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Full-Text Articles in Psychology

Learning To Be Trauma-Informed: An Examination Of Individual-Level Factors Predicting Perceptions Of And Response To Trauma-Informed Practice Trainings, Kelly Daniel Dec 2025

Learning To Be Trauma-Informed: An Examination Of Individual-Level Factors Predicting Perceptions Of And Response To Trauma-Informed Practice Trainings, Kelly Daniel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Trauma is a substantial threat to public health. As such, significant effort has been exerted into developing interventions which mitigate the consequences of trauma. Trauma-informed practice (TIP) aims to alleviate the effects of trauma by building policies and practices focused on safety, trust, transparency, support, collaboration, and empowerment. This study investigated how individual-level factors, including readiness for organizational change, perceived benefit of TIP training, and personal trauma history affect one’s ability to apply a TIP lens in a sample (n =100) of members of a graduate-level college. Further, it explored if one’s perceptions of and response to trauma-informed practice training …


Substance Misuse And Suicidal Behaviors In An Lgbtqia+ Sample: Examining The Buffering Effects Of Psychological Flexibility And Emotional Regulation, Mariano Ottone Jan 2025

Substance Misuse And Suicidal Behaviors In An Lgbtqia+ Sample: Examining The Buffering Effects Of Psychological Flexibility And Emotional Regulation, Mariano Ottone

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Suicidal behaviors among LGBTQIA+ individuals, particularly in the context of substance misuse, present a significant area of exploration for mental health research and intervention. It is particularly important to evaluate factors capable of moderating this relationship, to promote more culturally affirming prevention models. This study aimed to explore the moderating roles of emotion regulation (ER) and psychological flexibility in the relationship between substance misuse and suicidal behaviors within the LGBTQIA+ community. Data were collected from 537 LGBTQIA+ adults through an online survey platform. Participants were asked to self-report on measures assessing the constructs of interest. The analysis focused on understanding …


How Does Psychopathology Impact The Trajectory From State To Trait Mindfulness?, Veronica O'Brien Jan 2025

How Does Psychopathology Impact The Trajectory From State To Trait Mindfulness?, Veronica O'Brien

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has found that higher levels of trait mindfulness protect against psychopathology (e.g., Chiesa & Serretti, 2013; Desrosiers et al., 2013; Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones et al., 2018); however, the research on state mindfulness and psychopathology is more mixed. These mixed findings suggest that some clients with higher levels of psychopathology may have greater difficulty engaging with mindfulness practice thereby hampering their progression towards trait mindfulness and its associated benefits. The present study sought to explore how psychopathology (i.e., anxiety, trauma, alcohol use, and depression) relates to the growth of state and trait mindfulness. The present study recruited 274 participants from a …


An Exploration Of The Contributions Of Parenting Styles And Peer Relationships On The Emotional Expression Of Second-Generation Indian-Americans, Smitha M. Kashi Dec 2024

An Exploration Of The Contributions Of Parenting Styles And Peer Relationships On The Emotional Expression Of Second-Generation Indian-Americans, Smitha M. Kashi

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation used a qualitative analysis methodology to study the contributions of parenting styles and peer relationships on the emotional expressivity of second generation Asian Indian-Americans. Seven participants participated in a 60 - 90 minute long semi-structured interview and the content was analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Most previous research regarding this topic has been conducted on White American or European individuals and does not take into consideration the many intersectionalities that second-generation Indian-Americans hold. Many participants discussed the lack of direction they experienced in regards to learning about their emotions and disclosed that college and young adulthood provided …


Does Self-Care Moderate The Association Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, Trauma Symptoms, And Parental Reflective Functioning?, Vinaya Thomas Dec 2024

Does Self-Care Moderate The Association Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, Trauma Symptoms, And Parental Reflective Functioning?, Vinaya Thomas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unresolved adverse and traumatic experiences in parents can amplify the risk of perpetuating intergenerational transmission of trauma. Parents’ positive and adaptive practices such as self-care might act as a protective factor against this ripple effect. This study investigated whether self-care moderated the relationship between parental ACEs, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and parental reflective functioning in mothers who are experiencing high psychosocial stress (n = 59) residing in rural Appalachia. Within our sample, there was no statistically significant linear relationship between our predictors, ACE score and PTSD symptoms, and our outcome of interest, maternal pre-mentalizing. We did not find empirical support for …


