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Full-Text Articles in Library and Information Science

Empowering Literary Creativity: The Alice Walker Mini-Museum At Eatonton-Putnam County Library, Abrielle M. Boatfield Feb 2024

Empowering Literary Creativity: The Alice Walker Mini-Museum At Eatonton-Putnam County Library, Abrielle M. Boatfield

Georgia Library Quarterly

Eatonton is home to several prolific authors, including Alice Walker. Partnering with Georgia Writers Museum, Eatonton-Putnam County Library has established the Alice Walker Mini-Museum. This space showcases the literary works of Alice Walker and provides a space for students to draw inspiration for writing when visiting the library. AZRLS is thrilled to share the museum with the community and visitors are welcome to tour the space during regular library hours


Navigating Online Information Spaces With Lateral Reading: Lessons Learned From Two Librarians Working With Students And Educators, Andrea Baer, Daniel G. Kipnis Sep 2023

Navigating Online Information Spaces With Lateral Reading: Lessons Learned From Two Librarians Working With Students And Educators, Andrea Baer, Daniel G. Kipnis

Libraries Scholarship

As online content’s credibility has gotten harder and harder to evaluate, librarians and other educators have been growing their strategies for teaching online source evaluation. One of those strategies is “lateral reading,” the practice of quickly evaluating a web source by seeing what others on the web say about that source. On the surface, lateral reading is quite simple. However, effective lateral reading often requires complex thinking. How will you search for information about a source? Which search results will you click on and how will you evaluate those sources? How will you decide what you trust and to what …


Role Of Librarians As A Prerogative For Using Assistive Technologies In The Education Of People With Special Needs, Olumuyiwa Folajimi Akindehin Mr Apr 2023

Role Of Librarians As A Prerogative For Using Assistive Technologies In The Education Of People With Special Needs, Olumuyiwa Folajimi Akindehin Mr

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Abstract

The paper examined the role of the library in the improvement of inclusive education. Bringing to bear some stringent concepts; and ideas that the library management can imbibe, to improve the productivity of the special needs children. The paper also looked intently at the term special education, special needs education and also the benefits of special education. In this paper, the researcher tries to juxtapose the importance of considering the special needs learners, their information quest and needs. The researcher drew some conclusions and some recommendations were made at the end of the paper.


Agricultural Literacy And Food Production In Nigeria, Tor-Akwer Helen Famaren, Dominic Aondohemba Ihongo, Comfort Member Tyopev Apr 2023

Agricultural Literacy And Food Production In Nigeria, Tor-Akwer Helen Famaren, Dominic Aondohemba Ihongo, Comfort Member Tyopev

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

There are growing concerns relating to current Nigerian agricultural food production practices and its impact on human nutrition. There is mounting evince that our current food system is responsible for diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Agricultural literacy is possessing knowledge and understanding of our food and fiber system. For citizens to be minimally educated about agricultural practices, agricultural literacy is important for both the individual and for the industries. An individual must be well informed to make responsible choices in matters of food and fiber. Improving agricultural literacy by understanding the needs of the society, as it relates to …


The Information Literacy And The Infodemic In Covid-19 Pandemic At Kampala International University, Justina E. Ogbonna Cln, Jackline Kiwelu Apr 2023

The Information Literacy And The Infodemic In Covid-19 Pandemic At Kampala International University, Justina E. Ogbonna Cln, Jackline Kiwelu

Libraries

Access to reliable information in times of emergency is important. However the quantum of information during emergency may cause infodemic. The study investigated the role of information literacy in mitigating infodemic in COVID 19 pandemic. A survey was conducted among educators and students in School of Mathematics and Computing (SOMAC), Kampala International University (KIU), Uganda. The findings reveal that: majority of the respondents (50%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they evaluated information before use; on the state of their emotions, respondents were confused, overwhelmed, alarmed and anxious; 50% were able to access the information with ease, while 50% could …


Public Library Services On The Promotion Of Literacy Level Of Users In Kenneth Dike E-Central Library, Awka, Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu, Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Evelyn Nkiruka Ekpeha Nov 2022

