomly assigned to either a nostalgic or ordinary writing task (Study 2), followed by measures of social connectedness, heroic perceptions, inspiration, …


Curb Your Heroism: How Larry David, An Old, Bald Misanthrope, Won The Hearts Of Millions, Scott T. Allison, James K. Beggan, Olivia Efthimiou Mar 2022

Curb Your Heroism: How Larry David, An Old, Bald Misanthrope, Won The Hearts Of Millions, Scott T. Allison, James K. Beggan, Olivia Efthimiou

Heroism Science

For eleven television seasons, viewers of the series Curb Your Enthusiasm have been witness to a main character in Larry David who paradoxically displays attributes that are both endearing and revolting. This article offers an analysis of Larry David’s character with the goal of ascertaining his heroic nature, specifically focusing on whether he best meets the scientific criteria for a hero or for an antihero. Drawing from the literature of heroism science, we examine a large body of evidence from episodes of the series supporting arguments for both heroism and antiheroism in Larry’s character. Consistent with definitions of heroism, Larry …


Post Traumatic Growth Amongst Australian Bravery Award Recipients, Tom Voigt, Joanne Williams, Catherine M. Bennett, Angela Dew, Susan Balandin Feb 2022

Post Traumatic Growth Amongst Australian Bravery Award Recipients, Tom Voigt, Joanne Williams, Catherine M. Bennett, Angela Dew, Susan Balandin

Heroism Science

This study explored aspects of Post Traumatic Growth (PTG) amongst Australian Bravery Award recipients exposed to serious or life-threatening trauma. PTG is the process whereby some people experience growth following traumatic experiences. Previous PTG research has focused on specific disasters, incidents or cohorts of survivors. We explored a range of incidents in both civilian and non-civilian award recipients. Sixty-five Australian Bravery Award recipients (37 civilian and 28 non-civilian) completed the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory and provided additional demographic information about their bravery incident. Results showed that civilians experienced significantly higher growth (mean PTG score = 49.7 than non-civilians (mean PTG …


Book Review: The Hero Handbook, Liz Stillwaggon Swan Jan 2022

Book Review: The Hero Handbook, Liz Stillwaggon Swan

Heroism Science

The Hero Handbook, authored by Matt Langdon, offers an informative and practical guide for heroism for both preadolescent readers and adults. The book includes numerous personal anecdotes from his own hero journey and countless references to children’s literature. Each chapter includes “Check Out the Science!” insets written by psychologist Brian Riches, who explains in simple terms the neuroscience underlying various concepts related to heroism. Topics include the hero’s journey, bullying and anti-bullying, the active bystander, and the science of becoming a hero.


The Psychological Roots Of William James's Thought, David E. Leary Jan 2022

The Psychological Roots Of William James's Thought, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

"... [H]ow exactly did James’s personal characteristics, experiences, and concerns impact upon his philosophy? To answer that question we will need to look further back, well before he started publishing the works for which he is best known within philosophy: before, that is, Prag-matism (1907), A Pluralistic Universe (1909), The Meaning of Truth (1909), and the posthumously collected Essays in Radical Empiricism (1912). Before and behind these works was the work that Santayana (among many others) called James’s greatest achievement (Santayana 1920/2009: 585); namely, his monumental Principles of Psychology (1890).2 So the questions we need to ask are: (1) What …


Growth Mindsets Of Anxiety: Do The Benefits To Individual Flourishing Come With Societal Costs?, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette, Emma Nash, Whitney Becker, Joseph Billingsley Dec 2021

Growth Mindsets Of Anxiety: Do The Benefits To Individual Flourishing Come With Societal Costs?, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette, Emma Nash, Whitney Becker, Joseph Billingsley

Psychology Faculty Publications

Believing anxiety can change is a predictor of wellbeing, in part, because such beliefs – known as growth mindsets – predict weaker threat appraisals, which in turn improves psychological functioning. However, feeling a sense of personal threat facilitates social activism, and thus growth mindsets may undermine such action. Across six studies (N = 1761), including cross-sectional and experimental approaches (3 pre-registered), growth mindsets predict flourishing, including wellbeing, resilience, and grit. We find that growth mindsets indirectly predict reduced activism against social threats through reduced threat appraisals, which are critical motivators of activism. The total effect linking growth mindsets to activism …


Believing In The American Dream Sustains Negative Attitudes Toward Those In Poverty, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette, Rachel B. Forsyth, Mitchell Parry, Brenten H. Deshields Jul 2021

Believing In The American Dream Sustains Negative Attitudes Toward Those In Poverty, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette, Rachel B. Forsyth, Mitchell Parry, Brenten H. Deshields

