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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Examining The Use Of Expressive Arts Therapies In Neurorehabilitation Treatment Planning, Rebecca J. Horner May 2023

Examining The Use Of Expressive Arts Therapies In Neurorehabilitation Treatment Planning, Rebecca J. Horner

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Those undergoing neurorehabilitation after stroke and traumatic brain injury report a diminished sense of overall wellness. This paper examines the conceivable benefits of introducing expressive arts therapies, which is the therapeutic use and combination of the visual arts, movement, drama, music, writing and other intermodal creative processes, into physical therapy and neurorehabilitation treatment planning. Expressive arts therapies have the capacity to engage with an individual’s physical, emotional, social and spiritual states concurrently. They simultaneously offer the ability to promote an increased sense of well-being, address mind-body disconnects, and process trauma non-verbally.

The sections of this narrative literature review focus on …


Enhancing The Quality Of Life For Senior Citizens: A Facilitator’S Guidebook For Mindful Music And Movement, Shannon Sexton Jan 2023

Enhancing The Quality Of Life For Senior Citizens: A Facilitator’S Guidebook For Mindful Music And Movement, Shannon Sexton

Mindfulness Studies Theses

Music appreciation and enjoyment enhance well-being throughout the lifespan. The challenges and constraints that people experience as they age can lead to lack of access to music, decreased physical activity, and fewer avenues for creative expression. Group music and movement interventions created for older populations offer opportunities for social connection and improved quality of life. Mindful practices add further benefit when combined with these interventions. Current available programs are scarce and most often do not encompass mixed modalities. In addition, the benefits of these programs do not show long-term sustainability. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the effects …


The Relationship Between Maternal Emotion Socialization And Child Executive Functioning And Behavior: Exploring The Moderating Role Of Cortisol, Mayela Norwood Jan 2023

The Relationship Between Maternal Emotion Socialization And Child Executive Functioning And Behavior: Exploring The Moderating Role Of Cortisol, Mayela Norwood

CMC Senior Theses

In the early years of life, the development of children’s executive functioning (EF) and behavior regulation are critical to their later growth and self-sufficiency. Previous studies have indicated that one pathway by which children learn to regulate their emotions is through their immediate social environments (de Cock et al., 2017). Parents, in particular, play a significant role in the development of their children‘s emotion regulation and executive functioning (Fernandes et al., 2022). At the same time, physiological responses to stress also matter. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, has also been associated with children’s executive functioning and behavior …


Impact Of Adolescent Social Isolation On Adult, Binge-Like Ethanol Consumption And Plasma Corticosterone In High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice, Eva Cullins Nov 2022

Impact Of Adolescent Social Isolation On Adult, Binge-Like Ethanol Consumption And Plasma Corticosterone In High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice, Eva Cullins

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Adolescent stress exposure increases the likelihood of alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder (AUD) in adulthood; however, it is not clear how genetic and environmental factors interact to increase risk. This study examined how adolescent social isolation affects adult binge-like ethanol drinking and levels of the stress hormone corticosterone in male and female mice with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol preference (HAP). Twenty-eight HAP mice were separated into group-housed (GH) and socially isolated (SI) conditions (n = 13, 13). Binge drinking was assessed using a drinking in the dark (DID) procedure. Blood samples were taken before DID and after …


The Impact Of Covid-19 Pandemic On Undergraduate Students’ Interest In The Stem Field, Zaheen Rashed, Yuchen Jiang, Zimo Ma, Pamela Propsom Oct 2022

The Impact Of Covid-19 Pandemic On Undergraduate Students’ Interest In The Stem Field, Zaheen Rashed, Yuchen Jiang, Zimo Ma, Pamela Propsom

Annual Student Research Poster Session

The deadly consequences of COVID-19 have been well documented, as have the social, emotional, and cognitive effects. These sequelae extend to the educational system. Much less investigated have been the potential positive outcomes of the pandemic. Given that STEM education relies heavily on hands-on laboratory experiences, STEM students may have been especially impacted by pandemic-imposed remote instruction. We surveyed 392 students at one liberal arts college querying why they continue studying in STEM or leave the STEM disciplines. Because the literature indicates that people of color and those from lower socioeconomic groups were more negatively affected by COVID-19, we hypothesized …


Investigating Conflicts In Mind Wandering And Neural Oscillation Studies, Mahnoor Zahid, Robert West Oct 2022

Investigating Conflicts In Mind Wandering And Neural Oscillation Studies, Mahnoor Zahid, Robert West

