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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Body Image Dissatisfaction In Correlation With Self-Efficacy And Depression, Nate Burden Dec 2022

Body Image Dissatisfaction In Correlation With Self-Efficacy And Depression, Nate Burden

Student Works

This literature review focuses on the topic of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and self efficacy/esteem. I aimed to review the association between the two. Multiple databases were included, primarily utilizing terms such as “self-esteem” “Body image dissatisfaction” “depression” and “Self-efficacy”. Results review the various factors of body image dissatisfaction. These factors included aspects of appearance in various regions of the body, but primarily through weight and body shape. I reviewed the association and comparison of depression with body image dissatisfaction. The goal was in identifying the cause effect relationship between the two leading to the next part of the study. …


University Inclusion Index: Inclusion At Brigham Young University, Rachel Zierenberg, Brigit Cooper, Amanda Foltz Dec 2022

University Inclusion Index: Inclusion At Brigham Young University, Rachel Zierenberg, Brigit Cooper, Amanda Foltz

Student Works

In order to investigate inclusion specifically at Brigham Young University (BYU), we measured students’ perception of belonging and representation through the use of our University Inclusion Index (UII). The UII is a measure of belonging and representation with 16 items on a 5-point Likert scale. This measure was distributed to a total sample of 171 BYU students, 60 of whom were self-identified minority students. The UII had high reliability (α = .92), high validity, and high internal consistency (≥ .55). The UII reports high face validity with 97% of respondents identifying inclusion at BYU. Factor analysis revealed one primary factor, …


Circadian Misalignment And Childhood Obesity: An Unexplored Target For Intervention And Treatment, Mason Pilling Nov 2022

Circadian Misalignment And Childhood Obesity: An Unexplored Target For Intervention And Treatment, Mason Pilling

Student Works

Childhood obesity is a pandemic affecting almost 40 million individuals aged 5-18 globally. Many current interventions are relatively successful at treating childhood obesity, yet the rate of childhood obesity continues to increase from year to year, and current intervention methods are struggling to keep up. Mounting evidence suggests that sleep may be a crucial mechanism for understanding and treating obesity, yet sleep still remains a relatively unexplored target for intervention. Circadian misalignment, a measure of the difference between the body’s preferred sleep timing and actual bed and wake times, has been almost completely ignored in the literature, despite preliminary findings …


Parental Genetic Contributions To Neonatal Temperament In A Nonhuman Primate (Macaca Mulatta) Model, Elizabeth K. Wood, Jacob N. Hunter, Joseph A. Olsen, Laura Almasay, Stephen G. Lindell, David Goldman, Christina S. Barr, Stephen J. Suomi, Daniel B. Kay, James Dee Higley Aug 2022

Parental Genetic Contributions To Neonatal Temperament In A Nonhuman Primate (Macaca Mulatta) Model, Elizabeth K. Wood, Jacob N. Hunter, Joseph A. Olsen, Laura Almasay, Stephen G. Lindell, David Goldman, Christina S. Barr, Stephen J. Suomi, Daniel B. Kay, James Dee Higley

Faculty Publications

Temperament is an individual’s nature and is widely believed to have a heritable foundation. Few studies, however, have evaluated paternal and maternal contributions to the triadic dimensions of temperament. Rhesus monkeys are widely utilized to model genetic contributions to human development due to their close genetic-relatedness and common temperament structure, providing a powerful translational model for investigating paternal and maternal genetic influences on temperament. The temperament of rhesus monkey infants born to 19 different sires and 50 different dams was assessed during the first month of life by comparing the temperament of paternal or maternal half-siblings reared with their mothers …


Peer Counseling As A Possible Solution: Students Helping Students Move Toward Mental Health, Katherine Leonard Jun 2022

Peer Counseling As A Possible Solution: Students Helping Students Move Toward Mental Health, Katherine Leonard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

College students experience a variety of stressors that make school difficult (Zhai & Du 2020). While BYU has many good resources for students, students sometimes face difficulties in finding help when they are struggling with mental and emotional difficulties, due to the system being overburdened. The researchers explored peer counseling as a possible solution to getting students the help they need. The researchers administered a questionnaire to a sample of 254 BYU students through an online survey. The questionnaire was adapted from a measure used in a previous study also conducted at BYU (Gibbons et al., 2019). The survey included …