Anger And Disgust Shape Judgments Of Social Sanctions Across Cultures, Especially In High Individual Autonomy Societies, Per A. Andersson, Andree Hartanto, Et Al Dec 2024

Anger And Disgust Shape Judgments Of Social Sanctions Across Cultures, Especially In High Individual Autonomy Societies, Per A. Andersson, Andree Hartanto, Et Al

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

When someone violates a social norm, others may think that some sanction would be appropriate. We examine how the experience of emotions like anger and disgust relate to the judged appropriateness of sanctions, in a pre-registered analysis of data from a large-scale study in 56 societies. Across the world, we find that individuals who experience anger and disgust over a norm violation are more likely to endorse confrontation, ostracism and, to a smaller extent, gossip. Moreover, we find that the experience of anger is consistently the strongest predictor of judgments of confrontation, compared to other emotions. Although the link between …


Intrinsic Motivation In A Virtual Reality Mock Crime Affects Participants’ Willingness To Invest More Effort In Deceptive Interviews, Isabella S. Branson, Craig P. Speelman, Shane L. Rogers Dec 2024

Intrinsic Motivation In A Virtual Reality Mock Crime Affects Participants’ Willingness To Invest More Effort In Deceptive Interviews, Isabella S. Branson, Craig P. Speelman, Shane L. Rogers

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

In studies of investigative interviewing, it is not well understood how participant experience of mock-crime activities might affect participants’ desire to perform (well) in subsequent interviews. In this study, we utilized two immersive virtual reality mock-crimes to examine if participants’ intrinsic motivation (i.e., competence, autonomy, relatedness) while committing the virtual mock-crime affects their desire to perform well in interviews. We also examined if the self-reported feeling of presence during the virtual reality mock-crime is associated with participants’ intrinsic motivation. We found significant positive associations between presence and all intrinsic motivation variables in both truth and lie conditions. We also found …


Emotional And Behavioural Difficulties Among Children And Adolescents Attending “Art Teen Clubs” In Mzuzu City In Northern Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Study, Paul U. Kaseka, Maggie Zgambo, Balwani C. Mbakaya, Mathews Lazarus, Obed Nkhata, Fatch W. Kalembo Dec 2024

Emotional And Behavioural Difficulties Among Children And Adolescents Attending “Art Teen Clubs” In Mzuzu City In Northern Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Study, Paul U. Kaseka, Maggie Zgambo, Balwani C. Mbakaya, Mathews Lazarus, Obed Nkhata, Fatch W. Kalembo

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background: While triple anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has improved HIV-infected children surviving into adolescence and adulthood, these children remain vulnerable to HIV-related psychological disturbance due to both the direct HIV infection effects on the brain and indirect effects related to coping with a range of medical, psychological and social stresses associated with HIV, which makes it vital to identify their mental health needs. This study assessed the emotional and behavioural challenges of HIV perinatally infected children and adolescents with a completed disclosure process attending “ART teen club” in Malawi. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was conducted to obtain quantitative descriptive …


Housing Insecurity Among Black Women Surviving Intimate Partner Violence During The Covid-19 Pandemic: An Intersectional Qualitative Approach, Tiara C. Willie, Sabriya L. Linton, Shannon Whittaker, Karlye A. Phillips, Deja Knight, Mya C. Gray, Gretta Gardner, Nicole Overstreet Dec 2024

Housing Insecurity Among Black Women Surviving Intimate Partner Violence During The Covid-19 Pandemic: An Intersectional Qualitative Approach, Tiara C. Willie, Sabriya L. Linton, Shannon Whittaker, Karlye A. Phillips, Deja Knight, Mya C. Gray, Gretta Gardner, Nicole Overstreet