Annual Student Research Poster Session

When presented with a repetitive or an undemanding task, our mind tends to disengage from the external environment to focus on the inner trains of thought. This phenomenon, commonly known as "zoning out" is termed as Mind Wandering. Across various literature', this effect has been mainly studied under two states: while performing a low-demand task, or under a meditative state. Neural oscillations such as alpha, beta, delta and theta waves were studied to observe varying effects of mind wandering and to distinguish how and when a human mind goes into this state. It was hypothesized that one wave would prove …


Psychophysiological Effects Of Increasing Awareness Of Nondual Consciousness In Young Adults With Depression And Anxiety, Milena Braticevic Oct 2022

Psychophysiological Effects Of Increasing Awareness Of Nondual Consciousness In Young Adults With Depression And Anxiety, Milena Braticevic

CONSCIOUSNESS: Ideas and Research for the Twenty-First Century

Young adults increasingly suffer from anxiety and depression during the time of transition into adulthood. This research study examined the effects of increasing awareness of nondual consciousness in young adults who were experiencing various levels of anxiety and depression. The methodology was mixed-method and included four 1-hour group-based sessions over 4 weeks. Increasing awareness of nondual consciousness through educational, experiential, and behavioural components resulted in reduction in the average depression score from 19.4 (borderline clinical depression) to 10 (normal), and reduction in the average anxiety score from 12.7 (moderate anxiety) to 6.9 (mild). Participants reported increased mental, emotional, physical, and …


Memory And Attention While Scuba Diving At Shallow And Deep Depths: An Open Water Study, Leanne Boucher, Joshua Feingold, Kelly Concannon, Stephanie Talavera, Jaime Tartar, W. Matthew Collins Sep 2022

Memory And Attention While Scuba Diving At Shallow And Deep Depths: An Open Water Study, Leanne Boucher, Joshua Feingold, Kelly Concannon, Stephanie Talavera, Jaime Tartar, W. Matthew Collins

NeuroSports

SCUBA diving requires a high level of cognitive functioning, however, many divers anecdotally report poor memory and attentional skills while underwater. Few studies have documented cognitive deficits resulting from an open-water dive. Here, 23 divers completed both shallow (8 m) and deep (28 m) dives over two days in the open-water. The order of the dives was counterbalanced across participants. While at depth, they completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to assess anxiety levels, learned and were tested on a list of 36 words, and completed the trail making task (TMT) to assess executive functioning. They also gave saliva samples to …


Belonging Amidst Bias: Embracing Difference On The Path To Common Humanity, Alyssia Sheikh Sep 2022

Belonging Amidst Bias: Embracing Difference On The Path To Common Humanity, Alyssia Sheikh

Mindfulness Studies Theses

The mindfulness community prioritizes self-awareness and common humanity, but is often entrapped by the idea that oneness is equivalent to sameness. This inclination for objectivity is rooted in the same neural propensities that facilitate bias; the brain is a subjective organ, however, and so neurologically speaking, bias is inevitable. This paper asks: Is striving for sameness separating us from interconnectedness? A human experience is a subjective, diverse, and variable one. The path to shared humanity and social justice co-occurs with increasing cultural humility through mindful awareness and acknowledging our subjective nature. Exploring our neurological tendency to make assumptions, we …


Dietary Fatty Acids And The Brain: Mechanisms Behind Neurodegeneration And Neuroprotection, Bianca Kdeiss Sep 2022

Dietary Fatty Acids And The Brain: Mechanisms Behind Neurodegeneration And Neuroprotection, Bianca Kdeiss

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

The impact of dietary fat intake on cognitive function has generated growing interest as the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders continues to increase. No known cures for neurodegenerative disorders exist at this time and available pharmacological treatments are limited in their efficacy. As such, prevention and early detection have been emphasized, particularly in the context of modifiable lifestyle factors, such as diet. Despite a recognized association between dietary fat intake and cognition, limited research exists delineating the impact of different types of fat on cognitive function. In this review, research examining the association between cognition and specific dietary fatty acids—such as …


Antisocial Behavior And Callous Unemotional Traits In Youth: A Biosocial Approach, Yong Lin Huang Sep 2022

