Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Loyola University Chicago

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1703

Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Examining The Implementation Of Teacher–Child Interaction Training-Universal In Public Schools, Catherine Decarlo Santiago, Yvita Bustos, Susana Sosa, Roxanna Flores Toussaint, Sarah Gebhardt, David Stern Jun 2022

Examining The Implementation Of Teacher–Child Interaction Training-Universal In Public Schools, Catherine Decarlo Santiago, Yvita Bustos, Susana Sosa, Roxanna Flores Toussaint, Sarah Gebhardt, David Stern

Psychology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Teacher–Child Interaction Training-Universal (TCIT-U) is a professional development program for teachers that promotes positive relational interactions and strengthens classroom management. This study examines the implementation of TCIT-U in a public school district to guide future implementation and sustainability. This study uses qualitative methods to examine the implementation of TCIT-U across preschool through second-grade classrooms in a suburban public school district in Illinois, United States. Eight teachers and five coaches participated in focus groups, while three administrators completed interviews. Qualitative data from focus groups and interviews are supplemented by quantitative data on satisfaction, teacher sense of efficacy, teacher observations, and …


Phishing For Fun, Madeline Moran, Anna Hart, Loretta Stalans, Eric Chan-Tin, Shelia Kennison Jun 2022

Phishing For Fun, Madeline Moran, Anna Hart, Loretta Stalans, Eric Chan-Tin, Shelia Kennison

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Discriminant Validity Between Integrative Complexity And Open-Minded Cognition, Madeleine Louise Kindler Jan 2022

Assessing The Discriminant Validity Between Integrative Complexity And Open-Minded Cognition, Madeleine Louise Kindler

Master's Theses

The objective of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity between integrative complexity and open-minded cognition (OMC). That is, the aim of this study was to show that integrative complexity and OMC are conceptually distinct constructs. This online study randomly assigned 198 Loyola University Chicago undergraduate psychology students to read either six tenable, homogeneous written communication remarks or six untenable, heterogeneous written communication remarks, made during a hypothetical conversation about the inclusion of prayer/moments of silence in high school curriculums. Participants then listed their cognitive thoughts and responses to the communication in a free response format (integrative complexity measure) …


The Effect Of Group Identification And Emotion On Participation In Collective Action, Iryna Chaban Jan 2022

The Effect Of Group Identification And Emotion On Participation In Collective Action, Iryna Chaban

Master's Theses

In the last few years, the number of collective actions in the United States started to increase. These events have been ranging from peaceful to violent. The present research aims to understand what is causing groups to participate in collective action and become aggressive. It will expand understanding of group identification, emotion, and participation in collective action. The researcher hypothesizes that individuals who hold higher identification with a group are more likely to experience anger and participate in a protest. Data collection involved an online survey. Introductory psychology students read a passage describing a protest and respond to several short …


How Black Are You?: The Influence Of Racial Centrality On Stereotype Threat In The Courtroom, Kendall Cathleen Redwood Jan 2022

How Black Are You?: The Influence Of Racial Centrality On Stereotype Threat In The Courtroom, Kendall Cathleen Redwood

Master's Theses

The current study explores whether stereotype threat, or fear of confirming negativestereotypes about one’s in-group, might manifest in the criminal justice system. This study specifically asks whether the threat of confirming stereotypes connecting race and crime manifest, among Black defendants, in nonverbal behaviors that might be perceived by observers as guilt. This research further explores whether racial centrality, the degree to which one identifies with one’s race, moderates effects of stereotype threat. Black female-identifying college students, who rated their degree of racial centrality, were randomly assigned to experience the activation of the race-crime stereotype or to a control condition. They …


The Role Of Identification In Black Individuals' Goals To Challenge Racism Through Confrontation And Collective Action, Efrata Sasahulih Jan 2022

The Role Of Identification In Black Individuals' Goals To Challenge Racism Through Confrontation And Collective Action, Efrata Sasahulih

