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Full-Text Articles in Income Distribution

Capitalism In Europe Vs. Latin America, Brandy Mace, Lucas E. Mainhart, Caleb Edwards, Dayton Lamb, Jesus Herrera-Herrera Apr 2024

Capitalism In Europe Vs. Latin America, Brandy Mace, Lucas E. Mainhart, Caleb Edwards, Dayton Lamb, Jesus Herrera-Herrera

ATU Research Symposium

Focusing on the years 1995 to 2023, what are the universal traits of capitalism versus the more varying or flexible traits, as demonstrated by comparing European and Latin American practices of capitalism. For the country comparisons, researchers have agreed on 3 common variables to evaluate the capitalist practices of a Latin American country with a European one. These shared variables are 1) The power of the country's currency, 2) The informal versus formal employment of the labor force, as well as unemployment rate, and 3) The income gap between the rich and poor. Each researcher will also include 1-3 additional …


Making College Worth It: Inequalities In Higher Education And How To Solve Them, Katharine Meyer Apr 2024

Making College Worth It: Inequalities In Higher Education And How To Solve Them, Katharine Meyer

Brookings Scholar Lecture Series

Most students who graduate from college go on to earn higher wages, have more employment stability, and enjoy better health. While posted tuitions are high, a “high price, high aid” approach to college pricing means that the average cost of college has actually declined in recent years. Yet, public confidence in higher education is at an all-time low. What explains this tension? Who gains from going to college and who does not? What can colleges do to change perceptions about the value of a college education? This lecture by Brookings Institution scholar Katharine Meyer highlights trends in college enrollment and …


Apprenticeships In The Mountain West, Fy2023, Annie Vong, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Apr 2024

Apprenticeships In The Mountain West, Fy2023, Annie Vong, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Economic Development & Workforce

This fact sheet examines data on apprenticeships for the Mountain West states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The original dataset from the U.S. Department of Labor includes data on all 50 states as well as U.S. territories. This fact sheet examines the number of apprenticeships, the average and median hourly wages, the education level of those in apprenticeships, the union status, and the industries that support apprenticeships in each Mountain West state.


Empowering Voices: Exploring The Career Trajectories Of Women Of Color Hr Professionals Amid Disruptive Change, Brandi R. Muñoz Mar 2024

Empowering Voices: Exploring The Career Trajectories Of Women Of Color Hr Professionals Amid Disruptive Change, Brandi R. Muñoz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated strategies to enhance diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging initiatives in organizational leadership, focusing on supporting women of color in the workplace. The specific problem addressed was the underrepresentation and barriers faced by women of color in leadership positions despite their potential contributions to organizational success. The study employed a qualitative approach, combining qualitative interviews with socioeconomic data analysis. Data collection methods included semistructured interviews with women of color and a survey to gather demographic and employment information. The sample consisted of 16 women of color human resource professionals working in various industries and organizational settings across the …


Post Covid-19 Recovery In Mountain West Metros, Zachary Walusek, Vanessa Booth, Annie Vong, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Feb 2024

Post Covid-19 Recovery In Mountain West Metros, Zachary Walusek, Vanessa Booth, Annie Vong, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Economic Development & Workforce

This fact sheet examines data on the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and recession on Mountain West metros. The original report includes data on economic activity, labor market, and real estate trends.


Horizontal Economic Inequality And Mass Atrocity Risk: A Large-Sample Empirical Inquiry, Charles H. Anderton, Roxane A. Anderton Feb 2024

Horizontal Economic Inequality And Mass Atrocity Risk: A Large-Sample Empirical Inquiry, Charles H. Anderton, Roxane A. Anderton

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Our research question is: Does inter-group horizontal economic inequality elevate state-perpetrated mass atrocity risk? Theoretical perspectives in genocide studies show how economic and other forms of discrimination against ethnic or religious groups can elevate the risk of government violence against them. Among the approximately five dozen large-sample empirical studies of mass atrocity risk, only a few consider the effects of economic discrimination. Moreover, no large-sample empirical studies, to the best of our knowledge, test hypotheses related to how inter-group horizontal economic inequalities (as distinct from vertical economic inequalities based on GINI coefficients or quantile income or wealth measures) affect mass …


What Does One Billion Dollars Look Like?: Visualizing Extreme Wealth, William Mahoney Luckman Feb 2024

What Does One Billion Dollars Look Like?: Visualizing Extreme Wealth, William Mahoney Luckman