Antisocial Behavior And Callous Unemotional Traits In Youth: A Biosocial Approach, Yong Lin Huang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Early life presence of antisocial behavior (e.g., aggression/delinquency) and psychopathic/callous-unemotional (CU) traits (lacking empathy/remorse, shallow affect) are precursors to juvenile crime and criminal offending in adulthood. Etiological research on antisocial/CU tendencies has implicated both neurobiological (e.g., alterations in brain function and structure) and environmental (social adversity, prenatal stress) underpinnings. It has been proposed that reward and punishment processing deficits may induce problematic traits and behavior, such that antisocial/CU tendencies may be linked to hypersensitivity to rewards and hyposensitivity to punishment. Studies in this area have generated inconsistent findings and focused primarily on adult and clinical samples, leaving youth and community …


The Effects Of False Heartbeat Feedback On Moral Judgment, Scott Koenig Sep 2022

The Effects Of False Heartbeat Feedback On Moral Judgment, Scott Koenig

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Research on human morality is at a crossroads, with one side claiming that moral judgment is the result of rational inference and the other side claiming that it is the result of emotion-laden intuition. This study investigated whether emotion drives moral judgment by manipulating a core component of the experience of emotion: physiological arousal. The sample consisted of 77 undergraduate students at Brooklyn College (57% women, 43% men; mean age = 20.1). One group of participants was led to believe their heart was beating quickly, and another group slowly, while they read and evaluated a series of text vignettes depicting …


Unexpected Arousal Suppresses Memory And Metamemory Predictions During Associative Face-Name Recognition Task, Sameer Sabharwal-Siddiqi Sep 2022

Unexpected Arousal Suppresses Memory And Metamemory Predictions During Associative Face-Name Recognition Task, Sameer Sabharwal-Siddiqi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Successful recognition often depends on probabilistic estimation of memory-signal. Arousal has been shown to offset the influence of heuristic evidence on memory prediction. We conducted three experiments that tested whether arousal also suppresses predictions relevant to memory confidence. Experiments employed associative face-name memory tasks that included retrospective (Experiments 1 and 2) or concurrent (Experiment 3) judgements of confidence. During test, subjects were presented with a masked-affective face on a subset of trials. By timing the masked-affective face to precede a recognition judgement (Experiment 1), we replicated the finding that unexpected arousal offsets the influence of heuristic evidence on expectations of …


Competitive And Facilitative Interactions Between Pavlovian Cues In Human Associative Learning: A Behavioral And Neural Analysis, Fahd Alhazmi Sep 2022

Competitive And Facilitative Interactions Between Pavlovian Cues In Human Associative Learning: A Behavioral And Neural Analysis, Fahd Alhazmi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Learning to anticipate significant events accurately is a crucial element of survival for all species. The process by which animals acquire this knowledge has been a central question of psychological research. A fundamental assumption of many learning theories is that the predictive value assigned to cues is not simply determined by their probability of reinforcement but rather by their ability to compete with other cues present during learning. The assumption of cue competition has significantly contributed to the development of behavioral and neuroscience research for decades, as it has opened the door to new empirical and theoretical advances on the …


Examining The Relationships Between Socio-Cognitive Factors And Neural Synchrony During Movie Watching Across Development, Kathleen M. Lyons Aug 2022

Examining The Relationships Between Socio-Cognitive Factors And Neural Synchrony During Movie Watching Across Development, Kathleen M. Lyons

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

While different cognitive abilities mature, the conscious experiences of children likely become richer and more elaborate. A challenge in investigating relationships between cognitive development and real-world experiences is having measures that assess naturalistic processing. Movie watching offers a solution, since following the plot of a film requires cognitive processes that are similar to real-world experiences. When different adults watch the same film, their brain activity begins to align (known as neural synchrony). The strength of this alignment has been shown to reflect the degree to which different individuals are having a similar experience of the movie. While this phenomenon has …


Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra Aug 2022

Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) have a bi-direction relationship, modulating one another.4 Proinflammatory cytokines released from CNS immune cells have an impact on cognitive processes such as learning and memory.1 Liposaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, which is used to activate proinflammatory cytokine release has been found to impact learning and memory processes, such as in the anticipatory nausea paradigm (ANP).2 Anticipatory nausea and vomiting is that which may occur before a chemotherapy treatment session begins in a patient who has had chemotherapy before. It is caused by triggers like …


Using A Musical Beat To Influence Linguistic Statistical Learning, Aspen Leung Aug 2022

