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Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent May 2014

Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent

Doctoral Dissertations

What do community interpreting for the Deaf in western societies, conference interpreting for the European Parliament, and language brokering in international management have in common? Academic research and professional training have historically emphasized the linguistic and cognitive challenges of interpreting, neglecting or ignoring the social aspects that structure communication. All forms of interpreting are inherently social; they involve relationships among at least three people and two languages. The contexts explored here, American Sign Language/English interpreting and spoken language interpreting within the European Parliament, show that simultaneous interpreting involves attitudes, norms and values about intercultural communication that overemphasize information and ...


"A Solution To A Worrisome Problem": The Rhetoric Of Scientific Discourse In A Public Policy Dispute About The Environment , James Robert Heiman Jan 2006

"A Solution To A Worrisome Problem": The Rhetoric Of Scientific Discourse In A Public Policy Dispute About The Environment , James Robert Heiman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study is to demonstrate how rhetorical analyses of public discourse artifacts and practices reveal science as a civic discourse---with highly epideictic and deliberative purposes---that guides public policy decisions made by non-expert, civic leaders. Though typically recognized for its forensic function, little is written about how the epideictic function of scientific discourse politically performs in public policy debates about the environment. Nor is much written about the connection between the epideictic and deliberative functions of scientific discourse and the resolution of public controversies. To demonstrate the intersection of the political and scientific, I present a case study ...


Preference And Performance With Cartoon-Like Images In Instructional Documentation , Amanda Nicole Metz Bemer Jan 2006

Preference And Performance With Cartoon-Like Images In Instructional Documentation , Amanda Nicole Metz Bemer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, I examine Americans' preferences for and performance with three different types of visuals in instructions: cartoon-like images, photographs, and line drawings. Using an electronic survey and usability tests, I conclude that though Americans of most ages generally dislike cartoon-like images and tend to prefer photographs and line drawings, performance for two specific age groups exhibiting dislike (those under 24 years of age and over 50) demonstrates increased success using cartoon-like images. This finding suggests that technical communicators need to conduct usability tests for multiple age groups. In addition, I explain that more research on methodology is necessary.


Communication Practices Of Women In Undergraduate Engineering Classes , Sarah Michelle Brown Jan 2006

Communication Practices Of Women In Undergraduate Engineering Classes , Sarah Michelle Brown

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Communication Practices of Women in Undergraduate Engineering Classes explores ways in which women and men communicate in undergraduate engineering classes and ways to better attract and retain women in engineering programs. The data, gathered over three semesters, include classroom observations, surveys, and interviews. Seven classes were analyzed: four in engineering, two in history, and one in food science. This thesis brings together three articles written for various academic audiences: engineering education, leadership, and women's studies. The individual articles focused on (1) class participation, leadership, and negative behavior in undergraduate engineering classes, (2) leadership styles of women and men, and ...


Can Difference Speak?: Representation And Ethos Of Otherness With/In Postmodern Research, Classroom, And Online Communication Practices , Oksana Hlyva Jan 2006

Can Difference Speak?: Representation And Ethos Of Otherness With/In Postmodern Research, Classroom, And Online Communication Practices , Oksana Hlyva

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines ways difference or otherness is represented at three research sites to underscore practical ethical dilemmas engendered by the postmodern crisis of representation. Inspired largely by Gayatri Spivak's influential Can the Subaltern Speak? the dissertation seeks to illustrate a practical usefulness of postcolonial and post-structuralist insights for rhetoric and composition as well as business and technical communication practitioners who aspire to reconcile their allegiance with the postmodern and postethnographic representation critique and prevalent modernist, positivist, and reductive institutional exigencies;Embedded within the dissertation are three papers that elaborate on concrete representational practices in three specific research locales ...