Public Library Services On The Promotion Of Literacy Level Of Users In Kenneth Dike E-Central Library, Awka, Ugochi Iruoma Egwuonwu, Obioma Loveth Obiekwe, Evelyn Nkiruka Ekpeha

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study investigated public library services on the literacy level of users in Kenneth Dike E-Central Library, Awka. Five research questions were used for the study. The research method adopted was the survey method and population consisted of 2543 registered users of Kenneth Dike public library. A sample size of 345 users was used. Mean was used for data analysis. Questionnaires and observation checklist were used for data collection. The study found that the available public library services that can promote the literacy level of users are consultancy services, exhibition and displays, book reservation services which have high mean score …


The Culture Of Reading: The Benefits, The Role Of Libraries, And The Challenges In The 21st Century, Usman Abdulsalam Sep 2022

The Culture Of Reading: The Benefits, The Role Of Libraries, And The Challenges In The 21st Century, Usman Abdulsalam

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

In Nigerian society, the serious drawback of reading culture is becoming more and more common. This paper discusses the culture of reading: the benefits, the role of libraries, and the challenges in the twenty-first century. World Book Day is a day to celebrate reading around the world. One searches for solutions to problems. The role of the library when it comes to this cannot be overemphasized. Promote the culture of reading as it provides various services to information users. Libraries' roles in promoting a reading culture have included offering a favorable setting and resources that deliver information that is more …


'Fake News' And Information Literacy, Jameson Paul Ghalioungui Jul 2022

'Fake News' And Information Literacy, Jameson Paul Ghalioungui

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Similar to how there is no structured definition of ‘neutrality’ in libraries, (Scott & Sanders, 2021), there is no universally agreed-upon definition for ‘Fake News’ (Dahri & Richard, 2018). The lack of definition clarity, especially in regard to its harmfulness, leads to difficulty implementing the term, importantly for the American Library Association (ALA). The ALA continues to support ‘Fake News’, by valuing intellectual freedom. (ALA, 2017). ‘Fake News’ censorship is an extreme, and is unconstitutional, but it is clear that clarification of the term by the ALA, especially as being part of information literacy, would be helpful for librarians (as …


Influence Of Information Literacy And Information Use On Competence Of Community Health Practitioners In Ibadan, Nigeria, Iseoluwa Adedokun Mr Apr 2022

Influence Of Information Literacy And Information Use On Competence Of Community Health Practitioners In Ibadan, Nigeria, Iseoluwa Adedokun Mr

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The effective gathering and transmission of information is essential to the standard of care provided for patients. Community Health practitioners have a responsibility to acquire and use information in order to be well informed and competently discharge their duties creditably.

The study is a descriptive survey that targeted305 community health practitioners from Primary Health Care centres in five selected Local Governments Area in Ibadan out of which 215 respondents were selected using random sampling technique.

The study revealed that the Community Health practitioners (CHP) in Ibadan needs information relating to health-related, primary healthcare, emergency situations, how to perform some minors …


Application Of Bibliotherapy By School Libraries As A Tool For Enhancement Of Reading Culture And Good Behaviors Among Students, Emmanuel Chidiadi Onwubiko Apr 2022

Application Of Bibliotherapy By School Libraries As A Tool For Enhancement Of Reading Culture And Good Behaviors Among Students, Emmanuel Chidiadi Onwubiko

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Bibliotherapy is a concept that involves the use of books to help children cope with their life and has been widely recognized as an approach that will help librarians to better address emotional, behavioral and social concerns of children while reading on the other hand, stimulates imagination, widens views, expands horizon and helps learning about different people and places. Reading is important to human development because it is essential in full participation in the modern society. This study therefore examined the application of bibliotherapy by school libraries as a tool for enhancing reading culture and good behaviors among students. The …


Influence Of Offline And Online Access Skills On Motivation To Access Institutional Repositories, Indah Wijaya Antasari Feb 2022

Influence Of Offline And Online Access Skills On Motivation To Access Institutional Repositories, Indah Wijaya Antasari