Using A Musical Beat To Influence Linguistic Statistical Learning, Aspen Leung

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The similarities between music and language continue to provide research questions in the area of psychology. Despite the large amount of research on this area of knowledge, there are still many existing questions in regards to the processing of musical and linguistic stimuli. Statistical learning involves the ability to extract statistical regularities from a stimulus and continues to be studied in both domains due to the similar hierarchical structure of music and language. Recently, neural entrainment (the synchronization of neural oscillations with the rhythm of an external stimulus) has been studied as a mechanism of statistical learning. Music has been …


Entropic Voxels Indicate Large Brain-State Repertoires, Adam Hull Aug 2022

Entropic Voxels Indicate Large Brain-State Repertoires, Adam Hull

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Brain entropy is a measure that has been increasingly studied in neuroscience over the past decade. It is based on Shannon Entropy, a measure from Information Theory that quantifies the information capacity of a system from the probability distribution of its states. Brain entropy is thus posited to reflect the information capacity of the brain and has been linked to various cognitive abilities and states. However, most studies on brain entropy measure the time-series entropy of each voxel independently, ignoring any patterns that emerge from the relations between voxels. Here, we measured brain entropy of resting-state fMRI data based on …


The Ommaba Project, Katsiaryna Buchko Aug 2022

The Ommaba Project, Katsiaryna Buchko

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The Open Multimodal Music and Auditory Brain Archive (OMMABA) is the first multimodal (behavioural, EEG, and neuroimaging) database characterizing normal human auditory processing. My project aims to shed light on the importance of this collaborative project that is transforming the field of auditory cognitive neuroscience.


The Effects Of Physical Function And Genetics On Cognition And Blood Biomarkers In Individuals At-Risk For Alzheimer’S Disease And Related Dementias, Joshua Louis Gills Aug 2022

The Effects Of Physical Function And Genetics On Cognition And Blood Biomarkers In Individuals At-Risk For Alzheimer’S Disease And Related Dementias, Joshua Louis Gills

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia (ADRD) rates are expected to triple by the year 2050. Early detection and specific mitigation efforts are warranted to blunt the alarming rate. Physical function (PF) declines with age, but higher physical function is associated with better cognitive functioning in middle-to- older age individuals. Moreover, greater physical activity (PA) is associated with better global cognition; however, Apoliporotein e4 carriers may not gain the same benefits with exercise. Additionally, plasma phosphorylated tau 217 (p-tau217) has been identified as a novel diagnostic ADRD biomarker which needs further research to examine associations with risk factors. Therefore, the aims …


Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos Jun 2022

Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

MA is a potent, highly addictive psychomotor stimulant known to produce neurotoxic effects on the brain leading to neurological impairments1-6 characterized by neurodegeneration of dopaminergic fibers, cell bodies and pathways, as well as brain regions such as the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and midbrain1,5.

In MA addiction, women are more vulnerable to the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA compared to men. Adult human literature reveals gender differences in usage patterns and women demonstrate increased vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects and health effects of MA use. Women begin drug use at an earlier age, escalate drug use quicker, …


Testing An Overtraining Protocol For Fear Learning In Humans, Gordon M. Haskell Jun 2022

Testing An Overtraining Protocol For Fear Learning In Humans, Gordon M. Haskell

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Successful regulation of fear memories is a fundamental tenet to the exposure-based therapies often employed by mental health professionals for individuals with PTSD, phobias, and other anxiety disorders. Consequently, the efficacy of these treatment methodologies is largely dependent on the strength of the fear memory, as stronger memories are often characterized by an increased resistance to extinction and heightened fear recovery. However, there is little consensus within the scientific community regarding how to effectively maximize fear memory strength in human studies, and the literature exploring the impact of variability in acquisition parameters on memory strength is sparse. Here, we tested …


Cognitive Task Enhancement Through Alpha Neurofeedback, Hannah L. Meyer, Douglas Peterson May 2022

Cognitive Task Enhancement Through Alpha Neurofeedback, Hannah L. Meyer, Douglas Peterson

Honors Thesis

Neurofeedback training has been a recent field of study in neuroscience, as a potential way to increase focus, and possibly boost cognitive performance. Most studies utilize a course of neurofeedback training sessions to find positive results in decreasing ADHD symptoms, depression symptoms, as well as further cognitive changes. In this study, we aim to determine the efficacy of a single session of neurofeedback training in increasing cognitive performance. To do so, we randomly separated 42 volunteers into either a control or experimental group. The experimental group participated in an n-back task both before and after an alpha neurofeedback training session, …