Understanding And Working Through Self-Harm, Maya Wilde Jun 2022

Understanding And Working Through Self-Harm, Maya Wilde

Student Works

Self-harm is a coping strategy used by many adolescents dealing with mental disorders. Fifteen articles from academic journals published between 2012 and 2022 were examined. Those who struggle with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) experience overactivation in the fronto-limbic system of the brain, which includes the amygdala (Kaess et al., 2021). Self-harm decreases activity and stress in the amygdala and increases the amount of dopamine in the brain (Kaess et al., 2021; Reitz et al., 2015). Self-harm may be used as a way to regulate negative affect. Seeing blood might be a significant part of an episode of NSSI, but it is …


The Christian Approach To Psychology, Preston Keller May 2022

The Christian Approach To Psychology, Preston Keller

Student Works

This article analyzes the implications of the current worldview of contemporary psychology and demonstrates that these implications are not compatible with the worldview of a Christian approach to psychology. The contrast between Greek Naturalism and Hebrew Theism are presented as the historical foundations for the worldviews of contemporary psychology and Christianity, respectively. The ontological, epistemological, and ethical assumptions of a Christian approach to psychology are explored. The Christian approach to human flourishing, psychopathology, and psychotherapy are contrasted against contemporary psychology's approach to these three areas. The article concludes by suggesting that the field of contemporary psychology should make space for …


The Protective Potential Of Family Relationship Strength As It Relates To Suicidal Thoughts And Behavior In Ace-Exposed Adolescents And Emerging Adults, Collin Wright Apr 2022

The Protective Potential Of Family Relationship Strength As It Relates To Suicidal Thoughts And Behavior In Ace-Exposed Adolescents And Emerging Adults, Collin Wright

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Introduction: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are known to cause higher incidences of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors (STBs) in young people. Family Relationship Strength (FRS) is a known protective factor against STBs. However, there is little research on the protective nature of FRS once ACEs have been experienced by a young person. The aim of our analysis is to examine whether the strong protective nature of FRS holds true even in ACE- exposed youth.

Methods: A sample of 139 patients at the Brigham Young University Comprehensive Clinic (aged 12-25) was obtained from the BYU Marriage and Family Therapy Practice Research Network. …


The Caregiver's Conflict: The Toll Of Death And Dying On Nurses' Mental Health And Wellbeing, Madison Brown Apr 2022

The Caregiver's Conflict: The Toll Of Death And Dying On Nurses' Mental Health And Wellbeing, Madison Brown

Student Works

A major responsibility for nurses is caring for patients during the end-of-life process, as well as helping families and patients cope with the death and dying process. It is well known that death and dying greatly impacts families, but little holistic research has been done on how death and dying impacts nurses’ mental and emotional wellbeing. Using databases Google Scholar, Web of Science, and EBSCO, 14 articles were analyzed regarding the impact of death on nurses’ mental health. Results show that the age of a patient plays a bigger role on death impact than nursing specialty does, as younger patients’ …


Thalamic Shape Abnormalities Differentially Relate To Cognitive Performance In Early-Onset And Adult-Onset Schizophrenia, Derin J. Cobia, Chaz Rich, Matthew J. Smith, Pedro Engel Gonzalez, Will Cronenwett, John G. Csernansky, Lei Wang Apr 2022

Thalamic Shape Abnormalities Differentially Relate To Cognitive Performance In Early-Onset And Adult-Onset Schizophrenia, Derin J. Cobia, Chaz Rich, Matthew J. Smith, Pedro Engel Gonzalez, Will Cronenwett, John G. Csernansky, Lei Wang

Faculty Publications

Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) shares many biological and clinical features with adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS), but may represent a unique subgroup with greater susceptibility for disease onset and worsened symptomatology and progression, which could potentially derive from exaggerated neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Neurobiological explanations of schizophrenia have emphasized the involvement of deep-brain structures, particularly alterations of the thalamus, which have been linked to core features of the disorder. The aim of this study was to compare thalamic shape abnormalities between EOS and AOS subjects and determine whether unique behavioral profiles related to these differences. It was hypothesized abnormal thalamic shape would be observed in …


Effects Of Autonomy, Competence, And Relatedness On Employee Outcomes: A Literature Review, Joseph Wilson Apr 2022

Effects Of Autonomy, Competence, And Relatedness On Employee Outcomes: A Literature Review, Joseph Wilson