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The word “billion” is a mathematical abstraction related to “big,” but it is difficult to understand the vast difference in value between one million and one billion; even harder to understand the vast difference in purchasing power between one billion dollars, and the average U.S. yearly income. Perhaps most difficult to conceive of is what that purchasing power and huge mass of capital translates to in terms of power. This project blends design, text, facts, and figures into an interactive narrative website that helps the user better understand their position in relation to extreme wealth: https://whatdoesonebilliondollarslooklike.website/

The site incorporates …


Gender Wage Gap And Commuting Time: An Empirical Analysis In The Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Thiraffi Akhsananta Abdillah, Ariska Nurfajar Rini, Okki Alfianto Jan 2024

Gender Wage Gap And Commuting Time: An Empirical Analysis In The Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Thiraffi Akhsananta Abdillah, Ariska Nurfajar Rini, Okki Alfianto

Jurnal Ekonomi Kependudukan dan Keluarga

This study aims to analyze the role of commuting time in explaining the gender wage gap in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area. This study presents an analysis of the gender wage gap as well as its explained and unexplained components using the Blinder-Oaxaca method with data provided by 2019 Jakarta Metropolitan Area Commuter Survey. The addition of commuting time as one of the explanatory factors is a novel aspect of the analysis. Two different methods known as ordinary least squares and the Heckman selection model are used to estimate wage equality for men and women. Depending on the methodology, estimates of …


Union, John C. Lyden Jan 2024

Union, John C. Lyden

Journal of Religion & Film

This is a film review of Union (2024), directed by Stephen Maing and Brett Story.


Absentee Ownership And Rental Affordability: Evidence From Commuting Zones, Ireland F. Crowther Jan 2024

Absentee Ownership And Rental Affordability: Evidence From Commuting Zones, Ireland F. Crowther

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

In this paper, we examine the intersection of financialization, wealth inequality, and the housing market in the United States with an emphasis on the relationship between absentee ownership and declining rental affordability. At the same time as financialization has increasingly transformed the market for residential real estate into a vehicle for financial speculation, households at the bottom of the income distribution have been disproportionately affected by rising rents and declining housing affordability. Using data from the decennial Census and the American Community Survey from 1990 to 2020, we investigate the link between absentee ownership and rental affordability across US commuting …


Displaced Worker Angst And Far Right Populism, Thomas E. Lambert Jan 2024

Displaced Worker Angst And Far Right Populism, Thomas E. Lambert

Faculty Scholarship

Background

Nothing causes more anguish and frustration than downward social mobility such as that experienced by less-educated workers and especially by displaced workers. Those who lose economic status lose more than income because they become so socially isolated that they are further frustrated through loneliness (Case and Deaton 2020). Hanna Arendt points out that lonely men are susceptible to authoritarian influence (1973, p. 475).

There is yet another aspect to the downward social mobility of low skilled men, namely that they are losing ground not only relative to social norms but also relative to the wages of low-skilled women. In …


The Effect Of Remittances On Housing Expenditure In Filipino Households, Joaquin Franco Rigonan, Angelo Salvo, Lawrence B. Dacuycuy, Tereso S. Tullao Jr, Winfred Villamil, Krista Yu Jan 2024

The Effect Of Remittances On Housing Expenditure In Filipino Households, Joaquin Franco Rigonan, Angelo Salvo, Lawrence B. Dacuycuy, Tereso S. Tullao Jr, Winfred Villamil, Krista Yu

Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies (AKI)

Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) have chosen to work abroad due to the abundance of better work opportunities and a higher salary earned. Migrant workers send remittances to their families from their country of origin to bring extra income for these households to spend on essential consumption. These remittances serve as additional income and protection for recipient households, easing their consumption and enabling them to spend their money on education, housing construction, and household electrical appliances. Numerous existing literature has stated that household-receiving remittances spend more money on investments that will help improve their standard of living; one of these investments …


Per Capita Gdp’S Potential Effect On The Percentage Of Children In Foster Care, Jenna Mcclain Dec 2023

Per Capita Gdp’S Potential Effect On The Percentage Of Children In Foster Care, Jenna Mcclain

Honors College Theses

Few studies have been conducted on the presence of a direct connection between per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and the percentage of children in foster care in a given region. GDP is a known indicator of economic growth (Powers, 1995; Roshaniza & Selvaratnam, 2015), as is a child’s potential for foster care placement associated with a parent or family’s financial status (Bald et. al, 2022; Barth et. al, 2010). Poverty is the bridge in many of these scenarios – low GDP can be indicative of higher poverty rates, and financial hardship under poverty classification can lead to child maltreatment …