Psychology

Background: Housing instability is highly prevalent among intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors, and the coupling consequences of structural racism, sexism, classism, and the COVID-19 pandemic, may create more barriers to safe and adequate housing, specifically for Black women IPV survivors. In particular, the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic had the potential to amplify disadvantages for Black women IPV survivors, yet very little research has acknowledged it. Therefore, the current study sought to assess the experiences of housing insecurity among Black women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) while navigating racism, sexism, and classism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: From January to …


An Exploration Of Adult Children’S Attachment To Their Parents Across Two Cultural Groups: Indians In India And Indians Who Immigrated To The United States, Vilasini Meenakshi Arun Aug 2024

An Exploration Of Adult Children’S Attachment To Their Parents Across Two Cultural Groups: Indians In India And Indians Who Immigrated To The United States, Vilasini Meenakshi Arun

Doctoral Dissertations

Typically, attachment theory has been studied and explored with western populations. Individuals seeking mental health treatment within the United States include western and nonwestern cultural groups and research, theories and interventions that apply to diverse populations are necessary. Attachment relationships are often a part of, or reasons for clients to seek therapy either overtly or covertly, thus allowing research on attachment to better inform treatment plans and practice. An attachment relationship between a parent and child can be influenced by several factors and may change over the course of development, but little is known about this process among Indians …


Derogatory, Racist, And Discriminatory Speech (Drds) In Video Gaming, Sean Woodford Aug 2024

Derogatory, Racist, And Discriminatory Speech (Drds) In Video Gaming, Sean Woodford

Dissertations

Video games have been examined for their effects on cognition, learning, health, and physiological arousal, yet research on social dynamics within video gaming is limited. Studies have documented the presence of derogation, racism, and discrimination in this anonymous medium. However, gamers‟ firsthand experiences are typically examined qualitatively. Thus, this study aimed to establish a quantitative baseline for the frequency of derogatory, racist, and discriminatory speech (DRDS) in gaming. DRDS frequency, sexual harassment, and hate speech measures were administered to 150 individuals from online forums and social media groups. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to gauge which factors affected DRDS …


Emailed Prompt Package To Increase Alternative School Educators’ Use Of Behavior Specific Praise, Chelsea Johnson Jul 2024

Emailed Prompt Package To Increase Alternative School Educators’ Use Of Behavior Specific Praise, Chelsea Johnson

Dissertations

Alternative school educators are often placed in alternative education settings with minimal training or support to manage disruptive behaviors in the classroom. To combat this, school-based consultation may be provided to assist alternative school educators with classroom management strategies. However, face-to-face consultation may be limited due to the numerous responsibilities placed on school-based consultants. Behavior specific praise (BSP) is a strategy that is recommended, but often provided at low rates. To address these barriers, previous literature has examined the use of emailed prompts to increase treatment integrity, feasibility, and acceptability of a variety of evidence-based interventions. A concurrent multiple baseline …


A Review Of A Ketogenic Diet In The Treatment Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Eugene Reznik Jun 2024

A Review Of A Ketogenic Diet In The Treatment Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Eugene Reznik

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Autism Spectrum Disorder effects millions of people every year, however pharmacological and behavioral treatments remain limited. The need for adjunctive therapies such as diet invervention [sic] that target autism spectrum disorder symptoms Is [sic] needed now more than ever. A connection between a ketogenic diet, which is high in fat and low in carbohydrates, and autism spectrum disorder can be made as the diet has shown potential in ameleriotating [sic] common comorbidities within the autism spectrum disorder population such as metabolic dysfunction, gut-microbiome dysfunction, medication resistant epilepsy, and various psychiatric disorders. Hence, this review focuses on the results and methods …


On-Site Sensory Experience Boosts Acceptance Of Cultivated Chicken, Mark Chong, Angela K. Y. Leung, Tricia Marjorie Fernandez Jun 2024

On-Site Sensory Experience Boosts Acceptance Of Cultivated Chicken, Mark Chong, Angela K. Y. Leung, Tricia Marjorie Fernandez

