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Full-Text Articles in Other Political Science

Sustainable Akron: Akron's Zero Carbon, Zero Waste, 100% Renewable Energy Future, Nicholas Cacioppo Jan 2019

Sustainable Akron: Akron's Zero Carbon, Zero Waste, 100% Renewable Energy Future, Nicholas Cacioppo

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This report attempts to show that it is not just possible for the City of Akron to transition to a more sustainable city, but that it may be socially and economically beneficial for the city to do so. This report builds on Greenprint for Akron, the City of Akron’s Climate Action Plan, and serves to complement city development plans as well as guide the adoption of future climate related policies. This report provides a limited but updated climate and sustainability assessment of the City of Akron and employs a framework of three fundamental aspects of a sustainable and resilient ...


Politically Unhealthy: Flint’S Fight Against Poverty, Environmental Racism, And Dirty Water, Tomeka M. Robinson, Garrett Shum, Sabrina Singh Oct 2018

Politically Unhealthy: Flint’S Fight Against Poverty, Environmental Racism, And Dirty Water, Tomeka M. Robinson, Garrett Shum, Sabrina Singh

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

The social force of race in relation to natural resources plays a prominent role in which communities are disproportionately affected by pollution. Scholars have described how people of color are disproportionately victims of environmental discrimination and disparities because they lack the necessary social capital to bring attention to their plight, as demonstrated by the case of the Flint, Michigan, Water Crisis. In this article, we use a critical race theory lens to explore how the Flint Water Crisis constitutes a case study of environmental racism. More specifically, we discuss the public health implications of environmental racism on the residents of ...


The Year 2014: A Banner Year For Institutional Racism, Andrew I.E. Ewoh Apr 2017

The Year 2014: A Banner Year For Institutional Racism, Andrew I.E. Ewoh

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

The Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs is dedicating this special issue to the profound and pervasive effects of institutional racism that were prominent in 2014. The year 2014 might be viewed as a remarkable year for institutional racism. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Section IV of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 is no longer necessary.


Race And Justice Outcomes: Contextualizing Racial Discrimination And Ferguson, Jason M. Williams Apr 2017

Race And Justice Outcomes: Contextualizing Racial Discrimination And Ferguson, Jason M. Williams

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

While scores of literature may hint at the tumultuous relationship between the criminal justice system and Blacks, such literature, however, fail to assess, comprehensively, the intersectional purpose of present criminal justice processes and race. This paper will examine contemporary applications of justice along racial lines. It is argued that current justice outcomes are advantageous to the status quo. It is no secret that the American system of justice has a race problem; however, if the goal is to administer justice then, as this paper argues, the current system needs to be seriously examined and rebuilt. The paper also argues that ...


Social And Equal Justice In America In The Case Of Stand Your Ground Law, Andrew I.E. Ewoh Apr 2016

Social And Equal Justice In America In The Case Of Stand Your Ground Law, Andrew I.E. Ewoh

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

No abstract provided.


Stand Your Ground In Florida: The Effect Of Race, Location And Weapons On Convictions, Kevin M. Wagner, Dukhong Kim, Jeremy C. Hagler Apr 2016

Stand Your Ground In Florida: The Effect Of Race, Location And Weapons On Convictions, Kevin M. Wagner, Dukhong Kim, Jeremy C. Hagler

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

The implications of laws allowing citizens to respond with deadly force when they believe they are threatened is the subject of significant conjecture in the media and scholarship. The adoption of “Stand Your Ground” laws has increased across the nation despite little data or findings that attempt to capture the ramifications of enacting this policy. This research explores the effect of the “Stand Your Ground” legal defense on criminal convictions in Florida. After exploring the historic assumptions and motivations behind the adoption and use of the Stand Your Ground law in Florida, we use data gathered from local newspapers, the ...