Psychology Faculty Publications

A critical lever in the fight against poverty is to improve attitudes toward those living in poverty. Attempting to understand the factors that impact these attitudes, we ask: Does believing that meritocracy exists (descriptive meritocracy) sustain negative attitudes? Using cross-sectional (N = 301) and experimental (N = 439) methods, we found that belief in the United States as a meritocracy is associated with blaming people living in poverty and predicts negative attitudes toward them. Replicating and extending these findings, we experimentally manipulated beliefs in meritocracy and blame. Weakening American Dream beliefs predicted improved attitudes toward those in poverty. Understanding the …


The Conspiracy Theory Defense In Response To Whistleblower Accusations: Turning A Hero Into A Villain, James K. Beggan Jun 2021

The Conspiracy Theory Defense In Response To Whistleblower Accusations: Turning A Hero Into A Villain, James K. Beggan

Heroism Science

Whistleblowers can be viewed as heroic actors who reveal institutional misdeeds. In contrast, conspiracy theorists are seen as members of a marginalized element perpetuating misinformation. Despite this apparent difference, the present analysis focuses on how similarities between the two constructs can allow a target to discredit a whistleblower accusation by countering that the whistleblower is operating as part of a conspiracy. More generally, this paper considers how the difficulty inherent in disproving conspiracy theory claims facilitates their utility as a defense. The case study of President Donald Trump’s responses to whistleblower accusations are considered to illustrate the arguments.


Constructing The Heroic Whistleblower: A Social Scientific Approach, Brian K. Richardson, Joseph Mcglynn Jun 2021

Constructing The Heroic Whistleblower: A Social Scientific Approach, Brian K. Richardson, Joseph Mcglynn

Heroism Science

Many whistleblowers perform heroic acts, but not all whistleblowers are heroes. Motivation, method, and risk vary across whistleblower contexts. Although many whistleblowers portray aspects of archetypal heroism, research is needed to specify the qualities of heroic whistleblowers from non-heroic whistleblowers. The present study aims to develop an archetype of heroic whistleblowers. We identify five dimensions of whistleblowing heroism and then draw upon data from interviews that we conducted with 32 actual whistleblowers to provide examples of each element. We argue there are five dimensions of the whistleblowing process that distinguish heroic whistleblowers. The five dimensions include 1) motivation for blowing …


Using An Intersectionality Framework To Examine Disparities In The Steps To Kidney Transplantation In Patients With End Stage Renal Disease, Kacy Workman May 2021

Using An Intersectionality Framework To Examine Disparities In The Steps To Kidney Transplantation In Patients With End Stage Renal Disease, Kacy Workman

Honors Theses

Intersectionality is a theory examining how individuals’ different identities intersect to create a new lived experience, often with compounded oppressions. This theory has recently been utilized in health research to help understand and find effective ways of addressing health disparities (Bowleg, 2012). However, while studies have theorized broadly about intersectionality theory in health research, it has seldom been used to specifically address health disparities in patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). This study conducted a systematic literature review of past research that has examined barriers to kidney transplantation among ESRD patients with intersectional identities, particularly concerning race and gender. …


Does Duration Matter?: Assessing The Role Of Duration In Adverse Childhood Experiences, Miranda Thompson May 2021

Does Duration Matter?: Assessing The Role Of Duration In Adverse Childhood Experiences, Miranda Thompson

Honors Theses

Introduction: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with several negative physical and mental health outcomes in adulthood (Felitti et al., 1998). However, a criticism of the ACEs measure is that it does not account for the duration of these events (McLennan et al., 2020). Thus, I aim to replicate previous ACE findings and determine whether an ACEs measure accounting for duration is a better predictor of mental health outcomes. Methods: 244 adult participants reported on their ACEs with duration and their mental and physical health. Three ACE scales were formulated: the traditional ACEs scale, and two duration-based scales, ACEs Years …


Discovering The Wire: Dominance Effects In The Processing Of Polysemes In Sentences, Gwynna Ryan May 2021

Discovering The Wire: Dominance Effects In The Processing Of Polysemes In Sentences, Gwynna Ryan

Honors Theses

Previous research examining the processing of polysemous words presented in neutral sentence contexts has revealed conflicting results. Two different models attempt to explain these divergent patterns. The first predicts that the subordinate sense of an ambiguous word is more difficult to retrieve and process while the second predicts no differences in processing difficulty between the subordinate and dominant senses of ambiguous words. The current study tested the different predictions of these models by presenting sentences with polysemes in a neutral context. Critically, the sense relatedness of the polysemes and the sentence structure were held constant, while the sense frequency of …