The Neurobiology Of The Healing Arts: Expressive Arts Therapy As An Effective Treatment For Adults Diagnosed With Complex Ptsd Due To Complex Trauma In Childhood: A Literature Review, Cheryl Ratliff May 2022

The Neurobiology Of The Healing Arts: Expressive Arts Therapy As An Effective Treatment For Adults Diagnosed With Complex Ptsd Due To Complex Trauma In Childhood: A Literature Review, Cheryl Ratliff

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Empirically based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to be less effective in treating more severe trauma presentations such as complex PTSD (CPTSD). Neurobiological investigation provides a framework for examining the physical and psychological effects of trauma on brain and nerve structures and provides insight into how to effectively treat CPTSD. This literature review examined symptomology of CPTSD resulting from complex trauma in childhood, neurobiological effects of trauma and their implications for treatment, and the efficacy of the current treatment models, primarily those of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy (NET), and somatic psychotherapies. …


Spanning The Auditory System: Subcortical And Cortical Auditory Processing Of Speech Sounds In Autistic And Typically Developing Children, Erin Stephanie Misato Matsuba May 2022

Spanning The Auditory System: Subcortical And Cortical Auditory Processing Of Speech Sounds In Autistic And Typically Developing Children, Erin Stephanie Misato Matsuba

Theses - ALL

Autistic individuals often report atypical sensory processing, particularly in the auditory domain. However, the neural mechanisms that produce such symptoms are poorly understood. The Speech Auditory Brainstem Response (speech-ABR) and the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) are neurophysiological measures that capture different levels of auditory processing, such that the speech-ABR reflects processing at the subcortical level and the MMN measures cortical processing. The present study integrated both techniques in a multimethod approach, which spans both subcortical and cortical processing of speech sounds in a group of autistic children (n = 11) matched on chronological age and non-verbal IQ to their typically developing …


Validity Of Neural Distance Measures In Representational Similarity Analysis, Fabian A. Soto, Emily R. Martin, Hyeonjeong Lee, Nafiz Ahmed, Juan Estepa, Kianoosh Hosseini, Olivia A. Stibolt, Valentina Roldan, Alycia Winters, Mohammadreza Bayat May 2022

Validity Of Neural Distance Measures In Representational Similarity Analysis, Fabian A. Soto, Emily R. Martin, Hyeonjeong Lee, Nafiz Ahmed, Juan Estepa, Kianoosh Hosseini, Olivia A. Stibolt, Valentina Roldan, Alycia Winters, Mohammadreza Bayat

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Visual Expertise In An Anatomically-Inspired Model Of The Visual System, Garrison W. Cottrell, Martha Gahl, Shubham Kulkarni May 2022

Visual Expertise In An Anatomically-Inspired Model Of The Visual System, Garrison W. Cottrell, Martha Gahl, Shubham Kulkarni

MODVIS Workshop

We report on preliminary results of an anatomically-inspired deep learning model of the visual system and its role in explaining the face inversion effect. Contrary to the generally accepted wisdom, our hypothesis is that the face inversion effect can be accounted for by the representation in V1 combined with the reliance on the configuration of features due to face expertise. We take two features of the primate visual system into account: 1) The foveated retina; and 2) The log-polar mapping from retina to V1. We simulate acquisition of faces, etc., by gradually increasing the number of identities the network learns. …


Individual Differences In Structure Learning, Philip Newlin May 2022

Individual Differences In Structure Learning, Philip Newlin

Theses and Dissertations

Humans have a tendency to impute structure spontaneously even in simple learning tasks, however the way they approach structure learning can vary drastically. The present study sought to determine why individuals learn structure differently. One hypothesized explanation for differences in structure learning is individual differences in cognitive control. Cognitive control allows individuals to maintain representations of a task and may interact with reinforcement learning systems. It was expected that individual differences in propensity to apply cognitive control, which shares component processes with hierarchical reinforcement learning, may explain how individuals learn structure differently in a simple structure learning task. Results showed …


Fixational Eye Movements, Perceptual Filling-In, And Perceptual Fading Of Grayscale Images, Michael E. Rudd May 2022

Fixational Eye Movements, Perceptual Filling-In, And Perceptual Fading Of Grayscale Images, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Constraining Computational Models Of Brightness Perception: What’S The Right Psychophysical Data?, Guillermo Aguilar, Joris Vincent, Marianne Maertens May 2022

Constraining Computational Models Of Brightness Perception: What’S The Right Psychophysical Data?, Guillermo Aguilar, Joris Vincent, Marianne Maertens

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.