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The ability to access research information offline to the library and access online through a repository becomes an important ability that must be owned by the library, especially for upper-semester students. This research aims to determine the influence of offline and online access skills on accessing institutional repositories, using access skill limitations from the concept of IFLA literacy and the Theory of planned behavior (TPB). Quantitative research methods with multiple linear correlation analysis using SPSS version 25. The study respondents were 93 users from the student population of IAIN Purwokerto last semester. The results showed that there is a positive …


Information Literacy Skills And Impact Of Covid-19 On Rural Students Of Tamil Nadu, South India, S. Muthukumar, M. Mani Jan 2022

Information Literacy Skills And Impact Of Covid-19 On Rural Students Of Tamil Nadu, South India, S. Muthukumar, M. Mani

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Information Literacy is an effective tool to analyze the current knowledge and education quality of students who is pursuing school and college education. Most of the studies on information literacy have been conducted in rural and urban areas students. Although rural students are facing several problems for studying school and higher education levels revealed by information literacy assessment is necessary for rural students due to online education and economic impact with COVID-19 issue. Therefore, the proposed study is aimed to concentrate the present knowledge to the information literacy skill, and impact with COVID-19 student’s education level in the rural students …


Crowdsourced Pedagogy: Editing Wikipedia And The Framework For Information Literacy For Higher Education, Courtney Stine Jan 2022

Crowdsourced Pedagogy: Editing Wikipedia And The Framework For Information Literacy For Higher Education, Courtney Stine

Faculty Scholarship

Although often used by students for academic research, Wikipedia has historically been ignored or shunned by librarians in the information literacy classroom. However, as one of the most popular websites worldwide, Wikipedia matters. Visitors frequent Wikipedia to get free access to information, reference articles for background information during current events, and as a starting point for further research. Librarians can implement Wikipedia as a crowdsourced pedagogical tool for teaching students the six information literacy threshold concepts in the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education.

Writing and editing Wikipedia articles showcases the research process, requiring students to understand how …


Literacy In Indonesian: A Bibliometric Analysis, Pandri Ferdias, Dede Sutisna, R. Rusli, Achmad Daeng Gs, Abdul Rahman Dec 2021

Literacy In Indonesian: A Bibliometric Analysis, Pandri Ferdias, Dede Sutisna, R. Rusli, Achmad Daeng Gs, Abdul Rahman

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study is a quantitative research using bibliometric analysis. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the profile of publications in the field of literacy in Indonesia. The data in this study were obtained from the Scopus database. The results obtained from the Scopus database are 1080 documents, the highest number of documents issued related to literacy by authors in Indonesia in 2020 is 305 documents and the lowest in 2016 is 27 documents. Most of the papers are dominated by Conference Papers (649 documents) and the top 5 affiliates in Indonesia that have the highest publications …


The Determinants Of Satisfaction And Loyalty To Digital Libraries: Islamic Economics Student Perspective In Indonesia, Anisa Syahidah Mujahidah, Aam Slamet Rusydiana, Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Agus Ahmad Nasrulloh Dec 2021

The Determinants Of Satisfaction And Loyalty To Digital Libraries: Islamic Economics Student Perspective In Indonesia, Anisa Syahidah Mujahidah, Aam Slamet Rusydiana, Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Agus Ahmad Nasrulloh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study aims to determine the factors that influence the satisfaction and loyalty of Islamic economics students in Indonesia to digital libraries. To test the structural and measurement models, the Partial Least Square Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used. Online questionnaires were distributed to purposively selected respondents throughout Indonesia, consisting of all major islands. In total, there were 104 respondents collected. This study found that the Perceived Usefulness variable had no significant effect on digital library user satisfaction for Islamic economics students in Indonesia. while the Perceived Ease of Use variable has a significant effect on user satisfaction. In …


Using Digital Libraries To Engage The Whole Student: Culturally Sustaining Pedagogies, Trauma-Informed Classrooms, And Project-Based Learning, Alejandra Torres Oct 2021

Using Digital Libraries To Engage The Whole Student: Culturally Sustaining Pedagogies, Trauma-Informed Classrooms, And Project-Based Learning, Alejandra Torres

