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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Coping Mechanisms In Graduate School: A Discipline Comparison, Sandra P. Montenegro Jan 2023

Coping Mechanisms In Graduate School: A Discipline Comparison, Sandra P. Montenegro

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

The current study aimed to provide an overview of graduate students’ stress and coping mechanisms. Per self-reported questionnaires, participants (N=95) rated their experiences with academic-related stressors, common coping mechanisms, and strain outcomes (somatic symptoms, insomnia, and burnout). This study found that task-related stressors were the most prevalent for graduate schoolwork. More specifically, graduate students in STEM, Arts & Humanities, and Social Sciences rated the amount and difficulty of the tasks (quantitative and qualitative properties of tasks) as the highest stressors in graduate school. The preferred coping strategies across all fields were planning and emotional coping. Additionally, students in STEM reported …


Foreign Language Anxiety: A Review On Theories, Causes, Consequences And Implications For Educators, Padideh Fattahi Marnani, Sophie Cuocci Dec 2022

Foreign Language Anxiety: A Review On Theories, Causes, Consequences And Implications For Educators, Padideh Fattahi Marnani, Sophie Cuocci

Journal of English Learner Education

Anxiety has been considered one of the main obstacles in second language learning in instruction-based contexts. During the last few decades, many scholars have tried to shed light on different aspects of this phenomenon. This literature review clarifies previous scholarly works and covers some of the most significant empirical studies conducted in this field. The purpose of this literature review is to review various aspects of foreign language anxiety, its corresponding theoretical frameworks and models, causes, consequences, gender differences, class modalities (face-to-face and online) and lastly, implications for educators. Foreign language anxiety is a significant barrier that hinders the learning …


Gender Ambiguity In Voice-Based Assistants: Gender Perception And Influences Of Context, Sandra Mooshammer, Katrin Etzrodt Dec 2022

Gender Ambiguity In Voice-Based Assistants: Gender Perception And Influences Of Context, Sandra Mooshammer, Katrin Etzrodt

Human-Machine Communication

Recently emerging synthetic acoustically gender-ambiguous voices could contribute to dissolving the still prevailing genderism. Yet, are we indeed perceiving these voices as “unassignable”? Or are we trying to assimilate them into existing genders? To investigate the perceived ambiguity, we conducted an explorative 3 (male, female, ambiguous voice) × 3 (male, female, ambiguous topic) experiment. We found that, although participants perceived the gender-ambiguous voice as ambiguous, they used a profoundly wide range of the scale, indicating tendencies toward a gender. We uncovered a mild dissolve of gender roles. Neither the listener’s gender nor the personal gender stereotypes impacted the perception. However, …


Associations Between Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault Experiences, Psychological Distress, And Substance Use, Diamonde Mccollum Aug 2022

Associations Between Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault Experiences, Psychological Distress, And Substance Use, Diamonde Mccollum

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

This study evaluates the potential mechanisms underlying the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and substance use among adult women. Moreover, CSA, adult sexual assault (ASA), and psychological distress (including symptoms of depression and perceived stress) was evaluated to determine how it contributes to substance misuse. Past research shows that individuals who experience CSA are more likely to experience ASA, which results in psychological distress. Individuals may use substances to cope with psychological distress from CSA and ASA, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis. Women (N = 225) were recruited from Mechanical Turk (Mturk) and completed an online survey. Results indicate …


Human-Machine Communication Scholarship Trends: An Examination Of Research From 2011 To 2021 In Communication Journals, Riley J. Richards, Patric R. Spence, Chad Edwards Apr 2022

Human-Machine Communication Scholarship Trends: An Examination Of Research From 2011 To 2021 In Communication Journals, Riley J. Richards, Patric R. Spence, Chad Edwards

Human-Machine Communication

Despite a relatively short history, the modern-day study of communication has grown into multiple subfields. To better understand the relationship between Human-Machine Communication (HMC) research and traditional communication science, this study examines the published scholarship in 28 communication-specific journals from 2011–2021 focused on human-machine communication (HMC). Findings suggest limited prior emphasis of HMC research within the 28 reviewed journals; however, more recent trends show a promising future for HMC scholarship. Additionally, HMC appears to be diverse in the specific context areas of research in the communication context. Finally, we offer future directions of research and suggestions for the development of …


Can Feeling Like An Imposter Be Favorable? A Qualitative Study On The Role Of Appraisal In Harnessing The Imposter Phenomenon For Growth, Emily Hill Jan 2022

Can Feeling Like An Imposter Be Favorable? A Qualitative Study On The Role Of Appraisal In Harnessing The Imposter Phenomenon For Growth, Emily Hill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