Student Works

Most business organizations understand that employees are an essential part of their success and as such, much research has gone into understanding the most effective ways of eliciting favorable employee outcomes. The self-determination theory (SDT) is one result of the extensive research that has been done on the topic. SDT suggests a relationship between positive employee outcomes and the satisfaction of employees’ three basic psychological needs (TBPN): autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This literature review was undertaken to examine empirical studies that have researched the ways psychological needs are satisfied, and the effects of the TBPN on employee outcomes in the …


Parents Of Children With Asd: The Effects That Having A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder Has On Parents And Families, Emma Fisher Apr 2022

Parents Of Children With Asd: The Effects That Having A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder Has On Parents And Families, Emma Fisher

Student Works

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a largely prevalent disorder that is typically first diagnosed at a young age. This diagnosis can have extreme effects on the family members of these children with the parents or guardians receiving the greatest impact of these effects. Having a child with ASD can be detrimental to a parent’s mental health as well as to the family’s functioning capabilities. This literature review found and reviewed 11 articles to interpret the psychological effects that having a child with ASD has on parents. Additionally, this article aimed to determine the effectiveness of intervention programs that have been …


Maternal Depression Moderated By Family Resources When Children Have Developmental Disabilities., Timothy B. Smith, Terisa P. Gabrielsen Apr 2022

Maternal Depression Moderated By Family Resources When Children Have Developmental Disabilities., Timothy B. Smith, Terisa P. Gabrielsen

Faculty Publications

Children with developmental disabilities require extensive parental involvement in intervention, but parents with depression may be less able to intervene effectively. We examined prevalence of depression symptoms and predictors among 131 mothers of children with disabilities enrolled in early childhood special education. Participants completed several self-report measures of depression and child and family functioning. Children were directly evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory. One year later, 68 mothers repeated self-report measures. Participants (30%) reported elevated depression symptoms across time. Depression scores were correlated with parental stress and family resources. An interaction between higher maternal depression and higher child functioning with …


Kindness In The Bardo: Empathy As A Catalyst For Healing In Victims Of Dissociation, Julia Dorothea Chopelas Apr 2022

Kindness In The Bardo: Empathy As A Catalyst For Healing In Victims Of Dissociation, Julia Dorothea Chopelas

Criterion: A Journal of Literary Criticism

In George Saunders’ Lincoln in the Bardo, a host of undead characters find themselves in a spiritual limbo based on the bardo. Although they won’t admit it to themselves, Roger Bevins III and Hans Vollman are most certainly dead. Despite their supernatural makeup as ghosts, Bevins and Vollman bear strong psychological resonance with the living: they are human, heartbroken, and lost. For the ghosts of Oak Hills Cemetery, the inefficient coping mechanism of dissociation perpetuates their afterlife imprisonment in the bardo. Bevins and Vollman suffer from a variety of dissociative symptoms, their minds’ psychological defense against the trauma that has …


The Interpersonal Theory Of Suicide: Military Populations, Mason Stewart Mar 2022

The Interpersonal Theory Of Suicide: Military Populations, Mason Stewart

Undergraduate Honors Theses

With military populations being at a higher risk for suicide than the general public and military culture reinforcing the three variables of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide; this research set out to answer the hypothesis that military populations would score highly on assessments measuring interpersonal needs and acquired capability. In 2018 for example, active-duty military suicides resulted in the death of 28.4 soldiers for every 100,000, and for reserve they were higher at 30.6 per 100,000 (Department of Defense, 2021). This statistic can be compared to the average suicide rate of the general population within the United States in 2018, …


Religiousness And Risky Behaviors Mediated By Moral Attitudes, Benjamin Curth Mar 2022

Religiousness And Risky Behaviors Mediated By Moral Attitudes, Benjamin Curth

Undergraduate Honors Theses

There is a lot of existing research on religiousness in adolescents and risky behaviors such as sex alcohol. However, one understudied aspect of it is why the connection. Very few studies have explored this area, and a mediation model may aid in that research. For this study, a sample size of 364 adolescents ages 14-18 were surveyed (M = 15.64). Some mediations models have been attempted which suggests that it should be successful. In this study, a mediation model is used to explore the relationship between religiousness and risky behaviors in adolescents mediated by conservative attitudes. After finding significant …


Barriers To Mental Health Help-Seeking Among The Latinx Population In The United States: Primary Care, Family Influences, And Cultural Stigmas, Taylor Percival Mar 2022

Barriers To Mental Health Help-Seeking Among The Latinx Population In The United States: Primary Care, Family Influences, And Cultural Stigmas, Taylor Percival