An Analysis On The Efficiency Of Philippine Microfinance Institutions: A Stochastic Frontier Approach, Ryan Lou Dio, Elijah Jacob Mendoza, Lunette Clarisse Nunez, Ma. Ellory Villanueva, Myrna S. Austria, Tereso S. Tullao Jr Dec 2023

An Analysis On The Efficiency Of Philippine Microfinance Institutions: A Stochastic Frontier Approach, Ryan Lou Dio, Elijah Jacob Mendoza, Lunette Clarisse Nunez, Ma. Ellory Villanueva, Myrna S. Austria, Tereso S. Tullao Jr

Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies (AKI)

Microfinance institutions (MFIs) were created to provide loans and financial services for the poor as commercial banks have requirements that are not accessible to them. The Philippines government soon started using MFIs as a poverty alleviation tool to answer the market failure created by the commercial banking industry since it cannot accommodate the needs of low-income earners due to the high costs attached to it. However, recent studies have shown that MFIs are “mission drifting,” which means that they are deviating from their original social purpose and becoming more financially driven. As a result, this paper estimates the financial and …


The Differential Impact Of 4ps On Child Labor Before And During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Hannah Grace Villaret, Joey Anastacio, Yohana B. Burgos, Lyka May Pauline Fernandez, Paulynne J. Castillo, Roberto Raymundo, Joel Q. Tanchuco Dec 2023

The Differential Impact Of 4ps On Child Labor Before And During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Hannah Grace Villaret, Joey Anastacio, Yohana B. Burgos, Lyka May Pauline Fernandez, Paulynne J. Castillo, Roberto Raymundo, Joel Q. Tanchuco

Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies (AKI)

Poverty is widely considered the root cause of child labor in the Philippines. Thus, the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) was designed to alleviate poverty and reduce child labor through financial assistance, conditional on welfare investments like children’s education. Using 2017, 2019, and 2020 data from the Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS), the study estimated the differential impact of 4Ps on child labor before and during COVID-19 across varying demographic, socio-economic, and locational characteristics. Results from the propensity score matching (PSM) and difference-in-differences (DID) model indicated that since cash transfers cannot fully offset the opportunity cost of children’s education, children …


The Effect Of Conditional Cash Transfers On The Prepaid And Postpaid Expenditures Of Internet And Cellular Services: The Case Of Filipino Households, Krisann Carmina G. Caoile, Edgar Desher P. Empeño, Raphael Manuel P. Ramos, Marie Angeline A. Trinidad, Myrna S. Austria, Ma. Ella Oplas, Tereso S. Tullao Jr, Winfred M. Villamil Dec 2023

The Effect Of Conditional Cash Transfers On The Prepaid And Postpaid Expenditures Of Internet And Cellular Services: The Case Of Filipino Households, Krisann Carmina G. Caoile, Edgar Desher P. Empeño, Raphael Manuel P. Ramos, Marie Angeline A. Trinidad, Myrna S. Austria, Ma. Ella Oplas, Tereso S. Tullao Jr, Winfred M. Villamil

Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies (AKI)

Technology has been playing a large role in the lives of households regardless of income. How, then, do poor families value the importance of internet and cellular services due to the existence of outcome-improving or outcome-worsening effects associated with these services? At the same time, since the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) substantially affects its beneficiaries’ household expenditures, assessing its effectiveness concerning its objectives is important. Most literature on how poor households spend their cash transfers is centered on directly linked goods such as health and education. However, the relationship between CCTs and expenditures on goods that play a more …


An Analysis Of Poverty Convergence: Evidence From Pennsylvania Counties, Angel Alcantara, Stephanie M. Brewer, James J. Jozefowicz Nov 2023

An Analysis Of Poverty Convergence: Evidence From Pennsylvania Counties, Angel Alcantara, Stephanie M. Brewer, James J. Jozefowicz

The Journal of Economics and Politics

This paper extends applications of unconditional and conditional β-convergence and σ-convergence analysis to poverty rates in a panel data sample of Pennsylvania counties during the period 1990-2019. Spatial structural breaks between rural and urban counties in Pennsylvania plus the possibility that Philadelphia County is an outlier are acknowledged to avoid spurious inferences. The findings support the existence of unconditional β-convergence in the pooled, urban, and rural samples with non-metropolitan areas exhibiting the greatest convergence. However, the largest conditional β-convergence is observed for urban counties, and this outcome is robust to the exclusion of Philadelphia County. Graphical evidence evinces a greater …


Analyzing Household Income Inequality: A Subgroup Decomposition Of Generalized Entropy Measures, Jazib Mumtaz, Sayed Irshad Hussain Nov 2023

Analyzing Household Income Inequality: A Subgroup Decomposition Of Generalized Entropy Measures, Jazib Mumtaz, Sayed Irshad Hussain

CBER Conference

The study proves that education level, nature of employment, asset ownership, and gender contribute significantly to income inequality. The study further indicates that changes in income distribution for the bottom of the population through paid employment, female income, and asset ownership could impact income inequality. The study's results can be used to assess policy impact on social welfare and help policymakers design targeted interventions, develop efficient taxation, and create a sustainable model for inclusive growth.