The Fight Or Flight Response: A Look At Stand Your Ground, Andrea Headley, Mohamad G. Alkadry Apr 2016

The Fight Or Flight Response: A Look At Stand Your Ground, Andrea Headley, Mohamad G. Alkadry

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

In addressing the historical importance—or lack thereof—of the Stand Your Ground law, this article discusses the evolution of self-defense laws. Specific landmark cases are discussed as they relate to establishing the foundation of self-defense. The article also examines various issues that have been inherent within the Stand Your Ground debate. Statistical analysis of Stand Your Ground data from the State of Florida is conducted using binary logistic regression model to test the relationship between case outcomes and a number of other variables involving demographics, and the nature of the confrontation that led to the crime


Codification Of Fear: Syg Laws, Thelma L. Harmon Apr 2016

Codification Of Fear: Syg Laws, Thelma L. Harmon

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

There is a long history of American states’ codification of “fear” into laws. Laws that can be traced as far back as the 17th century, which were devised to appease white America’s perceived fear of Blacks. Slave Acts were the first of such laws. When slavery was abolished rendering slave laws obsolete, Black Codes and then Jim Crow laws took effect. For over three centuries, these overt racial laws justified racial fear and legitimized the deprivation of basic human and civil rights of Black Americans. Although overt racial laws such as the Codes and Jim Crow ...


Abelt_Etal_2016_Confronting_Seattles_Scalar_Env_Politics_Wpsa_18sep.Pdf, Troy D. Abel, Alberto Rodriguez, Stacy Clauson Mar 2016

Abelt_Etal_2016_Confronting_Seattles_Scalar_Env_Politics_Wpsa_18sep.Pdf, Troy D. Abel, Alberto Rodriguez, Stacy Clauson

Troy D. Abel

Unequal exposure to urban air pollution in North American cities continues to challenge even leaders in sustainability like Seattle. In 1994, the city developed the first US comprehensive plan for sustainability but after two decades, progress on air quality remains uneven. Some neighborhood residents endure more than double the rates of childhood asthma hospitalizations in the city and disproportionate air pollution exposures. In the first part of our paper, we set the case of Seattle’s environmental justice politics within critical geography’s literature on scalar politics and the growing field of Community-Based Participatory Research. In the second part of ...


Sustainable Development Goals Worth Sharing, Erika Simpson Mar 2016

Sustainable Development Goals Worth Sharing, Erika Simpson

Political Science Publications

The international community has agreed upon another set of goals for the next 15 years. On the table are no less than 169 objectives and 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The new aspirations are summarized and the merits and demerits of further elaboration and measurement including country-specific deadlines and targets are discussed. The hefty budget to achieve all 17 goals is estimated at more than $4 trillion US a year. North American policy-makers need to be aware of humankind’s shared aspirations as they consider the new and expensive SDGs. Foreign aid is one of the instruments of North American ...


Life, Liberty, And The Pursuit Of Happiness: Measuring What Matters, Laura Musikanski, Carl Polley Jan 2016

Life, Liberty, And The Pursuit Of Happiness: Measuring What Matters, Laura Musikanski, Carl Polley

Journal of Social Change

This essay focuses on ways in which the governments of Bhutan and the United Kingdom are measuring subjective well-being as well as on how other governments including Norway, Spain, China, Canada, and New Zealand, are exploring the development of subjective well-being indicators. It concludes with recommended actions to aid in the formation of a consistent and comparable subjective well-being indicator for use by governments globally. The third in a series for which the purpose is to provide information to grassroots activists to foster the happiness movement for a new economic paradigm, this essay builds on the previous essays, Happiness in ...


Which Came First, People Or Pollution? A Review Of Theory And Evidence From Longitudinal Environmental Justice Studies, Paul Mohai, Robin Saha Dec 2015

Which Came First, People Or Pollution? A Review Of Theory And Evidence From Longitudinal Environmental Justice Studies, Paul Mohai, Robin Saha

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

A considerable number of quantitative analyses have been conducted in the past several decades that demonstrate the existence of racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of a wide variety of environmental hazards. The vast majority of these have been cross-sectional, snapshot studies employing data on hazardous facilities and population characteristics at only one point in time. Although some limited hypotheses can be tested with cross-sectional data, fully understanding how present-day disparities come about requires longitudinal analyses that examine the demographic characteristics of sites at the time of facility siting and track demographic changes after siting. Relatively few such studies ...