Journal of Critical Digital Librarianship

Engaging students with an online library does not have to be limited to research purposes only. This essay includes lesson plan ideas that use the Louisiana Digital Library to engage middle and high school students in ways that help amplify their curiosity and explore their identities. To ensure the lesson plans engage the whole student, I ground them in three components (culturally sustaining pedagogies, trauma-informed classrooms, and project-based learning) and seven core values. These lessons could be used alone as writing workshops or can be used to introduce or make connections to other concepts. The activities are adaptable to fit …


Elementary School Library Collections: A Content Analysis Of Science Trade Books, Sandra W. Watson, Sheila F. Baker Aug 2021

Elementary School Library Collections: A Content Analysis Of Science Trade Books, Sandra W. Watson, Sheila F. Baker

Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts

In this study, science trade books from the libraries of 10 elementary schools across the United States were evaluated using the modified Hunsader rubric for their overall quality pertaining to science content, literacy, and critical literacy criteria. Findings indicate that 62% of the books met the overall science content criterion, 99% met the overall literacy criterion, and 41% met the overall critical literacy criterion. The majority of science trade books in each school were life science books, and the majority of books across all schools were 18–23 years old, with many being much older. Implications and recommendations are provided.


Study Of Library Automation And Computing Skills Of Library Professionals In Goa, Prayangi V. Matonkar, Munesh Kumar Aug 2021

Study Of Library Automation And Computing Skills Of Library Professionals In Goa, Prayangi V. Matonkar, Munesh Kumar

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Computers have become an essential part of our daily lives. With computers' help, one can perform various tasks related to analysing, computing, and publishing tasks more efficiently. Software and computing software programs support library services in dealing with the users' needs and demands for knowledge. With the advent of advanced library software for automation and digital preservation of knowledge, libraries worldwide have transformed the services from manual to automated. There are various software and solutions available for reading and reference. This research work tries to various collect data and insights on automation, library professionals' skills in handling the computer technologies, …


Information Literacy Skills As A Correlate To The Use Of Library Resources Among Polytechnic Students In Delta State Nigeria, Gabrieline Onyedikachi Obaro, Godstime Umusor May 2021

Information Literacy Skills As A Correlate To The Use Of Library Resources Among Polytechnic Students In Delta State Nigeria, Gabrieline Onyedikachi Obaro, Godstime Umusor

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The study examined information literacy skills as a correlate to the use of library resources among Polytechnic students in Delta State Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study aimed at determining the level of information literacy skills, ascertaining the extent to which the students information literacy skills affect their use of library resources, and finding out the relationship between information literacy skills and library resources among Polytechnic students in Delta State Nigeria. Two research questions were postulated, and one hypothesis tested for the study. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The Population of the study was 16,050 respondents …


Reinforcement Of The New Islamic Civilization Through Qur’Anic Literacy, Asmaji Muchtar Mar 2021

Reinforcement Of The New Islamic Civilization Through Qur’Anic Literacy, Asmaji Muchtar

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This article aims to provide a solution for how the new Islamic civilization in the modern era should be the answer to overcoming the various problems of the world community. Since its emergence, Islam has provided answers related to the role of science as a whole contained in the Qur'an, so it is not surprising that Muslim scientists and their work have become a reference for scientists around the world for 14 centuries ago. However, the literacy of Muslim scholars is too focused on qouliyah verses that contain Sharia, rather than kauniyah verses that contain science. On the other hand, …


The Role Of The School Librarian Toward The Implementation Of The School Literacy Movement (Gerakan Literasi Sekolah), Dyah Srirahayu, Tiara Kusumaningtiyas, Dessy Harisanty Jan 2021

The Role Of The School Librarian Toward The Implementation Of The School Literacy Movement (Gerakan Literasi Sekolah), Dyah Srirahayu, Tiara Kusumaningtiyas, Dessy Harisanty