Kerala’S International Tourism Demand: An Inquiry Into The Validity Of The Standard And Regular Determinants, Muhammed Salim Anappattath Nov 2023

Kerala’S International Tourism Demand: An Inquiry Into The Validity Of The Standard And Regular Determinants, Muhammed Salim Anappattath

CBER Conference

The present study aims to identify the role of standard factors and other regular potential determinants in influencing the tourist arrivals in Indian state of Kerala. We used month-wise data of the foreign tourist arrivals in Kerala from January 2002 to December 2019 and applied auto-regressive distributed lagged (ARDL) approach, with the seasonality-adjusted data, for the same.


Explaining The Proliferation Of U.S. Billionaires During The Neoliberal Period, Rob Piper Oct 2023

Explaining The Proliferation Of U.S. Billionaires During The Neoliberal Period, Rob Piper

Class, Race and Corporate Power

This article explains the proliferation of U.S. billionaire wealth during the neoliberal period (1980 to the present). Using the work of scholars, investigative journalists, and government researchers, it examines descriptive evidence from the past forty years of the economic, social, and political trends associated with the capital accumulation that led to so much wealth being concentrated with so few individuals. It further creates a theoretical framework of institutional factors (or “drivers”) that help to understand how these trends link together to provide a comprehensive explanation for the increase of billionaires in comparison with other economic gauges like GDP, income distribution, …


Priced Out Of Housing In The Mountain West, 2022, Maryam Raja, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Oct 2023

Priced Out Of Housing In The Mountain West, 2022, Maryam Raja, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Housing & Real Estate

This fact sheet presents data from the National Association of Home Builder (NAHB) 2022 report on "priced out estimates" and the consequences of increased prices and interest rates on homes. Data are included from NAHB on home affordability for median home prices in five Mountain West states and 25 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs).


Anti-Capitalist Ideologies Uncovered In The Marxist Analysis Of Hwang Dong-Hyuk’S Netflix Original Squid Game (2021), Yuri A. Arakaki Oct 2023

Anti-Capitalist Ideologies Uncovered In The Marxist Analysis Of Hwang Dong-Hyuk’S Netflix Original Squid Game (2021), Yuri A. Arakaki

Access*: Interdisciplinary Journal of Student Research and Scholarship

Through a Marxist analytical lens, this research presents a critical examination of Hwang Dong-hyuk’s Netflix Original Squid Game (2021). With the objective of exposing the major liabilities of a modern capitalist model, this paper provides context and a framework of Marxist analysis, followed by a discussion of the media form itself, the illusion of freedom, and elements of dehumanization and violence. It also examines the rapacious urgency of supply and demand, perpetuated by capitalism in the television show, as well as in its parallel manifestation in reality.


Gross Domestic Product (Gdp) In Mountain West Metros, 2022, Ayda Atici, Eshaan Vakil, Saha Salahi, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Oct 2023

Gross Domestic Product (Gdp) In Mountain West Metros, 2022, Ayda Atici, Eshaan Vakil, Saha Salahi, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Cities & Metros

This fact sheet examines the rankings of large Mountain West metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2022, as well as population rank in 2020. The original report, published by Visual Capitalist, collated information from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Kenan Institute to provide these data.


The Top 1% Of Earners In The Mountain West, Ivan Sun, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Oct 2023

The Top 1% Of Earners In The Mountain West, Ivan Sun, Zachary Billot, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Economic Development & Workforce

This fact sheet examines data from the Smart Asset report, “America’s Top 1% Is Different in Each State: From a $370k to $950k Income,” which examines the thresholds of the top 1% of earners and the tax rates associated with those earners. The original report contains the income threshold, national rankings, and tax rates for the top 1% of earners in all 50 states. This fact sheet focuses on the data for the top 1% of earners in the Mountain West: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah.