Clausons_Abelt_2015_Tale_Of_Two_Emerald_Cities_Aag_22apr.Pdf, Stacy Clauson, Troy D. Abel Apr 2015

Clausons_Abelt_2015_Tale_Of_Two_Emerald_Cities_Aag_22apr.Pdf, Stacy Clauson, Troy D. Abel

Troy D. Abel

The theory of environmental inequality formation studies the fractures within places along multiple interdependent dimensions:  access to opportunity, unequal distribution of environmental effects, and meaningful access to decision-making.  Environmental justice is the process to correct these disparities. Shifting policy-making towards more inclusionary and democratic practices is a key step in this process. This type of procedural justice has been identified as a prerequisite to redressing distributional injustices.  We review the efficacy of different participatory action practices employed to improve procedural and distributional justice in uneven and contested socio-environmental landscapes.  The purpose of this research is to explore the extent to ...


If They're Registered, Most Will Vote 'Motor Voter': Gop Partisanship Is Stalling A Plan That Could Bring Millions More To The Polls., Peter Dreier, Jowanna Waits Apr 2015

If They're Registered, Most Will Vote 'Motor Voter': Gop Partisanship Is Stalling A Plan That Could Bring Millions More To The Polls., Peter Dreier, Jowanna Waits

UEP Faculty & UEPI Staff Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Reconsidering Accountability For Environmental Inspectors: Trading 'Compliance By Computer' For Relationship Building, Michelle C. Pautz Apr 2015

Reconsidering Accountability For Environmental Inspectors: Trading 'Compliance By Computer' For Relationship Building, Michelle C. Pautz

Michelle Pautz

Demands for government accountability extend into all the aspects of government service and the environmental realm is no different. Environmental inspectors — the front-line workers in environmental protection agencies — are among the many civil servants who face demands for accountability. Unfortunately, although accountability is desirable normatively speaking, in practice it is not so simple. Accountability for environmental inspectors frequently involves measures such as the number of inspections completed, the efficiency of data entry in agency databases, and the turnaround time on inspection reports. Such measures leave environmental inspectors, who ideally want — and practically need — to be in the field, stuck in ...


Environmental Regulation, Michelle C. Pautz Apr 2015

Environmental Regulation, Michelle C. Pautz

Michelle Pautz

The terms environment and regulation are commonplace in political and policy debates about the natural environment, the role of science, and the behavior of government. Indeed, these terms reference a very contentious area of public policy and are emblematic of the growing tensions between science and politics. This chapter overviews the definition, types, and history of environmental regulation before turning to the intersection of science and politics in environmental policy and considering current and future challenges for this aspect of governmental activity.


Making Sense Of The Front Lines: Environmental Inspectors In Ohio And Wisconsin, Michelle Pautz, Sara Rinfret Apr 2015

Making Sense Of The Front Lines: Environmental Inspectors In Ohio And Wisconsin, Michelle Pautz, Sara Rinfret

Michelle Pautz

Although about 90% of environmental policy is delegated to the states for implementation, the individuals responsible for implementing a majority of that policy are largely understudied. Existing acknowledgment of these regulators typically extends only to the regulatory enforcement strategy their agency employs. Missing in these conversations is a focused study on the regulators themselves and their perceptions of the regulated community that they interact with daily. Understanding these perceptions will provide insights into how regulators approach their interactions and how they ensure regulatory compliance. This paper uses an exploratory case study approach to focus on front-line regulators with the Ohio ...


The Winding Journey To Justice: An Analysis Of The Voting Rights Act On Disenfranchised Populations And Its Impact In The State Of Georgia, Kristie Roberts-Lewis, Lakerri Mack Apr 2015

The Winding Journey To Justice: An Analysis Of The Voting Rights Act On Disenfranchised Populations And Its Impact In The State Of Georgia, Kristie Roberts-Lewis, Lakerri Mack

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

Today, the American landscape is more racially and ethnically diverse, yet minority populations have been and will likely be disenfranchised in the Post-Section 4 era. Minority voter participation Post-VRA has experienced some gains but achieving equality in terms of access and civic participation may be compromised. Hence, section one of this research will provide an introduction and highlight the conceptual framework that guides it. Section II will first provide a historical analysis of the significance of the VRA and its impact on minority voting rights from 1965 to the present. Section III will outline the methodology and theoretical framework that ...