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis explores the disparity between the incidence of mental illness and help-seeking and resource utilization among the Latinx population. Research supports that the incidence of mental health issues is as high among this population as it is among any other, but help-seeking behaviors and resource utilization among this population are significantly lower. It is proposed that this difference is caused by family influence, cultural stigma, and lack of access to education and resources. Based on these factors, this thesis will discuss potential solutions that are culturally appropriate and empirically supported. These include family support interventions (psychoeducation, family-centered treatments, and …


Group Psychotherapy For Pain: A Meta-Analysis, Cameron Todd Alldredge Feb 2022

Group Psychotherapy For Pain: A Meta-Analysis, Cameron Todd Alldredge

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain is common and frequently interferes with people’s regular functioning and reduces quality of life. Though pharmacological approaches are used most frequently to treat pain-related issues, the side effects of these medications often lead to other problems. Group therapy has been used and studied for decades in treating pain though it’s general efficacy for addressing pain is not clear. Objectives: to determine group therapy’s efficacy for patients with pain-related issues and whether the effects are moderated by study, patient, leader, or group characteristics. Method: potential articles were selected from searches completed in major databases based on a set of …


The Importance Of Quality Of Life In Weight Loss Programs, Brooke Taylor Feb 2022

The Importance Of Quality Of Life In Weight Loss Programs, Brooke Taylor

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The obesity epidemic has plagued the United States for over 50 years, but there is still much education and research that needs to be done to understand weight loss, specifically the relationship between weight loss and quality of life. This paper considers this relationship from three angles: first, by considering the different types of weight loss treatment, including traditional behavioral weight loss, surgery, acceptance-based programs, and internet weight-loss interventions; second, by considering the impact of weight loss on quality of life through the lens of specific demographics, specifically female, child, and elderly populations; and finally, by considering the impact of …


Full Issue Jan 2022

Full Issue

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

No abstract provided.


Think About It: Using Mindfulness As A Means To Treat Eating Disorders, Gabriella C. Breen Jan 2022

Think About It: Using Mindfulness As A Means To Treat Eating Disorders, Gabriella C. Breen

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Eating disorders are complicated and prevalent issues among the general population; it is estimated that 30 million people are affected in the United States alone (Foundation for Research and Education in Eating Disorders, 2018). Because of the complex psychological nature of eating disorders, it is difficult to find a treatment that is broadly effective. Traditional therapies include cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. In recent years, mindfulness has emerged as a potentially effective way to treat eating disorders due to its ability to reduce maladaptive coping strategies, improve emotional regulation, and treat anorexia nervosa (Cowdrey …


The Power Of Human Connection: Autism And The Suicide Risk, Rachel Barton Jan 2022

The Power Of Human Connection: Autism And The Suicide Risk, Rachel Barton

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

As researchers continue to understand autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one outstanding factor is causing concern within the psychological community: those with ASD are at a much higher risk of suicidal tendencies. These tendencies include suicidal ideation, attempting suicide, and death by suicide. Possible contributing factors to this increased risk include high levels of loneliness, pressure to conform to societal norms, as well as depression and anxiety. To decrease suicidality among the ASD population, further research is needed to fully understand why this behavior occurs at such a high percentage. Research is also needed to find appropriate and effective solutions to …


Plea To Professors: A Passionate Approach To Controversy In The Classroom, Adrianna Meredith Jan 2022

Plea To Professors: A Passionate Approach To Controversy In The Classroom, Adrianna Meredith

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Scholars have warned of a student-driven movement to turn campuses into comfort zones free from any material that may be seen as controversial (Lukianoff & Haidt, 2015). Despite this movement, the notion that professors ought to shelter their students as opposed to exposing them to challenging ideas is anti-intellectual and counterproductive to the development of critical thinking (American Association of University Professors, 2014). If the goal of education is indeed to foster critical thinking, it is crucial for professors to be willing to discuss controversial subjects (Schneider, 2013). Such openness in the classroom requires students to analyze the origin and …


The Need For A More Holistic Approach For The Treatment Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Haylee E. Dahlin Jan 2022

The Need For A More Holistic Approach For The Treatment Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Haylee E. Dahlin

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been shown to be associated with psychological symptoms as well as physical. Despite this correlation, physicians are more likely to focus on and provide treatments primarily for the physical aspects of IBS, which may result in a less-than-ideal treatment of the disorder. This literature review examines many IBS-related studies which show the existence of psychological components of IBS and the efficacy of treatment methods based in psychology. The conclusion of this research is that the current medical treatments of IBS are insufficient, and patients would likely see more improvements if physicians were to create a …


