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Full-Text Articles in Library and Information Science

Using Ontology-Based Approaches To Representing Speech Transcripts For Automated Speech Scoring, Miao Chen Aug 2013

Using Ontology-Based Approaches To Representing Speech Transcripts For Automated Speech Scoring, Miao Chen

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

Text representation is a process of transforming text into some formats that computer systems can use for subsequent information-related tasks such as text classification. Representing text faces two main challenges: meaningfulness of representation and unknown terms. Research has shown evidence that these challenges can be resolved by using the rich semantics in ontologies. This study aims to address these challenges by using ontology-based representation and unknown term reasoning approaches in the context of content scoring of speech, which is a less explored area compared to some common ones such as categorizing text corpus (e.g. 20 newsgroups and Reuters).

From the …


The Impact Of Cultural Assumptions About Technology On Choctaw Heritage Preservation And Sharing, Jake A. Dolezal May 2013

The Impact Of Cultural Assumptions About Technology On Choctaw Heritage Preservation And Sharing, Jake A. Dolezal

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

Neither the effects of information and communication technology (ICT) on culture nor the cultural roles of ICT are widely understood, particularly among marginalized ethno-cultures and indigenous people. One theoretical lens that has received attention outside of Native American studies is the theory of Information Technology Cultures, or "IT Culture," developed by Kaarst-Brown. This theory was a groundbreaking and foundational way to understand underlying assumptions about IT and the conflicts surrounding IT use. Kaarst-Brown identified five archetypal cultural patterns or sets of "underlying cultural assumptions" about IT that impacted strategic use, conflict, and technology innovation. These dimensions included assumptions about the …


An Investigation Of Digital Reference Interviews: A Dialogue Act Approach, Keisuke Inoue May 2013

An Investigation Of Digital Reference Interviews: A Dialogue Act Approach, Keisuke Inoue

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

The rapid increase of computer-mediated communications (CMCs) in various forms such as micro-blogging (e.g. Twitter), online chatting (e.g. digital reference) and community- based question-answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) characterizes a recent trend in web technologies, often referred to as the social web. This trend highlights the importance of supporting linguistic interactions in people's online information-seeking activities in daily life - something that the web search engines still lack because of the complexity of this hu- man behavior. The presented research consists of an investigation of the information-seeking behavior of digital reference services through analysis of discourse semantics, called dialogue acts, …


A Theory Of Ict User Types: Exploring Domestication And Meaning Of Icts Through Comparative Case Studies, Johanna L. H. Birkland May 2013

A Theory Of Ict User Types: Exploring Domestication And Meaning Of Icts Through Comparative Case Studies, Johanna L. H. Birkland

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

The population in the United States is aging, with a predicted 147% increase in the number of older adults (those over age 65) from 2000- 2050 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008). At the same time, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are increasingly being used in work, leisure, and government. Despite these two trends towards an aging population and greater ICT use, very little is known about if and how older adults are using ICTs in their everyday lives (Birkland & Kaarst-Brown, 2011). Despite many calls for researchers to take a wider perspective (Bouwhuis, 2006; van Bronswijk, et al., 2009), most studies …


Towards A Service-Oriented Enterprise: The Design Of A Cloud Business Integration Platform In A Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprise, Paul John Stamas May 2013

Towards A Service-Oriented Enterprise: The Design Of A Cloud Business Integration Platform In A Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprise, Paul John Stamas

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

This case study research followed the two-year transition of a medium-sized manufacturing firm towards a service-oriented enterprise. A service-oriented enterprise is an emerging architecture of the firm that leverages the paradigm of services computing to integrate the capabilities of the firm with the complementary competencies of business partners to offer customers with value-added products and services. Design science research in information systems was employed to pursue the primary design of a cloud business integration platform to enable the secondary design of multi-enterprise business processes to enable the dynamic and effective integration of business partner capabilities with those of the enterprise. …


Social Technologies And Informal Knowledge Sharing Within And Across Organizations, Jarrahi Mohammad Hosein May 2013

Social Technologies And Informal Knowledge Sharing Within And Across Organizations, Jarrahi Mohammad Hosein

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social networking technologies commonly known as social media, such as blogs, wikis, major public social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn), and (c) enterprise social networking technologies controlled by a host organization ( e.g., SocialText). The rapid uptake of social technologies, combined with growing interest in their broader social implications, raises pertinent questions about uses for …