Shelby County V. Holder: Nullification, Racial Entitlement, And The Civil Rights Counterrevolution, Albert L. Samuels Apr 2015

Shelby County V. Holder: Nullification, Racial Entitlement, And The Civil Rights Counterrevolution, Albert L. Samuels

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

- 188 - Shelby County v. Holder: Nullification, Racial Entitlement, and the Civil Rights Counterrevolution Albert L. Samuels Southern University The Supreme Court’s recent decision in Shelby County v. Holder (2013) which invalidated the “coverage formula” of Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 bears an eerie resemblance to the spirit of the Civil Rights Cases (1883). In a tone similar to the one exhibited by the Supreme Court in The Civil Rights Cases, Chief Justice Roberts cited progress achieved in electoral participation and office holding by African Americans as evidence that the special protections that the Voting Rights ...


Redistributing Power In Mississippi: The Reversal Of Section 4 Of The Voting Rights Act, Gloria J. Billingsley, Sylvester Murray Apr 2015

Redistributing Power In Mississippi: The Reversal Of Section 4 Of The Voting Rights Act, Gloria J. Billingsley, Sylvester Murray

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court declared Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 unconstitutional, essentially defanging preclearance requirements of Section 5 and leaving racial and other previously disenfranchised minorities unprotected. Using social contract theory as the theoretical framework, empirical field study research was used to examine whether the Voting Rights Act has achieved the results in Mississippi that the Supreme Court’s decision to revoke Section 4 has assumed. Data were collected on race-specific voter registration and voting data, measures of vote discrimination, litigations and Mississippi legislative activity regarding voting rights. Findings indicate that the gap between ...


An Intersectional Approach To Criminological Theory: Incorporating The Intersectionality Of Race And Gender Into Agnew's General Strain Theory, Wyatt Brown Apr 2015

An Intersectional Approach To Criminological Theory: Incorporating The Intersectionality Of Race And Gender Into Agnew's General Strain Theory, Wyatt Brown

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

Mainstream criminological theories often fail to incorporate demographic characteristics (which are robust predictors of criminal behavior). Also, many scholars suggest that theories of criminality need to move beyond sex or race or class etc. and utilize these dynamic characteristics in tandem. This theoretical perspective is often referred to as intersectionality. There is some criminological literature on the individual effects of these demographic characteristics as they represent social status as such they interact to effect experience, agency, and power. This analysis discusses how studying the intersectionality of gender and race may change explanations of criminal behavior. Specifically, how knowledge of gender ...


Editors’ Introduction: Exploratory Issues On Section 4 Of The U.S. Voting Rights Act Of 1965, Andrew I.E. Ewoh, Sarita Mccoy Gregory Apr 2015

Editors’ Introduction: Exploratory Issues On Section 4 Of The U.S. Voting Rights Act Of 1965, Andrew I.E. Ewoh, Sarita Mccoy Gregory

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

No abstract provided.


Antidiscrimination Versus Nondiscrimination: Competing Perspectives On The Voting Rights Act, David Blanding Apr 2015

Antidiscrimination Versus Nondiscrimination: Competing Perspectives On The Voting Rights Act, David Blanding

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

The Voting Rights Act is perhaps the most successful civil rights law ever. Yet while one set of scholars regards the legislation’s success as evidence that it remains necessary and appropriate, another set of scholars regards that success as a sign that the VRA is obsolete and inappropriate. In this article, I argue that disagreement about the VRA stems from two fundamentally different analytical approaches. The antidiscrimination paradigm focuses on how key indicators of political empowerment have progressed since 1965. The nondiscrimination paradigm focuses on how far those indicators are from what would be observed in the absence of ...


Redistributing Power In Mississippi: The Reversal Of Section 4 Of The Voting Rights Act, Gloria J. Billingsley, Sylvester Murray Mar 2015

Redistributing Power In Mississippi: The Reversal Of Section 4 Of The Voting Rights Act, Gloria J. Billingsley, Sylvester Murray

Sylvester Murray

Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court declared Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 unconstitutional, essentially defanging preclearance requirements of Section 5 and leaving racial and other previously disenfranchised minorities unprotected. Using social contract theory as the theoretical framework, empirical field study research was used to examine whether the Voting Rights Act has achieved the results in Mississippi that the Supreme Court’s decision to revoke Section 4 has assumed. Data were collected on race-specific voter registration and voting data, measures of vote discrimination, litigations and Mississippi legislative activity regarding voting rights. Findings indicate that the gap between ...