Master's Theses

Anti-Black racism continues to harm Black individuals in the United States and throughout the world (e.g., police brutality, medical racism: Hoffman, Trawalter, Axt, & Oliver, 2016; Smiley & Fakunle, 2016; Stuber, Meyer, & Link, 2008). Psychological research has investigated the roots of prejudice and strategies to mitigate its negative consequences, including confrontation and collective action. However, research in this area has largely focused on ways that these strategies pose additional risk for targets of prejudice. This research determined if Black people who endorse individual-benefiting or group-benefiting goals following an instance of anti-Black racism use confrontation and collective action, respectively, to …


Influences Of Latino Caregivers’ Input And Acculturation On Children’S Bilingual Development: A Speech Sample Analysis, Jordan Sierra Perry Jan 2022

Influences Of Latino Caregivers’ Input And Acculturation On Children’S Bilingual Development: A Speech Sample Analysis, Jordan Sierra Perry

Master's Theses

Interactions with caregivers are important for children’s development. In particular, the language input that young dual language learners (DLLs) receive from their primary caregivers affects their cultural knowledge and their bilingual language outcomes. However, relatively little research has been conducted to investigate the cultural contexts that influence Latino caregivers’ bilingual language use at home, including their acculturation level. Thus, the present study examined the relation between caregivers’ acculturation and their children’s bilingual (Spanish and English) language use, and whether this relation varied as a function of caregivers’ bilingual language use. Parent-report measures of bilingual language use, in addition to video …


How Self Relevance And Disclaimers Against Blame Affect Victim Blaming Of Sexual Assault Survivors, Lina Maria Flores Wolf Jan 2022

How Self Relevance And Disclaimers Against Blame Affect Victim Blaming Of Sexual Assault Survivors, Lina Maria Flores Wolf

Master's Theses

Victim blame can have negative impacts on survivors of sexual assault, leading to increased rates of neurological disorders, like PTSD, depression, and anxiety (Orchowski et al., 2013). As such, it is important that psychologists focus on implementing and understanding the effects of interventions that seek to decrease victim blame. This study seeks to explore the effects of a potential intervention aimed at decreasing victim blame by introducing, together with information about an assault, an explicit disclaimer stating that victims are not to blame. I explore the relationship between self-relevance and blame, as well as whether an explicit disclaimer against victim …


Examining The Bidirectional Relations Between Psychological Functioning And Academic Outcomes Among College Students, Maya Hareli Jan 2022

Examining The Bidirectional Relations Between Psychological Functioning And Academic Outcomes Among College Students, Maya Hareli

Master's Theses

Emerging adulthood is a developmental period associated with a variety of transitions and changes, including rising rates of mental health concerns (Arnett, 2004, 2006; Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2020). The literature has established that both psychological and academic functioning are critical components of students’ lives, as mental health has been shown to interfere with students’ grades, graduation rates, and postgraduate employment (Hartley, 2010; Mojtabai et al., 2015), while poor achievement is associated with mental health challenges in college and beyond (Bruffaerts et al., 2018; Respondek et al., 2017). Additionally, women and men have been shown to experience these areas …


Does Co-Speech Gesture Support Children’S Analogical Reasoning? An Investigation Into The Differential Effects Of Gesture On Learning, Katharine F. Guarino Jan 2022

Does Co-Speech Gesture Support Children’S Analogical Reasoning? An Investigation Into The Differential Effects Of Gesture On Learning, Katharine F. Guarino

Dissertations

Although the general consensus is that gesture supports learning across a wide range of learning contexts, nuances to gesture’s effects are found across the gesture-for-learning literature. The purpose of this body of research was to advance our understanding of gesture’s effect on learning. Specifically, we explored the utility of gesture in a domain that had not been considered in the gesture literature previously: analogical reasoning (Study 1). We aimed to understand whether gesture supports children’s analogical reasoning ability and why gesture might support this type of reasoning. Specifically, we investigated whether gesture could support learning through directing visual attention, thereby …


A Study In The Effectivenss Of Factual Versus Emotional Interventions In Reducing Ambivalent Sexism In Hiring Decisions, Molly Jane Driscoll Jan 2022

A Study In The Effectivenss Of Factual Versus Emotional Interventions In Reducing Ambivalent Sexism In Hiring Decisions, Molly Jane Driscoll