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This study set out to assess if presenting cultivated chicken in the context of a familiar meal, in a familiar dining setting, would motivate repeat consumption and recommendation. A survey of 107 diners was conducted at Huber's Butchery and Bistro in Singapore – the world's first butchery to serve cultivated meat – from April to June 2023. The findings showed that eating cultivated chicken significantly boosted post-consumption acceptance levels. In addition, cultivated chicken's tastiness may be a more important factor than its integration into a familiar meal or dish in fostering repeat consumption. Implications for the cultivated meat industry, limitations, …


Drug Use And Harm Reduction: Community Readiness As Pathway To Well-Being And Reintegration, Lauretta Ekanem Omale Jun 2024

Drug Use And Harm Reduction: Community Readiness As Pathway To Well-Being And Reintegration, Lauretta Ekanem Omale

Dissertations

Drug abuse negatively impacts the life and well-being of those who use drugs; this harm often extends to their loved ones, communities, and society. One presumptive set of psychological explanations for drug abuse is an addictive personality, a psychological susceptibility resulting from challenging family relationships, inadequate reinforcement, the absence of healthy role models, conflicting parental expectations, and a lack of love and respect. Harm reduction is a public health approach that focuses on minimizing the harmful effects of drugs and reducing judgment. It aims to meet people where they are in life and provide judgment-free, empathetic, supportive, and needed medical …


Connections Through Stories In A Small Town In Rural Virginia, Andrea Plamondon Jun 2024

Connections Through Stories In A Small Town In Rural Virginia, Andrea Plamondon

Dissertations

Stories are powerful tools used for centuries to entertain, teach, empower, and build community. Neuroscience research shows that stories impact the brain in ways that allow us to increase empathy and connect with people (What Happens in the Brain When We Hear Stories?, n.d.; Yang, 2014; Zak, 2015). Community Psychologists have used stories to collect qualitative data and life experiences to create or change a community narrative and address community trauma (Hyman, 2002; Rappaport, 2000). While existing research describes the power of stories and provides storytelling techniques, this research study identified a new method – The Community Story …


Building Partnerships With Indigenous Communities, Andrea Plamondon Jun 2024

Building Partnerships With Indigenous Communities, Andrea Plamondon

Dissertations

Non-indigenous researchers embark on research with indigenous communities with good intentions but can unintentionally continue to oppress. While existing research shows building partnerships with indigenous communities, requires researchers to work “with” not “for” communities and walk side-by-side, and to do so with reciprocity, respect, relevance, responsibility and reverence, this research study identified an iterative model to learn, follow, and emerge research relationships through ongoing connections and outlined the mindsets to consider and assess often. Ten non-indigenous researchers from the US and Canada shared their stories about building relationships with indigenous communities. Through their stories of successes and challenges, strengths and …


Elementary School Teacher’S Experiences Of Open Studio Process In Examining Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion Topics, Tiffany Thompson May 2024

Elementary School Teacher’S Experiences Of Open Studio Process In Examining Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion Topics, Tiffany Thompson

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This qualitative research study examined the experiences of two Black female teachers and six White female teachers who participated in five Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) workshops that incorporated Open Studio Process (OSP) using Expressive Therapy Continuum (ETC). It is informed by research on defensiveness and resistance that often accompanies and presents barriers to effective DEI training.

All eight study participants were elementary school teachers, ages 22-56. Participants engaged in five workshops that used artistic mediums to explore DEI topics. Participants visually and metaphorically represented their experiences. Results were analyzed using qualitative techniques.

Findings are that OSP using ETC …


Creative Resilience Against Racism Among Asian Americans: Development Of A Method, Janice Chen May 2024

Creative Resilience Against Racism Among Asian Americans: Development Of A Method, Janice Chen

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The experience of racism is inevitable and can become internalized when racism is persistent. As an Asian American woman, I am interested in exploring how art can be used as a form of resilience against internalized racism among Asian Americans. Racism against Asian Americans and recent immigrants from Asia has always existed throughout the history of the United States. Systematic laws, institutional policies, and cultural norms have set rules and narratives to put Asian Americans at a disadvantage. In addition, Asian Americans may have difficulty opening the conversation about racism. Internalized racism can cause physical and mental harm. I used …


Exploring The Literature On Art Therapy Interventions In Mitigating The Negative Effects Of Loneliness In College Students, Molly Hoekman May 2024