The Impact Of Guaranteed Income On Political Participation, Daniel Horn Aug 2023

The Impact Of Guaranteed Income On Political Participation, Daniel Horn

Doctoral Dissertations

This three-paper dissertation examines the impact of guaranteed income (GI) and cash transfer (CT) programs on political participation, aiming to contribute to understanding how social policies can shape civic engagement. The first paper provides a comprehensive literature review on GI and CT programs, focusing on their potential effects on political participation. By analyzing existing studies, this paper identifies key findings and gaps in the literature, setting the stage for further empirical investigation. The second paper develops and tests a new instrument called the Brief Political Participation Scale (BPPS), designed to measure political participation concisely and reliably. The third paper presents …


Does Fertility Matter For Middle Aged And Older Adults’ Risk Attitudes?, Christine Ho, Bussarawan Teerawichitchainan, Joanne Tan, Eugene Rui Le Tan Aug 2023

Does Fertility Matter For Middle Aged And Older Adults’ Risk Attitudes?, Christine Ho, Bussarawan Teerawichitchainan, Joanne Tan, Eugene Rui Le Tan

Research Collection School Of Economics

Given that risk attitudes influence many decisions, it is important to understand the factors that shape such attitudes in late adulthood, when individuals face important risky decisions. While research finds that parenthood tends to correlate with lower risk tolerance in western countries, there is a lacuna on whether such associations persist in late adulthood, and are applicable to the Asian context, where children are conventionally considered a linchpin of old age support. Data for middle aged and older individuals come from the nationwide Singapore Life Panel (N = 6,740). Multivariate statistical analyses are employed to estimate the associations between willingness …


Revisiting Development Discourse Amidst Informal Sector Crises Covid-19 Pandemic, Anjan Chakrabarti, Pooja Sharma Jun 2023

Revisiting Development Discourse Amidst Informal Sector Crises Covid-19 Pandemic, Anjan Chakrabarti, Pooja Sharma

International Journal on Responsibility

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, India has experienced a severe catastrophe of the informal sector, related to both health and livelihood. The informal sector and migrant workers are closely linked and they became easy prey during the nationwide lockdown at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The informal sector, primarily a fallout of the prevailing dual economy, makes it highly imperative to revisit not only India’s growth and development process but also the distribution. The paper attempts to evaluate the development process adopted by developing countries and their relevance in terms of growth and inequality. The study finds the missing link …


Analysing Pandemic Induced Economic Inequality In Developing Nations, Ravneet Kaur Bhogal Jun 2023

Analysing Pandemic Induced Economic Inequality In Developing Nations, Ravneet Kaur Bhogal

International Journal on Responsibility

The dawn of the new decade of the 21st century saw an unprecedented global crisis. This crisis led the world to halt economic and social progress. It led to a galloping increase in the economic inequality and migration of people in search of opportunities to save them from the current situation. The developing nations saw a sea of people migrating back to their roots in search of safe havens. This has led to the loss of jobs which has increased income inequality. Migrants face the risk of contagion and also the possible loss of employment, wages, and health insurance coverage. …


National Debt And The Misleading Family Metaphor: A Message To The Economic Managers And Journalists, Jesus Felipe Jun 2023

National Debt And The Misleading Family Metaphor: A Message To The Economic Managers And Journalists, Jesus Felipe

Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies (AKI)

A recent article in the prestigious British newspaper, The Guardian (“Bad economics at the BBC enabled Tory austerity and its aftermath — and it knows as much,” James Meadway, January 31, 2023), claimed that bad economics by the British Broadcasting Co. (BBC), the reputable British television company, enabled Tory austerity and its aftermath. A BBC internal review noted that too many journalists don’t get “basic economics,” with a negative effect on U.K. politics. The review refers to taxation, public spending, government borrowing, and debt output. Poor information is particularly serious when it comes to reporting on the central political issue …


Cuban Embargo: An Insufficient Measure To Encourage Us Foreign Policy Interests, Esme Jm Prowse May 2023

Cuban Embargo: An Insufficient Measure To Encourage Us Foreign Policy Interests, Esme Jm Prowse

Major Papers

This major paper examines the Cuban embargo as an ineffective hard power policy and explores the potential of soft, hard, and smart power as alternative approaches to resolve the failures of the 60-year-old blockade. The paper analyzes the historical context and rationale behind the embargo and assesses its impact on Cuban-American relations, regional stability, and U.S. national interests. The study argues that the embargo has failed to achieve its intended goals and has instead perpetuated a cycle of hostility, isolation, and human rights abuses. By drawing on the theoretical frameworks of soft, hard, and smart power, the paper presents policy …