Virtual Contexts: Investigating Physicality And Rhetorical Situation , Katherine Salmon Miles Jan 2006

Virtual Contexts: Investigating Physicality And Rhetorical Situation , Katherine Salmon Miles

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

My research stems from a service-learning project in my technical communication course---a project that involved the creation of print, oral, and electronic instructions for filming within a virtual reality chamber. Soon into the project, I realized that students had difficulty conceptualizing the project's rhetorical situation---the context, purpose, and audience of a high-tech research center. Although I provided students with abstracted textual descriptions, oral explanations, and visual depictions of the virtual environment, they were unable to engage with or respond to the assignment's rhetorical situation. My dissertation postulates the impasse was due to students' lack of access to a ...


The Scholarship And Practice Of An Integrated Communication Education (Spice) , Irene Poesia Faass Jan 2005

The Scholarship And Practice Of An Integrated Communication Education (Spice) , Irene Poesia Faass

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the scholarship and practice of an integrated communication education. Specifically, it explores the contributions made by scholarship in the writing-across-the-curriculum (WAC) and learning community (LC) movements and in the areas of collaboration, and multimodal communication instruction to the development of an integrated communication curriculum. This innovative communication education responds to the changing nature of communication in the 21st century. After a literature review of this relevant scholarship (Part I), this dissertation includes an account of one curricular initiative, ISUComm, informed by this pedagogical research (Part II). Particular attention is paid in the penultimate chapter to the professional ...


Third Space Sites, Subjectivities And Discourses: Reimagining The Representational Potentials Of (B)Orderlands' Rhetorics , Adela C. Licona Jan 2005

Third Space Sites, Subjectivities And Discourses: Reimagining The Representational Potentials Of (B)Orderlands' Rhetorics , Adela C. Licona

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation identifies feminist third-space (both/and) consciousness in academic and non-academic contexts. Although dissimilar, both academic discourses and zines (self-published magazines) are comprised of complex rhetorical performances with implications for feminist practices of representation and the re-production of meaning. This dissertation analyzes academic third-space sites resulting from the crossing of disciplinary borders and activist zines as examples of nonacademic third space, with particular emphasis on representations of bodies and sexualities. Zines reveal (1) the transformative potentials beyond gender binaries; (2) the importance of revisioning histories; (3) the practices of what I term "reverso" (critical reversals of the normative gaze ...


Blurred Boundaries Of Science And Advocacy: The Discourse Of Scientists At A Conservation Organization , Neil Lindeman Jan 2005

Blurred Boundaries Of Science And Advocacy: The Discourse Of Scientists At A Conservation Organization , Neil Lindeman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation I argue that, in the field of conservation, the boundary separating science from advocacy appears to be undergoing a shift as the number of research scientists at conservation advocacy organizations grows. Drawing on data from interviews with scientists at a prominent conservation non-governmental organization (NGO), I identify and analyze the kinds of rhetorical work NGO scientists engage in as they attempt to participate effectively in the forums of both science and advocacy. I also analyze the publications of one scientist at the same organization to identify features of the discourse of NGO conservation science that suggest a ...


Spanish Business Writing Genre Research: Electronic Mail Memoranda , Therese M. Judge Jan 2005

Spanish Business Writing Genre Research: Electronic Mail Memoranda , Therese M. Judge

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Despite the prevalence of a belief in the importance of preparing students for work in a global economy, very little research into Spanish-language written communication practices exists. In this study, I formed hypotheses regarding Mexican business e-mails based on congruencies in the findings of previous Spanish-language writing research and US-English e-mail writing research and then tested these hypotheses against a corpus of 107 Mexican business e-mails. I employed both a qualitative rhetorical analysis and a quantitative feature presence/absence analysis. Of the eight hypothesis statements describing Mexican business e-mails, only two were affirmed. The hypothesis statements describing these workplace e-mail ...