Exploring The Literature On Art Therapy Interventions In Mitigating The Negative Effects Of Loneliness In College Students, Molly Hoekman

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Experiences of loneliness and social isolation among college students pose a concern for emerging adults’ mental and physical health, as well as greater impacts on university systems across the country. While social isolation and loneliness are subjective experiences, there are a range of factors rooted in developmental psychology and sociocultural theory that influence the rising rates and acuity of loneliness. Attachment theorists posit that secure attachment early in life can impact how individuals make lasting interpersonal connections long after their childhood. Secure and insecure attachment styles combined with the dramatic transition to college for a young adult are influencing factors …


Creating Whole Inclusive Worlds: The Impact Of Social Media Usage On Black Gender Expansive Millennials’ Experiences Of Social Support And Identity Development Processes, Meredith J. Holmes May 2024

Creating Whole Inclusive Worlds: The Impact Of Social Media Usage On Black Gender Expansive Millennials’ Experiences Of Social Support And Identity Development Processes, Meredith J. Holmes

Doctoral Dissertations

This qualitative study explored the processes of finding community and developing one’s own intersectional racial and gender identity through the social media (SM) experiences of 8 Black gender expansive (GE) adults located around the United States. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) methodology and an intersectional theoretical framework, the research questions guiding the study were: “What is the relationship between Black gender expansive people, social media, and community?” and “What is the relationship between Black gender expansive people, social media, and identity development?” The researcher’s findings from in-depth interviews with participants included three major themes: A) Positive Resilience-Supporting Experiences on SM, …


Coming Out, Letting Go, Getting Naked: A Community Engagement Arts Based Project, Tim Aumiller May 2024

Coming Out, Letting Go, Getting Naked: A Community Engagement Arts Based Project, Tim Aumiller

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Creating a healthy sexual minority identity remains a challenge in the 21st century, despite significant advances in social acceptance and civil rights. Sexual minorities are more likely than cis gender heterosexuals to be exposed to traumatic events, and experience shame and mental and physical health symptoms as a result. Despite this, sexual minorities do overcome obstacles to develop resilience. While the coming out process looks different depending on the background of the individual, many gay men find connection and build community through this often difficult process where even rejection may play a part. The author found connection and community …


Mental Health Among Collegiate Athletes, Stella Elise Fairbanks May 2024

Mental Health Among Collegiate Athletes, Stella Elise Fairbanks

Honors Thesis

Mental health has become increasingly more linked with athletics, especially collegiate athletics. There has been an increase in public acknowledgment of the presence of mental health in sports, specifically, more athletes are speaking about their mental health struggles as well as more research is being conducted in order to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between mental health and athletics. This literature review discusses athletes’ personal experiences of their mental health struggles, the presence of stigma associated with mental health and athletics, and the results of the recent NCAA, National Collegiate Athletic Association, research. This thesis aims to uncover …


Adverse Childhood Experiences And Sexual Functioning: A Mediation Analysis Of Difficulties In Emotional Regulation, Haven Travis May 2024

Adverse Childhood Experiences And Sexual Functioning: A Mediation Analysis Of Difficulties In Emotional Regulation, Haven Travis

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Sexual dysfunction can lead to a negative impact upon a person’s mental and relational health, including relational and overall distress, poor relationship and sexual satisfaction, and clinical mood disorders such as depression. Moving upstream to identify factors that may predict sexual dysfunction would therefore be beneficial for early intervention in at-risk populations. History of childhood trauma is one such factor that may influence sexual functioning later in life. While adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been less studied in association with sexual dysfunction, there is some evidence to indicate that they may be related. ACEs have been shown to increase the …


P300 Event-Related Potential Responses To Self-Relevant Stimuli, Jordan Razzak May 2024

P300 Event-Related Potential Responses To Self-Relevant Stimuli, Jordan Razzak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous literature has suggested an apparent P300 sensitivity to self-relevant stimuli. To further explore this relationship, we asked participants to submit 10 photos, each of a particular category (e.g. footwear, plants), to be used as either targets or distractors in a given condition of an oddball task. Furthermore, we attempted to see whether the effect of self-relevance on the P300 could be induced in a participant by allowing them to study a set of unique photos which would then be used as targets. Our analysis suggested that P300 amplitude elicited in response to self-relevant stimuli used as targets was statistically …