The imposter phenomenon is a psychological experience characterized by feelings of self-doubt and personal incompetence that persist despite evidence of achievement and success. Employees with these imposter-like thoughts feel as if they ended up in notable roles and positions not because of merit, but from oversight or luck. Research and popular press articles have portrayed the imposter phenomenon as a negative experience, bringing costs to the individual's well-being and work life. Yet, recent research has revealed that perhaps a favorable trajectory to the imposter experience might exist. To address this question, participants were identified and interviewed using a two-phase, sequential …


Differences In Performance Anxiety Between Expert And Amateur Dressage Riders, Hanna E. Benne Jan 2022

Differences In Performance Anxiety Between Expert And Amateur Dressage Riders, Hanna E. Benne

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Performance anxiety is a challenge most individuals in a sport face. From experts to novices in dressage, various individuals attempt to find harmony between horse and rider. Performance is a large part of dressage sport riding. This thesis will examine the following topics: the differences in expert and amateurs’ performance anxiety; the anxiety level of an expert or amateur who has been involved in a sport related injury; if the individual has a neurotic personality, whether more performance anxiety may occur while riding. A Mini IPIP five-factor personality test, Sports anxiety scale, Sports injury anxiety scales, and dressage questionnaires will …


The Merits Of Reporting Battered Woman Syndrome In South Asian Women, Annyssa Karran Jan 2022

The Merits Of Reporting Battered Woman Syndrome In South Asian Women, Annyssa Karran

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This paper’s focus on South Asian and Asian-American women in relation to Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS) originates from a limited amount of research on the self-helping behaviors of these women–especially those who have immigrated from the countries of Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Bhutan–as compared to other cultures (Sripada, 2020). The current literature surrounding BWS identifies lesser reporting on South Asian and Asian-American women with ethnic backgrounds from these regions (Kasturirangan, 2004). A journal by Yoshioka (2005) proposes that we consider the “world view” or intersectionality when considering domestic violence and to which many women are restricted as a result …


Internal State Language And Coping In Narratives Of Covid-19: Relation To Psychological Well-Being, Divya Pradipkumar Patel Jan 2022

Internal State Language And Coping In Narratives Of Covid-19: Relation To Psychological Well-Being, Divya Pradipkumar Patel

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The Covid-19 pandemic had global consequences for billions of individuals, including high rates of mortality and morbidity, lost income, and prolonged social isolation. In the short and long term, this crisis will have an impact on people's lives and mental health. The current correlational study looks at how internal state language, stress, and coping are used in college students' narratives concerning the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown experiences in relation to psychological well-being. A sample of 216 undergraduate students completed surveys that recorded their narrative experiences of COVID-19, psychological well-being, depression severity, and measure of how stressful occurrences in one’s life …


Risk And Protective Factors For Negative Psychological Outcomes In Lgbtq+ Individuals, Emalee Kerr Jan 2022

Risk And Protective Factors For Negative Psychological Outcomes In Lgbtq+ Individuals, Emalee Kerr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Previous research suggests that suicide is more prevalent among those in the LGBTQ+ community (Abelson et al., 2006), and they are also more likely to experience bullying and psychological symptoms while less likely to have adequate social support. Although many studies have examined risk factors for suicidality, the current study aimed to compare the impact of the risk factors among those in the LGBTQ+ community with those who are not. Further, this study examined the role of identity in conjunction with these other risk and protective factors. College students (N = 501) completed an anonymous online survey battery. Suicidality was …


A Novel Virtual Reality Executive Function Assessment, Christine Parsons Jan 2022

A Novel Virtual Reality Executive Function Assessment, Christine Parsons

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Executive Function (EF) is related to cognitive ability and includes such constructs as working memory, inhibition control, and cognitive flexibility (i.e., set shifting). The individual constructs work together to allow a person to set and achieve goals. Student success and achievement have been linked to satisfactory EF skills. Research indicates the testing methods for executive function are diverse and may lack sensitivity. Currently, the NIH Toolbox-Cognitive Battery (NTCB) assessment is a nationally normed standardized battery used to measure individual constructs of executive function in isolation. However, this assessment does not allow measurement of EF as the individual constructs interoperate. Virtual …


Examining The Relationship Between Alcohol Expectancies And Behavioral Economic Theory, Tatiana Magri Jan 2022

Examining The Relationship Between Alcohol Expectancies And Behavioral Economic Theory, Tatiana Magri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