Rationality And Environmental Justice: The Visual Rhetoric Of A Culture At Risk , Tom Bowers Jan 2005

Rationality And Environmental Justice: The Visual Rhetoric Of A Culture At Risk , Tom Bowers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Scholars in rhetoric have recently sought to expand their understanding of social movements and the public sphere by integrating studies of visual rhetoric. For scholars exploring the rhetoric of social movements and the public sphere, the environmental movement provides a fruitful avenue of research by which to consider the role of visual rhetoric in changing social consciousness. Drawing on a methodology that views social movements through a rhetorical lens, I explore how the visual rhetoric of the environmental justice movement challenges corporate practices and discourses that shape public perceptions of sustainable development and industry's commitment to open communication. In ...


Rhetoric As Collective Ethos: From Classical Chinese Texts To Postmodern Corporate Images , Wei Yong-Kang Jan 2004

Rhetoric As Collective Ethos: From Classical Chinese Texts To Postmodern Corporate Images , Wei Yong-Kang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the question of how to position ethos in rhetorical theory and practice by looking, mainly, at three areas: classical Chinese rhetoric, Web design, and the construction of corporate images in America after 9/11. In traditional Western rhetoric, ethos is perceived to be the appeal of one's personal character, with a vocabulary heavily steeped in individualism and self-representation. In the dissertation I argue for an alternative understanding of ethos, pointing out that ethos is essentially an invocation of cultural forces, with which rhetors not only identify themselves but also, through such identification, achieve their rhetorical purposes ...


Be-Coming Subjects: Reclaiming A Politics Of Location As Radical Political Rhetoric , Catherine Olive-Marie Fox Jan 2004

Be-Coming Subjects: Reclaiming A Politics Of Location As Radical Political Rhetoric , Catherine Olive-Marie Fox

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation I theorize and analyze the rhetorical deployment of a "politics of location" within the context of poststructural theories of discourse, subjectivity, and agency. In her book, Blood Bread and Poetry, Adrienne Rich coins the phrase "a politics of location," which marks an effort to move away from a hegemonic Western feminism that universalizes all women's experiences and constructs a normative (and hence limiting and exclusionary) subject of feminism. Rich forwards a politics of location as a radical materialist political stance that grounds feminist theory in accountability for the situatedness of knowledge production. I extend Rich's ...


Accident Or Crash?: The Rhetoric Of The Anti-Drunk Driving Movement , Christianna Irene Connell White Jan 2004

Accident Or Crash?: The Rhetoric Of The Anti-Drunk Driving Movement , Christianna Irene Connell White

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation argues that the work of the contemporary anti-drunk driving movement has, since its inception in the early 1980s, been successful and that its work is rhetorical activity. This study examines that activity: how it is situated; what it looks like; how it has changed over time; and how it has shaped both public policy and private behavior. The study provides a historical and cultural context for the movement, a taxonomy of movement stakeholders and their discourse, and analyses of artifacts with visual and verbal features. The taxonomy characterizes movement stakeholders (advocacy organizations, government entities, research entities, and the ...


Study, Practice, And Pedagogy Of Idea Formation In Rhetoric And Professional Communication , Iraj Omidvar Jan 2004

Study, Practice, And Pedagogy Of Idea Formation In Rhetoric And Professional Communication , Iraj Omidvar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The collapse of traditional epistemology, which began in the nineteen hundreds in Europe, removes many of the traditional distinctions between philosophy and rhetoric and significantly expands the scope of the latter. This dissertation explores some aspects of the new definition of rhetoric that emerges from this collapse. This definition emphasizes how we form ideas (decisions, judgments, theories, but also names and images) by communicating as we work together to solve problems and to decide courses of action by examining social/cultural, institutional, and individual values. "How Professionals Form Their Ideas: An Urgent Research Direction for Rhetoric and Professional Communication" argues ...