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Several studies on literacy show a contrariety against data concerning the literacy rate of Indonesians. Indonesian students are considered literate but unaccompanied with absolute literacy abilities. In tackling this problem, the Ministry of Education and Culture designed a School Literacy Movement/Gerakan Literasi Sekolah (GLS) program to increase students' literacy. GLS is a unique program developed for the school systems from the primary to high school levels. The presence of a school library and librarian is an essential element in implementing GLS. Librarian is part of the School Literacy Team, collectively working with the school principal, student guardians, parents, and teachers. …


Sources And Dissemination Of Information In The Music Community, Dadang Sugiana, Hanny Hafiar Jan 2021

Sources And Dissemination Of Information In The Music Community, Dadang Sugiana, Hanny Hafiar

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Message or information is the content or substance of communication activities. Communication activities that occur within the Koes Music Fans Club-Jiwa Nusantara Community, have their own uniqueness. The uniqueness are seen in the aspects of information types, sources of literacy, and communication symbols among Koes Plus Band fans. The purpose of this study is to attempt to describe aspects of the type of information, literacy sources, and communication symbols among members of the Koes Music Fans Club-Soul Nusantara community. The method used is a phenomenological method using the constructivist paradigm. The results of this study are messages or information which …


The Importance Of Parent's Literacy Understanding Towards Children Reading Habits, Naufal Ahmad Rijalul Alam Jan 2021

The Importance Of Parent's Literacy Understanding Towards Children Reading Habits, Naufal Ahmad Rijalul Alam

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study reveals the importance of parent’s literacy understanding towards children reading habits. By using a qualitative phenomenology approach and taking five Indonesian respondents who have children aged 6 to 12 years who are attending the Dutch basis school. this study concludes that the understanding of literacy which is owned by parents is very important as a mediator for the development and formation of children's reading habits. Indeed, parents able to choose good reading books, provide appropriate reading time, to use reading sources, whether printed books or using digital sources such as laptops or computers. In addition, by getting used …


What Is The Literacy Supportive Role Of The School Librarian In The United Kingdom?, Margaret K. Merga Jan 2021

What Is The Literacy Supportive Role Of The School Librarian In The United Kingdom?, Margaret K. Merga

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

© The Author(s) 2020. Building students’ literacy skills is a key educative purpose of contemporary schooling. While libraries can play a key role in fostering literacy and related reading engagement in schools, more needs to be known about school librarians’ role in promoting these goals. To this end, this article seeks to identify the nature and scope of the literacy supportive role required of the school librarian in the United Kingdom. It also investigates how this aspect is situated within the broader competing role requirements of the profession. Using a hybrid approach to content analysis including both qualitative and quantitative …


Improving Literacy Education Provisions To Tackle National Security Challenges In Ebonyi State, Nigeria, Charles Chibuike Onwuadi, Eke Ndukwe Ukpai, Ikechukwu Charles Okafor, Polycarp Mbagwu Darlington Okeke, Charity Onyeodiri Imo, Jimoh Bala Ogu, Ifeyinwa O. Ezenwaji Jan 2021

Improving Literacy Education Provisions To Tackle National Security Challenges In Ebonyi State, Nigeria, Charles Chibuike Onwuadi, Eke Ndukwe Ukpai, Ikechukwu Charles Okafor, Polycarp Mbagwu Darlington Okeke, Charity Onyeodiri Imo, Jimoh Bala Ogu, Ifeyinwa O. Ezenwaji

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Abstract

This study ascertained the extent to which improving literacy provisions can help ameliorate national security challenges in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The study was guided by three specific purposes, three research questions and three corresponding null hypotheses. The population for the study comprised 3,035 respondents. Stratified proportionate sampling technique was used to select 749 respondents comprising 130 CBMC members, 427 adult literacy facilitators and 192 adult learners used as the sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was researchers-structured questionnaire titled “Improving Literacy Provisions for National Security Questionnaire” (ILPNSQ). The instrument was validated by three experts while its …


Assessing The Information Literacy Skills Of Education Students In A Multi-Campus Institution, Nasir Koranteng Asiedu, Florence Plockey, Godslove Adjeiwaa Kordie Nov 2020