PURPOSE: Alcohol consumption and related problems are common among college students. Prior research links behavioral economic constructs of alcohol demand (relative valuation of alcohol; analyzed using area under the curve) and relative reinforcement (RR; proportionate reinforcement obtained from alcohol-related activities relative to other activities), as well as alcohol expectancies, with alcohol consumption and problems. However, research has yet to examine the associations between behavioral economic and expectancy theories or how they influence alcohol use outcomes. METHOD: College students who endorsed drinking in the past 30 days (n= 287) completed an online survey assessing demand, RR, alcohol expectancies, alcohol problems, and …


Leadership Emergence: Is There A Dark Side To Leadership Claiming Behavior?, Haroon Pervez Jan 2022

Leadership Emergence: Is There A Dark Side To Leadership Claiming Behavior?, Haroon Pervez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

This study is framed in DeRue & Ashford's (2010) theory of Leadership Identity Construction which states that leadership emergence is a mutual-influence process that exists between individuals claiming leadership and the other members of the group granting leadership. Although this theory and subsequent research details how and in what ways leadership claiming behaviors can be made to emerge as a leader, the literature is relatively silent on how (or if) too much or too little claiming behaviors will affect follower's granting of leadership, and if a "sweet-spot" of leadership claiming behaviors exists where followers are most likely to grant leadership. …


The Effects Of Traumatic Experiences On Identity Among People With Expressive Language Disorders, Bailey Wagaman Jan 2022

The Effects Of Traumatic Experiences On Identity Among People With Expressive Language Disorders, Bailey Wagaman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

This study aims to address the lack of standardized measurement of the effects of trauma on identity. Waterman's (2020) theory, taxonomy, and Trauma Impacts on Identity Functioning Scales were used to evaluate the effects of traumatic brain injury on identity. TBI survivors compared their sense of identity from pre-to-post TBI. Data collection consisted of 2 interviews and participants were compensated with $60 gift cards. Participants (N = 15, Mage = 52.67) were recruited from several language disorder groups. In terms of identity functioning post-brain injury, participant reports of their experiences varied quite a bit from identity loss to a strengthened …


Exploring Generational Differences In Emotional Response To The Pandemic, Michelle Aros Jan 2022

Exploring Generational Differences In Emotional Response To The Pandemic, Michelle Aros

Honors Undergraduate Theses

COVID-19 was a pandemic that has impacted the world in various ways and forced everyone to quarantine within the confounds of their homes. As studies investigated the effects of the pandemic, it was found that undergraduate students faced severe emotional and psychological difficulties being “at-risk” for greater psychological distress (Mayorga et al., 2021). Undergraduate students are currently made up of Generation Z individuals who are born from 1995 to 2010 (Ang et al., 2021). The present study investigates the relationship between mental health and generational cultural attitudes to explore whether there is a correlation between the stressors from COVID and …


Narratives Of Racism And Microaggressions, Tayana J. Rich Jan 2022

Narratives Of Racism And Microaggressions, Tayana J. Rich

Honors Undergraduate Theses

As the nation becomes more multicultural, more research has inquired into the identity development of diverse individuals through their racial identity. The presence of racism and microaggressions presents an interesting obstacle in underrepresented groups’ identity development. Microaggressions, which are ambiguous slights toward a member of a minority group, have become more prevalent in society and have caused a shift in how victims of these aggressions cope and integrate these experiences into their racial identity. Much research has focused on how these daily insults affect health in terms of lower life expectancy, however there is a lack of research regarding how …


Psychological Reactance And Sensation Seeking As Risk Factors For Perpetration Of Sexual Violence, Elana Gabriel Jan 2022

Psychological Reactance And Sensation Seeking As Risk Factors For Perpetration Of Sexual Violence, Elana Gabriel

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Sexual violence is a major public health issue within the United States, particularly that with perpetrators who are men and victims who are women. Understanding risk factors for sexual violence perpetration is necessary to decrease the overall severity of sexual violence. In past research, psychological reactance has been shown to be associated with sexual violence perpetration, yet there is limited research on this association. Additionally, previous research has found that other traits may enhance the predictive properties of psychological reactance and that sensation seeking can predict sexual violence risk factors and sexual violence perpetration. Yet there is little to no …


A Re-Evaluation Of Stuart's Police Officer Stigma Scale, Zachery D. Burzee Jan 2022

A Re-Evaluation Of Stuart's Police Officer Stigma Scale, Zachery D. Burzee

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Stigma about mental illness is often identified as one of the most prominent obstacles to seeking mental health services. This seems to be particularly true among first responders. Unfortunately, the research regarding stigma in first responders is lacking. This may be due, in part, to the absence of appropriate measurement tools to allow such research. Stuart’s Police Officer Stigma Scale (POSS) has recently been developed to address this issue, but its psychometric properties have gone largely untested. Therefore, this study sought to identify the underlying factor structure and internal consistency of the POSS. This paper used a sample of one …