Reducing College Student Burnout: Predictive Factors, Harmful Effects, And Preventative Strategies, Eden Semu Jan 2022

Reducing College Student Burnout: Predictive Factors, Harmful Effects, And Preventative Strategies, Eden Semu

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Academic burnout is defined as experiencing emotional exhaustion, having cynical attitudes toward other people and one’s studies, and feeling unable to achieve one’s academic goals (Schaufeli et al., 2002b). Academic burnout has been observed among college student populations, and its prevalence is increasing as college students are more susceptible to psychological illness, are experiencing peak levels of life stress between ages 18 and 33, and are learning to handle novel demands associated with emerging adulthood (APA, 2012; NAMI , 2019). Internal factors, such as motivational style, attitude, and coping mechanisms, have been shown to mediate the relationship between demands and …


Infant Language Development: The Consequences Of Trauma, Janna Pickett Jan 2022

Infant Language Development: The Consequences Of Trauma, Janna Pickett

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Infants between 0 and 36 months who experience physical and emotional trauma are at risk for severe social, emotional, cognitive, and physiological developmental deficits (Carpenter & Stacks, 2009; Jacobsen et al., 2013). As researchers search for protective factors against these deficits, productive language acquisition (the words an infant can verbally produce) has emerged as a potential predictor of resilience (Bellagamba et al., 2014; McCabe & Meller, 2004). This review proposes that infants who have acquired more advanced language, such as emotion descriptors, are able to define their experiences, learn how to respond to those experiences, and feel in control of …


Sexual Intimacy After The Transition To Parenthood: Using Emotionally Focused Therapy, Mallory Kindt Jan 2022

Sexual Intimacy After The Transition To Parenthood: Using Emotionally Focused Therapy, Mallory Kindt

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

The transition to parenthood requires a significant amount of adjustment and often leads to a decrease in a couple’s relationship satisfaction. Specifically, new parents often experience attachment distress that can negatively affect their sexual relationship. Attachment distress may stem from the over prioritization of the parent role, postpartum fatigue and overall toll on new mothers, and unreasonable sexual expectations. One specific treatment that may help couples to overcome the negative repercussions that the transition to parenthood may have on their sexual relationship is Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT). EFT uses three stages, cycle de-escalation, changing interactional patterns, and consolidation/integration. These stages …


Anxious For Answers: A Behavioral Approach To Anxiety In The Home, Kassidy Bowen Jan 2022

Anxious For Answers: A Behavioral Approach To Anxiety In The Home, Kassidy Bowen

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Children who have one or more parents with anxiety disorders are 76% more likely to develop anxiety disorders themselves (Hudson et al., 2014). With this correlation in mind, many studies aim to improve the treatment outcomes of children in such circumstances. However, the involvement of caregivers with anxiety disorders in the treatment of their children, specifically with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), does not always decrease the effects of anxiety on their children (Breinholst et al., 2012). Additionally, child CBT may not reduce stress-inducing factors originating from parental responses in the home (Metz et al., 2018). Parental tendencies that are common …


Society’S Responsibility To Prevent Rising Mental Illness In Youth, Spencer Smith Jan 2022

Society’S Responsibility To Prevent Rising Mental Illness In Youth, Spencer Smith

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

The increasing rates of mental illness in the world is becoming an issue that has been ignored for too long. Stigma and ableism, “discrimination against individuals with disabilities or the tendency to be prejudiced against and to stereotype them negatively,” are contributing factors to the delay of seeking mental health treatment and worse prognosis (VandenBos & American Psychological Association, 2007). Preventing mental illness in youth requires changes in education. By increasing education at school, from parents, and understanding personal responsibility, it may be possible to prevent or mitigate mental illness development. Though there seems to be no one best practice …


Exploring The Non-Malicious Influencers Of Lying, Sienna Stroud Jan 2022

Exploring The Non-Malicious Influencers Of Lying, Sienna Stroud

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Although lying is often studied in relation to malicious factors like crime, delinquency, and lie-detection, there may be people who lie without any antagonistic intentions. In those cases, other factors like age, self-regulation, and impression management may be at play. Some studies suggest that teenagers and children may be more likely to lie than adults because of a lower maturity or because of desires for autonomy rather than malicious intent (Dykstra et al., 2020; Levine et al., 2013). Other researchers propose that some may lie because of low levels of self-control or ego depletion (Fan et al., 2016; Welsh et …