Assessing The Information Literacy Skills Of Education Students In A Multi-Campus Institution, Nasir Koranteng Asiedu, Florence Plockey, Godslove Adjeiwaa Kordie

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study seeks to assess the information literacy skills of undergraduate students in one of Ghana’s multi-campus universities. This became necessary as there was the need to know whether the students had understood or not the concepts of the information literacy programme after it had been introduced and taught, two years ago. Using the survey approach, 327 first year diploma and degree students were selected to participate in the study. x2 ≤ 0.05 is also used in the study to test the existence of associations between interested variables. The results of this study revealed that majority of the students have …


Aspects Of Literacy In Vision And Mission Of University Libraries In Indonesia, Kundharu Saddhono, Puji Lestari, Yuliana Sari Sep 2020

Aspects Of Literacy In Vision And Mission Of University Libraries In Indonesia, Kundharu Saddhono, Puji Lestari, Yuliana Sari

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Literacy is closely related to libraries. Aspects of literacy existing in visions and missions become the main points and characteristics of a library. This study aimed to describe and explain aspects of literacy of libraries in top universities in Indonesia in terms of text and social context. It employed content analysis with descriptive qualitative approach. It also used critical discourse analysis model as proposed by van Dijk. It was textually related to micro analysis and socially connected to activities supporting the textual analysis. The result shows that aspects of literacy in top universities in Indonesia are textually and socially dominated …


Literacy Library And The Functional Literacy Skills Of The 21st Century Adult Learners, Sunday Olawale Olaniran Jan 2020

Literacy Library And The Functional Literacy Skills Of The 21st Century Adult Learners, Sunday Olawale Olaniran

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Literacy and library are like Siamese twins that cannot be separated. Society draw literacy skills from the libraries the same way an individual draws from his memory to meet his immediate information needs. Examined in this paper is the relevance of literacy library to the functional literacy need of the 21st Century adult learners. Literacy library is conceptualised as a special library provision targeted at adult members of the society who have enrolled or willing to enrol in a learning programme. Key features of Literacy library are outlined, followed by brief description of specific materials relevant to the 21 …


Precaution Towards Access To Inappropriate Internet Content By Students With Visual Impairment, Hanny Hafiar, Nuryah Asri Sjafirah, Centurion Chandratama Priyatna, Syauqy Lukman, Fajar Syuderajat, Ari Agung Prastowo Jan 2020

Precaution Towards Access To Inappropriate Internet Content By Students With Visual Impairment, Hanny Hafiar, Nuryah Asri Sjafirah, Centurion Chandratama Priyatna, Syauqy Lukman, Fajar Syuderajat, Ari Agung Prastowo

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The limited condition of visual sense functions experienced by teenagers with visual impairment does not make them safe from exposure to porn-media. Now porn-media is everywhere in various forms and types. Accidentally or unintentionally, people with visual impairment still have the risk of accessing pornographic content through internet media. This research was initiated by the existence of cases caused by the impact of porno-media on teenagers with visual impairment, so the aim of this research was to find out the condition of porn-media exposure, the origin of access and internet resources accessed by blind people who attended school in the …


Information Literacy And Political Conflict In The Whatsapp Group, Hanny Hafiar, La Ode Herman, La Tarifu, Sitti Utami Rezkiawaty Kamil, Faturachman Alputra Sudirman, Fera Tri Susilawaty Jan 2020

Information Literacy And Political Conflict In The Whatsapp Group, Hanny Hafiar, La Ode Herman, La Tarifu, Sitti Utami Rezkiawaty Kamil, Faturachman Alputra Sudirman, Fera Tri Susilawaty

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Conflicts can occur due to lack of information literacy. Political information disseminated through Whatsapp group often creates political conflicts. The purpose of this article is to examine the political conflict that causes members to leave a group on a whatsapp group, as well as other members' reactions in responding to it. The method used is quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that the comments given after the members who leave the group, among others: comments on personal leaving groups, comments on conflicts that occur, comments on problems that cause conflict, and comments on social and political conditions that occur. The …