Mediation Analysis Of A Broader Conceptualization Of The Three-Step Theory Of Suicidality, Ana V. Garcia Villasana Jan 2022

Mediation Analysis Of A Broader Conceptualization Of The Three-Step Theory Of Suicidality, Ana V. Garcia Villasana

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Unsatisfactory results for the aim of reducing suicide rates have motivated the creation of new models to predict suicide, such as the ideation-to-action framework, which focuses on differentiating those with suicidal ideation and those who attempt suicide. The most recently published theory on the ideation-to-action framework is the Three-Step Theory (3ST). Step 1 proposes that the combination of pain and hopelessness causes suicidal ideation, step 2 proposes that ideation increases when pain and hopelessness surpass connectedness, and step 3 proposes that strong suicidal ideation escalates to action when the person has the capacity to attempt suicide. The theory’s concepts are …


Elaboration, Resolution, And Coping In The Covid-19 Narratives Of College Students: Relations To Identity Development, Maha Y. Halabi Jan 2022

Elaboration, Resolution, And Coping In The Covid-19 Narratives Of College Students: Relations To Identity Development, Maha Y. Halabi

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Previous research has shown that talking about highly significant experiences in more elaborative ways and with greater meaning-making is related to better identity development in emerging adults (McLean & Pratt, 2006). Expressing personally significant experiences through narratives allows individuals to construct coherent autobiographical stories about the self, connecting their past, present, and future selves into a coherent whole, which ultimately contributes to healthy identity development (Pennebaker & Seagal, 1999). In this research, we examined the Covid-19 narratives of college students in relation to identity development. Data was collected from 218 emerging adult college students, ages 18 and above, both males …


Positive Psychology - A Cross-Cultural Comparison Of Correctional Systems, Denitsa Kaneva Jan 2022

Positive Psychology - A Cross-Cultural Comparison Of Correctional Systems, Denitsa Kaneva

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This paper analyzes and compares the effectiveness of the correctional systems in the United States of America and Europe, with some emphasis on Scandinavia. To make the comparison, I looked at previous research on the correctional systems in the United States and Europe. I reviewed articles from PsycInfo EBSCO Host and Google Scholar. The main points of comparison used are recidivism rates and rehabilitation services offered by the prisons in different countries. The results of this comparison show that countries that offer better rehabilitation services in the prison system, like Scandinavian countries, have lower recidivism rates than the United States, …


Emotional Neglect In Childhood And Attachment Anxiety In Adult Relationships As Predictors Of Social Networking Addiction, Latasha N. Mcdowell Jan 2022

Emotional Neglect In Childhood And Attachment Anxiety In Adult Relationships As Predictors Of Social Networking Addiction, Latasha N. Mcdowell

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This study investigated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and social networking addiction to determine if it was mediated by anxious-avoidant attachment. It was hypothesized that the presence of an anxious-avoidant attachment pattern developed as a result of childhood maltreatment would mediate the correlation between anxious-avoidant attachment and social networking addiction. This would mean that participants who developed an anxious-avoidant attachment style due to childhood maltreatment would use social media in unhealthy ways. To measure childhood maltreatment, the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE) was used. The Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised scale (ECR-R) was used to measure anxious-avoidant attachment. Finally, social networking …


Mental Health Attitudes And Knowledge Among Shia Muslims In America, Fatima Z. Hussain Jan 2022

Mental Health Attitudes And Knowledge Among Shia Muslims In America, Fatima Z. Hussain

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Mental health has received more attention and stigma associated with it has decreased over time in the United States. However, subpopulations have differing views on mental illness since cultural factors can shape perceptions of and influence access to mental health information. Previous studies have investigated such cultural factors among Sunni Muslims (the majority sect of Islam) and less so among Shia Muslims (the minority sect). To address this gap, two research questions were investigated in this project: (1) What are the mental health attitudes among Shia Muslim adults in the United States, and (2) How much mental health knowledge or …


Tomboys: The Role Of Protective Identity In The Gender Binary, Jalen C. Grant Jan 2022

Tomboys: The Role Of Protective Identity In The Gender Binary, Jalen C. Grant

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This study examined the biases of individuals regarding what is perceived as feminine and what is masculine, as well as the freedoms and limitations of being labeled a tomboy. This research examined the associations among several factors: perceptions of masculine and feminine traits, perceptions of lesbian and gay identity, self-identification, and the confluence of tomboy and lesbian identity. Students in high enrollment psychology courses at a large southeastern metropolitan university (N = 385) participated in an anonymous online survey. A series of hypotheses were generated but results were highly inconsistent. Possible reasons for these inconsistencies are explored with an eye …