Master's Theses

Ambivalent sexism – divided into the categories of benevolent sexism (BS) and hostile sexism (HS) – is imbedded in many parts of the workplace. This study aims to explore if ambivalent sexism influences hiring decisions and, if so, what can be done about it. After completing a series of surveys, participants were asked to read about an agentic female candidate who applied for a male-dominated position. Afterwards, participants went through either a factual or emotional intervention before reevaluating their decision. Major results showed that only the emotional intervention increased the likelihood of the candidate being hired but it is not …


Growth Of Condition-Related Knowledge Among Youth With Spina Bifida: Associations With Neurocognitive Functioning And Self-Management Skills, Olivia Emery Clark Jan 2022

Growth Of Condition-Related Knowledge Among Youth With Spina Bifida: Associations With Neurocognitive Functioning And Self-Management Skills, Olivia Emery Clark

Master's Theses

Spina bifida (SB) is a congenital birth defect that may involve physical, medical, and neuropsychological complications due to central nervous system malformation (Copp et al., 2015). Ambulation problems, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and hydrocephalus require daily medical management tasks, including catheterization, bowel program management, and skin checks to avoid secondary complications. While self-management skills are typically gained during adolescence, executive dysfunction in SB may complicate gains (Dennis et al., 2006; Greenley, 2010). Indeed, evidence in other chronic conditions suggests that adolescent executive dysfunction is linked to poorer medical self-management. Condition-related knowledge has been identified as an important basis of medical …


Leveraging Moral Foundations To Increase Covid-19 Vaccination, Cara Elizabeth Ray Jan 2022

Leveraging Moral Foundations To Increase Covid-19 Vaccination, Cara Elizabeth Ray

Dissertations

Despite the vast majority of the eligible U.S. adult population being vaccinated against COVID-19, geographical clusters of unvaccinated individuals pose a substantial risk of outbreak. It is important to encourage as many individuals as possible to vaccinate against COVID-19 to reduce its spread and severity. Past research has identified endorsement of the purity and liberty moral foundations – intuitive domains of moral concern – as predictors of vaccine hesitancy and political conservatism, while conservatism is itself associated with vaccine hesitancy. Across two online surveys, I examined the effects of a message invoking the purity and liberty foundations as well as …


Positive Affect Facilitates Reduction In Depression Symptoms During A Mobile Mindfulness-Based Intervention, Andrew Rauch Jan 2022

Positive Affect Facilitates Reduction In Depression Symptoms During A Mobile Mindfulness-Based Intervention, Andrew Rauch

Master's Theses

Depression negatively impacts the lives of many, and the rates are continuing to rapidly increase. Identifying patterns of modifiable affective psychological mechanisms that contribute to reducing depression symptoms is critical to improve the effectiveness of wellbeing interventions for individuals with depressive disorders. Depression has been characterized by valanced patterns of low positive affect and high negative affect, yet the extent to which these relative patterns of affectivity change in response to intervention remains less clear. The present study evaluated affective patterns in college students (n = 127) with elevated depression symptoms who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of …


Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers’ Vocabulary Skills: The Role Of Caregiver Language Input And Warmth, Perla B. Gámez, Francisco Palermo, Jordan S. Perry, Maily Galindo Jan 2022

Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers’ Vocabulary Skills: The Role Of Caregiver Language Input And Warmth, Perla B. Gámez, Francisco Palermo, Jordan S. Perry, Maily Galindo

Psychology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

There is a well-documented link between bilingual language development and the relative amounts of exposure to each language. Less is known about the role of quality indicators of caregiver-child interactions in bilingual homes, including caregiver input diversity, warmth and sensitivity. This longitudinal study examines the relation between caregiver input (lexical diversity, amount), warmth and sensitivity and bilingual toddlers’ subsequent vocabulary outcomes. We video-recorded caregiver-child interactions in Spanish-English Latino homes when toddlers (n = 47) were 18 months of age (M = 18.32 months; SD = 1.02 months). At the 24-month follow-up, we measured children's vocabulary as total vocabulary (English, Spanish …