The Public Library As Health Information Resource?, Mary Grace Flaherty May 2013

The Public Library As Health Information Resource?, Mary Grace Flaherty

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

Public libraries have adapted a variety of services into their institutional missions, including: promoting early literacy, publicly available Internet access, children's summer reading programs, and the dissemination of tax forms. Libraries are disproportionately rural institutions, often serving people with limited health care access. Thus, by public demand they have evolved to become important resources for rural health consumers to acquire information. Some public libraries have approached this role by subscribing to health databases, or by providing a link on their homepage to a health resource such as MedlinePlus, but most have undertaken little organizational change to meet growing patron demand. …


Design Science In Human-Computer Interaction: A Model And Three Examples, Nathan Prestopnik May 2013

Design Science In Human-Computer Interaction: A Model And Three Examples, Nathan Prestopnik

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

Humanity has entered an era where computing technology is virtually ubiquitous. From websites and mobile devices to computers embedded in appliances on our kitchen counters and automobiles parked in our driveways, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and IT artifacts are fundamentally changing the ways we interact with our world. Indeed, the world itself changing, becoming ever more artificial. It is a designed world that we have created for ourselves.

Human-computer interaction (HCI) scholars are concerned with the interactions that occur between people and technology in this new world: how do IT artifacts impact the human experience, and how can knowledge …


Institutional And Individual Influences On Scientists' Data Sharing Behaviors, Youngseek Kim Jan 2013

Institutional And Individual Influences On Scientists' Data Sharing Behaviors, Youngseek Kim

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

In modern research activities, scientific data sharing is essential, especially in terms of data-intensive science and scholarly communication. Scientific communities are making ongoing endeavors to promote scientific data sharing. Currently, however, data sharing is not always well-deployed throughout diverse science and engineering disciplines. Disciplinary traditions, organizational barriers, lack of technological infrastructure, and individual perceptions often contribute to limit scientists from sharing their data. Since scientists' data sharing practices are embedded in their respective disciplinary contexts, it is necessary to examine institutional influences as well as individual motivations on scientists' data sharing behaviors. The objective of this research is to investigate …


Utilization And Value Of Public Sector Information For Knowledge Development: The Case Of South Africa, Raed M. Sharif Jan 2013

Utilization And Value Of Public Sector Information For Knowledge Development: The Case Of South Africa, Raed M. Sharif

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

Although there appears to be a broad recognition of the key role that Public Sector Information (PSI) can play in the development of societies, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of how PSI is actually being utilized and of its wider societal value, especially in developing countries. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to analyze the PSI utilization process within the knowledge creation context and the factors and conditions that affect its value and usability from the user perspective. More specifically, the thesis investigates the PSI-related factors and conditions that facilitate or hinder the utilization process, as …


Can You Hear Us Now? Investigating The Effects Of A Wireless Grid Social Radio Station On Collaboration And Communication In Fragile Populations, Sarah Anna Chauncey Dec 2012

Can You Hear Us Now? Investigating The Effects Of A Wireless Grid Social Radio Station On Collaboration And Communication In Fragile Populations, Sarah Anna Chauncey

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

The ability to interact with peers and coworkers in online digital networks is essential in learning and business environments. Our digital participatory culture is based on communication in response to purposeful activity and is facilitated by information and communication technologies (ICT). Students with emotional, behavioral, and learning disabilities are often disengaged and excluded from this knowledge-building conversation. This disengagement results in a cycle of failure exhibited through diminished self-efficacy and inadequate academic and emotional self-regulation. A critical goal of those who work with these students is to bolster their resilience, persistence, participatory, and communicative skills--to invite them back into the …


Becoming Artifacts: Medieval Seals, Passports And The Future Of Digital Identity, Mawaki Chango Dec 2012

Becoming Artifacts: Medieval Seals, Passports And The Future Of Digital Identity, Mawaki Chango

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

What does a digital identity token have to do with medieval seals? Is the history of passports of any use for enabling the discovery of Internet users' identity when crossing virtual domain boundaries during their digital browsing and transactions? The agility of the Internet architecture and its simplicity of use have been the engines of its growth and success with the users worldwide. As it turns out, there lies also its crux. In effect, Internet industry participants have argued that the critical problem business is faced with on the Internet is the absence of an identity layer from the core …


Ambient Intelligence With Wireless Grid Enabled Applications: A Case Study Of The Launch And First Use Experience Of Wejay Social Radio In Education, Helen Patricia Mckenna Dec 2012

Ambient Intelligence With Wireless Grid Enabled Applications: A Case Study Of The Launch And First Use Experience Of Wejay Social Radio In Education, Helen Patricia Mckenna

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

Wireless grid and ambient intelligent (AmI) environments are characterized as supportive of collaboration, interaction, and sharing. The conceptual framework advanced for this study incorporated the constructs of innovation, creativity and context awareness while offering emergence theory -- emergent properties, structures, patterns and behaviors -- to frame and investigate a wireless grid enabled social radio application which was theorized to be potentially transformative and disruptive. The unintended consequences and unexpected possibilities of wireless grid and smart environments were also addressed.