The Art Of Rhetoric As Self-Discipline: Inquiries Into Spirit, Sight, Sound , Anne Rypstat Richards Jan 2003

The Art Of Rhetoric As Self-Discipline: Inquiries Into Spirit, Sight, Sound , Anne Rypstat Richards

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes and embodies an ethically grounded method for structuring a program of rhetorical study. As a discipline, rhetoric is perhaps uniquely comprehensive, as Cicero suggests when he writes, "No man can be an orator complete in all points of merit who has not attained a knowledge of all important subjects and arts" (De Oratore , Bk. I, Ch. 6). Rather than attempting to delimit rhetoric, the dissertation offers a means of narrowing its scope for individual rhetoricians, namely by focusing on inner necessity and conscience in the approach to study. Rhetoric here is defined as a framework in which ...


Contradiction, Constraint, And Re-Mediation: An Activity Analysis Of Fyc Motives , Elizabeth Ann Wardle Jan 2003

Contradiction, Constraint, And Re-Mediation: An Activity Analysis Of Fyc Motives , Elizabeth Ann Wardle

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

While compositionists have long grappled with what the first-year composition (FYC) course is and can do, the literature has rarely focused directly on FYC motives, nor offered an analysis of FYC motives using empirical data to focus on the ways teachers are constrained and afforded in their attempts to achieve various FYC motives. This dissertation provides motive-related data collected over two years, conducts an analysis of current official disciplinary and programmatic motives in light of the institutional position of the FYC course, and offers a method for resolving the motive-related contradictions that became apparent in the analysis. This method involves ...


Negotiating Technologies And Social Action On The Prairie: Visual, Verbal, And Spatial Rhetorics In The Narrative Of A Public, Interpretive Exhibition , Susan Lee Booker Jan 2003

Negotiating Technologies And Social Action On The Prairie: Visual, Verbal, And Spatial Rhetorics In The Narrative Of A Public, Interpretive Exhibition , Susan Lee Booker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative case study of a public, interpretive museum space examines the visual, verbal, and spatial rhetorics of the exhibition's educational narrative. The site, a national wildlife refuge and accompanying visitors' center, features research and environmental education on the restoration and preservation of tallgrass prairie and oak savanna ecosystems. The study draws on theory and practice of contemporary museums engaged in professional communication about the environment and engages cultural studies' articulation theory in its approach. Conventional qualitative methods of interviews, document analysis, and observation are employed. Five types of data were analyzed: documents (including newspaper articles, consultants' reports and ...


Eminent Domain: Documents Of Coordination In Agriculture , Adrienne Patrice Lamberti Jan 2003

Eminent Domain: Documents Of Coordination In Agriculture , Adrienne Patrice Lamberti

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In his study of Thomas Edison (The Languages of Edison's Light, 1999), professional communication scholar Charles Bazerman investigates how Edison, rather than constructing a document for one specific audience, purpose, and context, instead would use a single written communication to simultaneously address numerous audiences and to mitigate among the audiences' ideological conflicts. In a 1998 speech at Iowa State University, Bazerman labeled this type of communication a document of coordination.;My dissertation takes the concept of documents of coordination and places it within an agricultural context. Specifically, the Beginning Farmer Center (BFC), a program under Iowa State University Extension ...


A Balance Of Benefits And Burdens: Academia In A Digital Copyright Context , Carol Ann Mohrbacher Jan 2003

A Balance Of Benefits And Burdens: Academia In A Digital Copyright Context , Carol Ann Mohrbacher

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Most academics can agree that intellectual property warrants legal protection, especially in an educational context where their own publications are often traded for promotion and tenure. However, academics would also agree that they require a reliable exemption allowing them to use copyright protected work for educational purposes. Copyright law has historically satisfied both these needs by protecting academic publications from unauthorized use, and by providing an educational exemption that allows educators access to copyright protected work in their classes without first gaining permission or paying a royalty.;In attempting to update current copyright law to match technological advances and to ...