Morality And Identity: A New Framework, Adriana Seda Jan 2022

Morality And Identity: A New Framework, Adriana Seda

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Moral identity, moral personality, and moral emotion have all been suggested to influence moral behavior individually, however, the results have been mixed and contradictory. Furthermore, they have never been tested together to determine their relative contribution in predicting moral decision-making. An anonymous online survey was administered to undergraduate students (N = 432). Moral Reasoning was assessed by a series of six hypothetical moral dilemmas. Participants were asked which of two choices they would prefer, one being a more deontological choice, in other words, follow a principle such as “tell the truth”, and the other being a more utilitarian choice, …


Susceptibility And The Stockholm Syndrome, Karina S. Cabrera Jan 2022

Susceptibility And The Stockholm Syndrome, Karina S. Cabrera

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This thesis intends to explore the relationship between three specific types of abuse and their susceptibility to developing Stockholm syndrome. Stockholm syndrome is the psychological phenomenon of a victim empathizing with their abuser. It can occur under various types of abuse, such as captivity, domestic violence with a partner, and child sexual abuse. A thorough literature review was conducted on the topic to determine which type of abuse makes a person more susceptible to developing the syndrome. It was concluded that the circumstances involved in child sexual abuse make a victim more inclined to sympathize with their abuser. By understanding …


The Role Of Individual Differences And Personality Factors In Distracted And Aggressive Driving Behaviors, Alyssa M. Holcomb Jan 2022

The Role Of Individual Differences And Personality Factors In Distracted And Aggressive Driving Behaviors, Alyssa M. Holcomb

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Government reports indicate that, on average, more than 3000 people die due to distracted driving each year, accounting for nearly 10% of all fatal car crashes. Other reports claim that two-thirds of fatal car accidents result from aggressive driving. Previous research has been inconclusive regarding how personality impacts distracted and aggressive driving behaviors. Therefore, the goal of this current study is to fill the gap in the literature concerning the role that personality plays in distracted and aggressive driving behaviors. We also explored the role that distracted and aggressive driving behaviors played in accident involvement. A sample of (N=327) participants …


Hannibal Lecter And A Friend Walk Into A Bar: The Role Of Psychopathy In Peer Drinking Behaviors, Matthew Kramer Jan 2022

Hannibal Lecter And A Friend Walk Into A Bar: The Role Of Psychopathy In Peer Drinking Behaviors, Matthew Kramer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

OVERVIEW: College student drinking remains a concern on campuses, with many interventions for college students not showing the desired effect in lowering alcohol use and problems. Thus, examining possible underlying factors, such as psychopathy, is important. Psychopathy includes elements of callousness, manipulativeness, charm, and impulsivity. Additionally, psychopathy has been associated with increased alcohol use and problems. Despite the overwhelming evidence of psychopathy's role in alcohol pathology writ large, and that psychopathy is considered to include predatory interpersonal skills and antisocial behaviors, there is little research examining the role of psychopathy in peer influence related to alcohol use and protective strategies. …


Addressing Sexual Harassment (Sh) At Work: Examining The Role Of Social Identity On Observer Intervention Behavior, Tisnue Jean-Baptiste Jan 2022

Addressing Sexual Harassment (Sh) At Work: Examining The Role Of Social Identity On Observer Intervention Behavior, Tisnue Jean-Baptiste

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Sexual Harassment (SH) has been a prevalent issue within the workplace. Observer behavior is when employees are trained to identify and intervene in situations of SH. The traditional SH framework has focused on the legal compliance of employees rather than appealing to their moral reasoning. Furthermore, in most SH training typically depicts an SH situation with a white man who identifies as heterosexual as the perpetrator and a white woman as the victim. The Sex-Based Harassment (SBH) framework aims to address various intersections of racial, sexual, and gender identity within the context of SH. The current study examined the role …


An Examination Of Gender-Based Differences In Perceptions Of Supervisor Support, Ann Schlotzhauer Jan 2022

An Examination Of Gender-Based Differences In Perceptions Of Supervisor Support, Ann Schlotzhauer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Perceived supervisor support and particularly emotional support possess conceptual overlap with stereotypes of femininity. The present study extends understanding of perceived supervisor support by applying the agency and communality framework of gender stereotypes and role congruity theory. This study employed a vignette research design to examine differential ratings of male and female supervisors who were depicted engaging in (a) no support, (b) instrumental support, (c) emotional support, or (d) instrumental and emotional support. Results suggest that supportive supervision is indeed viewed as feminine in nature. Further, findings suggest that female supervisors engaging in emotional support behaviors are preferred over equivalently …