Bias Mitigation For Toxicity Detection Via Sequential Decisions, Lu Cheng, Ahmadreza Mosallanezhad, Yasin N. Silva, Deborah Hall, Huan Liu Jan 2022

Bias Mitigation For Toxicity Detection Via Sequential Decisions, Lu Cheng, Ahmadreza Mosallanezhad, Yasin N. Silva, Deborah Hall, Huan Liu

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Increased social media use has contributed to the greater prevalence of abusive, rude, and offensive textual comments. Machine learning models have been developed to detect toxic comments online, yet these models tend to show biases against users with marginalized or minority identities (e.g., females and African Americans). Established research in debiasing toxicity classifiers often (1) takes a static or batch approach, assuming that all information is available and then making a one-time decision; and (2) uses a generic strategy to mitigate different biases (e.g., gender and racial biases) that assumes the biases are independent of one another. However, in real …


A Labeled Dataset For Investigating Cyberbullying Content Patterns In Instagram, Mara Hamlett, Grace Powell, Yasin N. Silva, Deborah Hall Jan 2022

A Labeled Dataset For Investigating Cyberbullying Content Patterns In Instagram, Mara Hamlett, Grace Powell, Yasin N. Silva, Deborah Hall

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

As online communication continues to become more prevalent, instances of cyberbullying have also become more common, particularly on social media sites. Previous research in this area has studied cyberbullying outcomes, predictors of cyberbullying victimization/perpetration, and computational detection models that rely on labeled datasets to identify the underlying patterns. However, there is a dearth of work examining the content of what is said when cyberbullying occurs and most of the available datasets include only basic labels (cyberbullying or not). This paper presents an annotated Instagram dataset with detailed labels about key cyberbullying properties, such as the content type, purpose, directionality, and …


The Role Of Intersensory Redundancy In Face Recognition In 5- And 12-Month-Old Infants, Aslı Bursalıoğlu Jan 2021

The Role Of Intersensory Redundancy In Face Recognition In 5- And 12-Month-Old Infants, Aslı Bursalıoğlu

Master's Theses

The goal of this study was to examine the role of audiovisual synchrony in 5- and 12-month-old infants’ attention to and processing of face stimuli. Infants were tested using an online platform called Lookit. In the first phase of the experiment, infants were familiarized with two videos presented simultaneously and side-by-side. Each video displayed a woman speaking in an infant-directed manner. A soundtrack was played that matched one of the videos (experimental condition) or neither of the videos (control condition). It was hypothesized that synchronous audiovisual presentation would attract infants’ attention and promote processing, especially among 12-month-olds. Visual-paired comparison (VPC) …


A Fair Share: How Awareness Of Inequality, Allocation Method, And System Justification Affect Perceptions Of Distributive Fairness, David Thomas Igliozzi Jan 2021

A Fair Share: How Awareness Of Inequality, Allocation Method, And System Justification Affect Perceptions Of Distributive Fairness, David Thomas Igliozzi

Master's Theses

In considering the different ways people view inequality and various proposed solutions,this study draws on classic psychological theories of distributive justice which outline three modes of allocation strategies: equality, equity, and need. While Deustch’s (1975) work on these three allocation alternatives laid the groundwork for years of distributive justice research that would follow, little empirical work has actually experimentally evaluated the conditions under which people might be more or less willing to support equity, equality, or need-based strategies. There is evidence that certain individual difference measures can predict support for redistribution. That is—those who rate highly on system justification, political …


Kinship Involvement And Strength Development In The Child Welfare System, Nicole Amper Hodgkinson Jan 2021

Kinship Involvement And Strength Development In The Child Welfare System, Nicole Amper Hodgkinson

Master's Theses

For youth involved in the Child Welfare System (CWS), maltreatment and ecological losses pose enormous challenges to healthy development. Kin and fictive kin involvement, a current CWS priority, may have the potential to aid in strength development; however, little is known about its role in this process. The current study explored the following aims: (1) identify the role of kin and fictive kin in strength development (2) investigate the impact of maltreatment on initial strength levels and their development over time and (3) examine the extent to which kinship involvement interacts with prior maltreatment to buffer the impact of maltreatment …