Writing-Across-The-Curriculum In A Linked Course Model For First-Year Students: An Activity Theory Analysis , Patricia Lynn Collins Harms Jan 2003

Writing-Across-The-Curriculum In A Linked Course Model For First-Year Students: An Activity Theory Analysis , Patricia Lynn Collins Harms

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Nine first-year agricultural engineering students enrolled at a large, public, land grant university, who participated in a learning community which featured linked English and engineering courses, are featured in this study. The linked courses were selected and designed to help students overcome the perception that first-year composition is an encapsulated activity unrelated to the engineering curriculum and to foster an environment in which the students were encouraged to make useful or meaningful connections between the disciplines of composition and engineering. Vygotsky's cultural historical activity theory serves as a theoretical framework for the study. In addition, Russell's (1997) synthesis ...


Analyzing Cross-Disciplinary Teacher Feedback In A Communication-Across-The-Curriculum Learning Community , Julie Marie Zeleznik Jan 2003

Analyzing Cross-Disciplinary Teacher Feedback In A Communication-Across-The-Curriculum Learning Community , Julie Marie Zeleznik

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This four-year study of a communication-intensive university learning community (Agronomy 356: Soil, Water, and Fertilizer Management and English 309: Report and Proposal Writing) investigated how instructor collaboration influenced written cross-disciplinary teacher feedback. While some rule-bound knowledge was not shared across disciplinary boundaries, co-assigning and co-assessing a rhetorically situated, argument-based writing assignment enabled my four instructor-participants to collaborate meaningfully and to integrate both agronomic and communicative knowledge into their feedback. Using activity theory, I analyzed how collaboration affected instructors' feedback patterns, roles, and styles, as well as the ways disciplinary knowledge of agronomy and rhetoric was communicated through feedback. My mixed-methodology ...


Re-Imagining Community Identity Through Articulation: A Case Study Of Two Newspapers, A Strike, And A Community's Negotiation Of Change , Andrea Breemer Frantz Jan 2003

Re-Imagining Community Identity Through Articulation: A Case Study Of Two Newspapers, A Strike, And A Community's Negotiation Of Change , Andrea Breemer Frantz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The work examines how rhetorical practices connect and overlap within circumstances of active negotiation of social, economic, and physical change. Specifically, it asks: can privileging of particularized knowledges, pervasive skepticism, and the individual petit recit of postmodernism co-exist with what James Mackin calls "communitarianism," or reliance on a system of social connections? This work argues that it can, and does, through the negotiation of community identity.;Using case study methodology as well as analysis and application of articulation theory, this work examines identifiable links across public practices. These practices illustrate the active process of community identity negotiation---what links occur, what ...


Negotiated Spaces: Constructing Genre And Social Practice In A Cross-Community Writing Project , Donna Jean Kain Jan 2003

Negotiated Spaces: Constructing Genre And Social Practice In A Cross-Community Writing Project , Donna Jean Kain

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As a critical factor in ordering the production and reception of texts, the concept of genre has received considerable attention from theorists and researchers in rhetoric and professional and technical communication. Theorists suggest that established genres, as authorized forms of discourse, powerfully shape the ways in which people perceive and understand texts and contexts. However, much of the theory and research on genre focuses on the ways in which genres emerge within discourse communities as specific responses to the perspectives and purposes of groups that are in some way circumscribed. My focus in this dissertation is on investigating the role ...


"No Mere Travelogue": Material-Semiotic Bodies/Texts In Science, Safari, And Spectacle , Lisa M. Hermsen Jan 2002

"No Mere Travelogue": Material-Semiotic Bodies/Texts In Science, Safari, And Spectacle , Lisa M. Hermsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Where and how might we alternatively understand science as representation and figure rhetoric as material---and thus trace the ways meaning comes to be constructed in scientific and rhetorical practices, in particular historic moments, for the benefit of some and at the cost of Others? This exploration is situated in a study of anthropology as a social science, emerging as a discipline in the early part of the twentieth century. It treats Osa Johnson's travelogue/ethnography, I Married Adventure, and Martin and Osa Johnsons' ethnocinematic films Simba and Congorilla, as boundary objects whose history traces the rhetorical and cultural work ...