Career Motivation As Mediator Between Cultural Self-Construal And Interest, Mengxuan Zhang May 2024

Career Motivation As Mediator Between Cultural Self-Construal And Interest, Mengxuan Zhang

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Understanding the association between career motivations and interest-occupation congruence can help people with different cultural backgrounds make better career decisions. The goal of the study was to examine how cultural differences predicted interest congruence, and whether career motivation was a significant mediator in the prediction. I hypothesized that independent self-construal would be associated with internal career motivation most strongly (H1), while interdependent self-construal will be associated with interpersonal career motivation most strongly (H2). Additionally, internal career motivation would mediate the relationship between independent self-construal and interest congruence (H3), and whether internal career motivation mediated the relationship between interdependent self-construal and …


Increasing Nursing Aide Knowledge On Benefits Of Light For Sundowning Syndrome, Grace Hilfiker, Julie Masters May 2024

Increasing Nursing Aide Knowledge On Benefits Of Light For Sundowning Syndrome, Grace Hilfiker, Julie Masters

Honors Theses

In this study, the knowledge of nursing aides on the benefits of light for sundowning syndrome was investigated. While dementia and sundowning syndrome is discussed during nursing aide training in the state of Nebraska, there is no discourse focused on how light plays beneficial role in lessening the symptoms of sundowning syndrome for those who are afflicted with dementia. This study asked what the current knowledge base surrounding dementia and sundowning syndrome is of nursing aides in the state of Nebraska. The aim was to justify adding a focus on concrete methods to use when caring for patients with dementia …


The Effect Of Animal-Assisted Therapy On Prosocial Behaviors In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders And Developmental Delay: A Pilot Study, Emma Mitchell May 2024

The Effect Of Animal-Assisted Therapy On Prosocial Behaviors In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders And Developmental Delay: A Pilot Study, Emma Mitchell

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, nonverbal communication, and repetitive patterns (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Indeed, autistic individuals have been shown to have greater challenges with developing, maintaining, and understanding social relationships which can persist over their lifetime. Early intervention services are recommended for autistic children when they are young to help promote positive skills to enhance their functioning within society and increase their wellbeing over time. This is an especially pressing issue as ASD rates are rising – with the latest data now suggesting 1 in 36 children have the …


Psychology Of Athletes: Impact Of Injuries On Mental Health, Caitlin Rainey May 2024

Psychology Of Athletes: Impact Of Injuries On Mental Health, Caitlin Rainey

Whittier Scholars Program

This article aims to contextualize the importance of understanding injuries in athletics and how those injuries impact mental health. With such a high prevalence of injuries in athletics, most studies analyze the physical implications on the athlete. It is vital that mental well being is studied as much as physical health throughout the injury and rehabilitation process. This study reviewed previous literature on the social impacts of team sports, psychological and social implications of injury, the impact of residual pain, and finally the process of retirement. A survey was also conducted at a small liberal arts college in Southern California …


Paranormal Beliefs And The Big Five: Extrinsic Optimism, Trust In People, And Fantasy Proneness, Caitlyn Ariel Irene Harvey May 2024

Paranormal Beliefs And The Big Five: Extrinsic Optimism, Trust In People, And Fantasy Proneness, Caitlyn Ariel Irene Harvey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There are many inconsistent findings on the relationship between paranormal beliefs and The Big Five. This study aims to clarify the correlations by assessing extrinsic optimism, trust in people, and fantasy proneness. Extrinsic optimism is associated with neuroticism and extraversion. Trust is associated with agreeableness. Lastly, fantasy proneness is associated with openness to experience. It was predicted that paranormal beliefs would be positively correlated with extrinsic optimism, trust in people, and fantasy proneness. It was also predicted that paranormal beliefs would be positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, and openness. Correlational and regression analyses were run to test these predictions. Results …