Promoting Information Exchange: Open-Minded Group Cognition And A Function Of Motivation And Task Type, Jeremy Ryan Winget Jan 2021

Promoting Information Exchange: Open-Minded Group Cognition And A Function Of Motivation And Task Type, Jeremy Ryan Winget

Dissertations

Open-minded cognition is a cognitive processing style that influences the manner inwhich individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by a willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, attitudes, opinions, or beliefs, even those that contradict the individual’s prior opinion. However, people also process information and make decisions within groups, and their individual cognitive styles can influence how the overall group processes and shares information. Therefore, the present paper integrates the open-minded cognition and group decision making literatures, proposes and agent- based model of open-minded group cognition, and empirically tests the antecedents and consequences …


Examining The Interplay Of Mental Health, Family Conflict, And Body Mass Index Among Mexican Origin Families: A Cross-Lagged Model, Laura Margaret Lehman Distel Jan 2021

Examining The Interplay Of Mental Health, Family Conflict, And Body Mass Index Among Mexican Origin Families: A Cross-Lagged Model, Laura Margaret Lehman Distel

Dissertations

Mexican-origin youth in the U.S. are at risk for obesity (Fryar et al., 2018) and mental health concerns (McLaughlin, Hilt, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2007). One key psychosocial process implicated in this health inequity is family conflict (Conger et al., 1999), which has been associated with both poor mental health outcomes (e.g. Santiago & Wadsworth, 2009) and overweight and obesity (Halliday et al., 2013). However, no research to date has examined the complex interplay of family conflict, mental health problems and body mass indices (BMI) over time. The present study examined cross-lagged associations among child z-scored BMI (zBMI), mental health problems (internalizing …


Promoting Early-Adolescent Dual Language Learners' Language Use & Reading Skills, Holly Griskell Jan 2021

Promoting Early-Adolescent Dual Language Learners' Language Use & Reading Skills, Holly Griskell

Dissertations

Most studies of Dual Language Learners’ (DLLs’) literacy development focus on the early childhood years. As such, this three-study dissertation sought to advance our knowledge of DLLs’ English language and reading comprehension skills during early adolescence, a developmental stage when many students struggle with reading. Study 1, “Classroom Discussion and Early-Adolescent Dual Language Learners’ Motivation and Reading Comprehension”, considered how features of the classroom language environment promote DLLs’ reading comprehension skills. We examined relations between students’ (N = 413; M age = 11.66-years-old) engagement in high-quality classroom discussions and reading comprehension as a function of their motivation to participate in …


The Development Of The Country Satisfaction Scale, Daewon Kim Jan 2021

The Development Of The Country Satisfaction Scale, Daewon Kim

Dissertations

In light of nation-wide events and its impact on mental health, this study developed the Country Satisfaction Scale (CSS) to measure individual’s country satisfaction. This study interviewed 7 participants in the United States to generate scale items, collected data for preliminary factor analysis (N = 371), and for final factor analyses (N = 802). The results confirmed a 3-factor (Systemic Structures, Equality & Acceptance, and Resources & Benefits) structure with two additional complementary factor models: second-order 3-factor model and bifactor-(S-1) model with general (G) factor and 2 specific factors. Further validity tests also confirmed the CSS. The results of this …


Menstrual Pain Trajectories And Their Psychological And Behavioral Predictors, Hannah Marie Alves Hagy Jan 2021

Menstrual Pain Trajectories And Their Psychological And Behavioral Predictors, Hannah Marie Alves Hagy

Master's Theses

Despite the high prevalence of menstrual pain (i.e., dysmenorrhea) and the negative impact on quality of life, there is a dearth of research on how menstrual pain changes over time. There is also a critical need to understand psychological and behavioral predictors of these menstrual pain trajectories because dysmenorrhea is a known risk factor for the development of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and chronic non-pelvic pain (CNPP). Given that current treatments for CPP and CNPP have had limited success, developing preventative strategies for dysmenorrhea is of high importance. Relying on longitudinal survey data collected as part of a larger investigation, …