Takin' It To The Streets: Culture War, Rhetorical Education, And Democratic Virtue , Beth Jorgensen Jan 2002

Takin' It To The Streets: Culture War, Rhetorical Education, And Democratic Virtue , Beth Jorgensen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The author analyzes the history of rational liberalism, connecting this paradigm with the rhetoric of the culture wars, posing postmodernism as the re-emergence of Classical sophism, and offering a rhetoric pedagogy which draws from neo-Protagorean argumentation and Paolo Freire. Chapter One examines the broad debate as it applies to English Studies, as well as the debate within English Studies, contrasting the epistemological and moral assumptions of rational elitism with those postmodern. The author argues that, as democracy is embodied in rhetorical practice rather than foundational truths, the composition classroom is a natural site for education in the virtues of phronesis ...


A Rhetoric Of Boundaries: Living And Working Along A Technical/Non-Technical Split , David Paul Clark Jan 2001

A Rhetoric Of Boundaries: Living And Working Along A Technical/Non-Technical Split , David Paul Clark

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Historians and social scientists have long studied the construction and operation of conventional categories like "nature/culture." In this dissertation, I take a rhetorical approach to the study of a conventional category I refer to as the "technical/non-technical split," the arbitrary but powerful articulation of what is and is not "technical" that structures contemporary organizations. To accomplish this study, I conducted an ethnographic study of the ways that the organizational and individual belief in the separation of "technical" from "non-technical" structured daily work at an Internet startup company. I analyze the formation of the technical/non-technical structure, a formation ...


Introducing Change: A Rhetorical Analysis Of The Early Communications In Mergers And Acquisitions , Janel M. Bloch Jan 2000

Introducing Change: A Rhetorical Analysis Of The Early Communications In Mergers And Acquisitions , Janel M. Bloch

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Change and uncertainty are integral elements of any organization, yet they are not easy to face and they elicit a wide range of responses among organizational members. This study uses a rhetorical approach to examine the communications directed to employees in one type of organizational change---mergers and acquisitions;Based on a review of the mergers and acquisitions, management, organizational behavior, and rhetoric and professional communication literature, I identify four major rhetorical challenges that need to be addressed in the early communications in mergers and acquisitions: setting the stage for cultural change, addressing emotions, dealing with uncertainty, and building an identity ...


Designing For Lifeworlds: Genre And Activity In Information Systems Design And Evaluation , Clay Ian Spinuzzi Jan 1999

Designing For Lifeworlds: Genre And Activity In Information Systems Design And Evaluation , Clay Ian Spinuzzi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increasingly, professional communicators design and evaluate information systems (ISes) (e.g., online help, websites, databases). Yet the dominant theoretical frameworks (computational psychology, formalism) and research methodologies for designing and evaluating ISes are limited in important ways. These Cartesian frameworks tend not to explore rhetorical issues: society, culture, history, interpretation. I address these issues with a theory and a research methodology (a theory-guided research approach) that I developed by conducting five empirical studies of IS use;I critique existing theories and research methodologies, then draw on scholars such as Mikhail Bakhtin, Lev Vygotsky, Yrjo Engestrom, Edwin Hutchins, and Charles Bazerman to ...


Knowing Each Other's Minds: Japanese And American Experts Share Knowledge , Lee Stanley Tesdell Jan 1999

Knowing Each Other's Minds: Japanese And American Experts Share Knowledge , Lee Stanley Tesdell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

International communication is often examined through the lens of miscommunication and grounded in the simplistic notion that effective international communication requires learning culture-wide rules. Culture-wide generalizations, however, don't work beyond the most elementary level. In fact, international communication is often characterized by understanding rather than miscommunication---knowledge sharing that may be influenced by interlocutors having similar knowledge and common purposes;Here I explore the question of what contributes to the ability of technical experts from different cultures to communicate with each other. I analyzed transcripts of face-to-face meetings between a Japanese Ministry of Agriculture official, Tatsuya Go, and six Iowa ...