Feasibility Analysis And Strategic Measures For Promoting Viable New Urban Development, Elizabeth J. Farr Jan 2015

Feasibility Analysis And Strategic Measures For Promoting Viable New Urban Development, Elizabeth J. Farr

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis demonstrates that New Urbanism is both an advisable and feasible method for reducing carbon emissions to mitigate global climate change. New Urban areas commonly generate lower carbon emissions compared to conventional suburban development due to lower car use and higher levels of walking and use of other forms of transportation. Economic and political feasibility of New Urban development is determined by analyzing case studies, housing price premia, financing, and fiscal impact. The many contexts and perspectives involved in the planning process are analyzed to determine if New Urbanism is advisable in the larger setting in which developers, advocates ...


The Impacts And Implications Of Whale Shark Ecotourism: A Case Study Of Three Ecotourism Sites, Laura B. Korman Jan 2015

The Impacts And Implications Of Whale Shark Ecotourism: A Case Study Of Three Ecotourism Sites, Laura B. Korman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The biggest fish in the sea the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, still remains one of the biggest mysteries. This species named the whale shark, after it’s size, is one of the most charismatic shark species in the world. This colossal, yet harmless shark surfaces in certain areas across the globe. The sites where these sharks surface and aggregate are transforming into ecotourism hotspots. Globally, these ecotourism sites are valued at US$ 66 million (Higman, Luck, & CABI, 2008). However, a growing problem with these sites is the absence of positive management strategies that protect the sharks, and allow humans to ...


Issues On Voter Participation Among African Americans And Bureaucratic Behavior, Andrew Ewoh, Maruice Mangum Dec 2014

Issues On Voter Participation Among African Americans And Bureaucratic Behavior, Andrew Ewoh, Maruice Mangum

Maruice Mangum

No abstract provided.


Underrepresented: Descriptive Representation And Political Interest Of African Americans And Women In The 2008 Election, Kristine K. Coulter, Jennifer R. Garcia, Christopher Stout Jun 2014

Underrepresented: Descriptive Representation And Political Interest Of African Americans And Women In The 2008 Election, Kristine K. Coulter, Jennifer R. Garcia, Christopher Stout

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

- 83 - Representing the Underrepresented: Descriptive Representation and Political Interest of African Americans and Women in the 2008 Election Kristine Coulter University of California, Irvine Jennifer R. Garcia University of California, Irvine Christopher T. Stout Southern Illinois University, Carbondale In this article, we examine the effect of the presidential candidacies of Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton and the vice presidential candidacy of Sarah Palin on change in political interest among African Americans and women over the course of the 2008 election. We also examine the effects of these candidacies on intra-group characteristics in these marginalized groups. Consistent with the descriptive representation ...


What We Should Have Known About The Black Vote: A Comprehensive Analysis Of Voter Turnout In Presidential Elections, Zulema T. Blair Phd Jun 2014

What We Should Have Known About The Black Vote: A Comprehensive Analysis Of Voter Turnout In Presidential Elections, Zulema T. Blair Phd

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

A historic increase in African American voter turnout in the 2008 presidential elections has also contributed to the overall increase in voter turnout in presidential elections, which steadily declined from 1960 through 2000. Using a logistic regression analysis for presidential years 1980 through 2000, this article re-examines why voter turnout in presidential election years take place. The traditional and well-established explanations of socioeconomic status (SES), demographics, group consciousness, mobilization, psychological orientations, and economic displacement, were regressed onto voter turnout where race is deemed insignificant. However, in a closer analysis where income was used to separate the voting age population by ...


About Face: A Perspective On Civilian Military Relations Through The Lens Of The Principal-Agent Theory, Randall Swain Jun 2014

About Face: A Perspective On Civilian Military Relations Through The Lens Of The Principal-Agent Theory, Randall Swain

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

- 55 - About Face: A Perspective of Civil-Military Relations through the Lens of Principal-Agent Theory Randall D. Swain Eastern Kentucky University This essay uses the principal-agent theory to offer a framework for explaining shirking tendencies by the U.S. military in civil-military relations. Through the lens of the framework presented here, the principal-agent theory explains why shirking tendencies by the U.S. military is more likely to occur when a Republican occupies the White House, than when it is occupied by a Democrat. Besides providing a framework for conceptualizing civil-military relations, the importance of this work lies in the manner in ...