Ecology And Open-Minded Cognition: Does Exposure To Pathogens Influence Open-Minded Cognition?, Gabriel Escudero Jan 2021

Ecology And Open-Minded Cognition: Does Exposure To Pathogens Influence Open-Minded Cognition?, Gabriel Escudero

Master's Theses

This study aimed to examine if a perceived pathogen contamination threat would influence participants level of open-minded cognition. This study obtained an online sample of 300 adults (i.e., 18-years or older) U.S. Amazon Mechanical Turk workers to participate in an online study. This study used a quantitative experimental design to examine if a manipulation of perceived pathogen contamination threat would influence participants level of situation-specific open-minded cognition (SSOMC). Participants were randomly assigned to either a perceived pathogen contamination condition in which they watched a short informative video on pathogens or a control condition in which participants watched a short innoxious …


Does Manipulating Source Gender Predict A Person's Open-Mindedness As A Function Of Sexism?, Tanyelle Annette Galman Jan 2021

Does Manipulating Source Gender Predict A Person's Open-Mindedness As A Function Of Sexism?, Tanyelle Annette Galman

Master's Theses

The present research examines whether Communication Source Gender influences a message recipients' level of Open-Minded Cognition, and whether Ambivalent Sexism moderates this effect. Participants were asked to think of themselves as part of a military panel which considers proposals to military spending. Then after reading a proposal from either Cassandra Smith or David Smith, participants were asked to indicate whether they would be open to hearing more from the author. Participants were then instructed to complete the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996). In total there were 395 participants in this study. Results show that there was no main …


Disrupting The School-To-Prison Pipeline: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review Of Alternative Discipline Practices To Reduce Exclusion And Promote Equity, Cara Diclemente Jan 2021

Disrupting The School-To-Prison Pipeline: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review Of Alternative Discipline Practices To Reduce Exclusion And Promote Equity, Cara Diclemente

Dissertations

Zero tolerance policies were designed to create safety by implementing automatic exclusion (e.g., suspensions, expulsions) for misbehavior in response to rising school violence in the United States. However, evidence over the past four decades shows that these policies fail to increase objective and subjective safety, and instead foster poor school climate and disproportionate rates of minority groups in the school-to-prison pipeline. Previous research and literature reviews suggest there are a host of developing Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) practices that have promising potential to reduce exclusionary outcomes and foster equitable treatment of vulnerable student populations, such as Positive Behavioral Intervention …


Adherence To A Mindfulness App For College Students With Depression: Patterns, Predictors, And Outcomes, Brynn Marie Huguenel Jan 2021

Adherence To A Mindfulness App For College Students With Depression: Patterns, Predictors, And Outcomes, Brynn Marie Huguenel

Dissertations

National trends indicate that mental health concerns, particularly rates of depression, continue to rise on college campuses; however, treatment utilization remains low. Technology-based mental health interventions, such as mental health apps (MHapps), are a promising means of overcoming treatment barriers. MHapps are effective in improving psychological outcomes, but low rates of adherence are a noted limitation. The current study explored patterns of adherence to a MHapp, investigated the bidirectional relation between adherence and depression, and identified motivational predictors of adherence rates. Undergraduate students (N= 66) reporting clinically-elevated depressive symptoms completed a three-month trial using Headspace, a mindfulness MHapp. Patterns of …


The Impact Of Affiliative Motivation And Trust On Confrontations Of Racism, Jamie Patrianakos Jan 2021

The Impact Of Affiliative Motivation And Trust On Confrontations Of Racism, Jamie Patrianakos

Dissertations

Anti-Black racism persists in the United States with harmful consequences for Black people. White people are able to disrupt the racial status quo and propel the conversation about racial justice forward by confronting racism. Confronting perpetrators of racism can reduce prejudice, yet people hesitate to confront because they fear social backlash, even from those with whom they share a social bond. Two online studies asked participants to complete a task eliciting stereotypical responding while being observed by a supposed interaction partner with whom they shared either a high or low desire to get along. Participants were confronted by their interaction …