Using a single case study, drawing upon multiple data collection methods, this research investigated the deployment and use experience of …


Community Interest As An Indicator For Ranking, Xiaozhong Liu Aug 2012

Community Interest As An Indicator For Ranking, Xiaozhong Liu

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

Ranking documents in response to users' information needs is a challenging task, due, in part, to the dynamic nature of users' interests with respect to a query. We hypothesize that the interests of a given user are similar to the interests of the broader community of which he or she is a part and propose an innovative method that uses social media to characterize the interests of the community and use this characterization to improve future rankings. By generating a community interest vector (CIV) and community interest language model (CILM) for a given query, we use community interest to alter …


Crowdsourcing Scientific Work: A Comparative Study Of Technologies, Processes, And Outcomes In Citizen Science, Andrea Wiggins May 2012

Crowdsourcing Scientific Work: A Comparative Study Of Technologies, Processes, And Outcomes In Citizen Science, Andrea Wiggins

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

Citizen science projects involve the public with scientists in collaborative research. Information and communication technologies for citizen science can enable massive virtual collaborations based on voluntary contributions by diverse participants. As the popularity of citizen science increases, scientists need a more thorough understanding of how project design and implementation decisions affect scientific outcomes.

Applying a comparative case study methodology, the study investigated project organizers' perspectives and experiences in Mountain Watch, the Great Sunflower Project, and eBird, three observation-based ecological citizen science projects in different scientific domains. Five themes are highlighted in the findings: the influence of project design approaches that …


International, National, And Local Notions Of The Public Library: An Extended Case Study In Namibia, Sarah M. Webb May 2012

International, National, And Local Notions Of The Public Library: An Extended Case Study In Namibia, Sarah M. Webb

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

This dissertation is a study of library use in a poor neighborhood in Windhoek, Namibia, to understand the diffusion of public libraries around the world. I used a sociological approach and the Extended Case Method (Burawoy, 1991; 1998). Two theories framed the research: World Society Theory (Meyer et al. 1997) and New Institutional Theory (Powell and DiMaggio, 1991). World Society Theory was developed from evidence of similarities in governmental, health and educational organizations globally that demonstrates the growth of a world culture based on a rationalistic and scientific approach to knowledge. The findings show that international notions of public libraries …


A Temporal Model Of Mindful Interactions Around New Service Conception, Joe Rubleske May 2012

A Temporal Model Of Mindful Interactions Around New Service Conception, Joe Rubleske

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

The organizational ability to innovate is widely acknowledged as crucial to sustained success. For libraries and other service providers, innovation entails the continuous development of new services that propose value to customers. This new service development process can be understood as comprising a "front end," in which new service ideas are conceived and developed, and a "back end," in which selected ideas are implemented. Our understanding of the former - that is, of new service conception in libraries - is particularly underdeveloped.

To build a conceptual foundation for research in this area I used qualitative data collection techniques and constant-comparison …


Image-Enabled Discourse: Investigating The Creation Of Visual Information As Communicative Practice, Jaime Snyder May 2012

Image-Enabled Discourse: Investigating The Creation Of Visual Information As Communicative Practice, Jaime Snyder

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

Anyone who has clarified a thought or prompted a response during a conversation by drawing a picture has exploited the potential of image making as an interactive tool for conveying information. Images are increasingly ubiquitous in daily communication, in large part due to advances in visually enabled information and communication technologies (ICT), such as information visualization applications, image retrieval systems and visually enabled collaborative work tools. Human abilities to use images to communicate are however far more sophisticated and nuanced than these technologies currently support. In order to learn more about the practice of image making as a specialized form …


Information Behaviors In Higher Education Research Administration: Support For Collaborative Proposal Development Activities, Christina Leigh Deitz May 2011

Information Behaviors In Higher Education Research Administration: Support For Collaborative Proposal Development Activities, Christina Leigh Deitz

School of Information Studies - Dissertations

Proposal development is a very complex process. While the existing river of instructional materials for proposal development runs wide, the body of empirical research regarding this topic is narrow, especially concerning information behaviors surrounding the process. This study responds to this need as an empirical examination of a user-based method for improving our understanding of proposal development information behaviors. A hybrid concept of problem/situation is adopted for the purpose of characterizing proposal development as a problem situated in time and space, with institutions of higher education (IHEs) faculty as the users or population of interest for this study. This study …