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Theses/Dissertations

1995

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Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Speech and Rhetorical Studies

A Study Comparing Musical Abilities Of Stutterers And Nonstutterers, Megan Creswell Dec 1995

A Study Comparing Musical Abilities Of Stutterers And Nonstutterers, Megan Creswell

Dissertations and Theses

Rhythm is a feature of both music and speech that has been successfully used in the treatment of speech disorders, particularly stuttering, for many years. The successful use of rhythm in the treatment of dysf luencies of speech may be due to stutterers' perceptual deficiencies in music and rhythm abilities. Research supports the view that there are differences between stutterers and nonstutterers in timing and rhythmic capabilities. This study, therefore, sought to determine whether there was a difference between the perceptual musical abilities of stutterers versus nonstutterers as measured by the Seashore Measures of Musical Talents, Revised (1960). Data collected ...


Limiting Noise Exposure Associated With Hearing Aid Use, Alison Mary Gilbert Dec 1995

Limiting Noise Exposure Associated With Hearing Aid Use, Alison Mary Gilbert

Dissertations and Theses

Industrial workers who have sustained hearing losses often wear hearing aids on the job in order to hear their co-worker's speech. However they risk damaging their hearing further by amplifying the high levels of background noise typical of such environments. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established guidelines to protect workers' hearing. A maximum allowable level of 90 dBA averaged over a period of eight hours is considered safe. Wearing hearing aids on the job may expose an individual to a considerably higher levels, however no guidelines as to maximum allowable levels of amplified noise exist at ...


Effects Of Receptive Language Deficits On Persisting Expressive Language Delays, Traci Lee Giacherro Nov 1995

Effects Of Receptive Language Deficits On Persisting Expressive Language Delays, Traci Lee Giacherro

Dissertations and Theses

Predicting language outcomes in children who at age two are "late talkers" is a concern of Speech Language Pathologists. Currently, there is no conclusive data allowing specialists to predict which children will outgrow their delays and which children will not. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the effect of a receptive language delay on the outcome of the slow expressive language delayed child, and determine whether or not it is a viable predictor of poor outcomes. The subject information used in this project was compiled from the data collected and reported by Paul (1991) during the Portland ...


Influence Of Heater Orientation On Fluctuations In Steady-State Nucleate Boiling, William F. Osborne Nov 1995

Influence Of Heater Orientation On Fluctuations In Steady-State Nucleate Boiling, William F. Osborne

Dissertations and Theses

In observations of steady-state nucleate boiling, fluctuations in the temperature and heat flux might initially appear to be completely random. However, it was shown that, for a vertically mounted platinum wire in liquid nitrogen, the fluctuations about the steady-state exhibit an average counterclockwise circulation when the heat flux is plotted versus the superheat temperature. An area associated with the average circulation was proposed as a numerical measure of stability for steady-state nucleate boiling. The mechanisms for the generation of these fluctuations are thought to be the feedback of the bubbles rising past the wire and the differential heating and cooling ...


Behavioral Differences In The Classroom: U.S. University Teachers And Chinese University Teachers, Xiaocheih Sun Jul 1995

Behavioral Differences In The Classroom: U.S. University Teachers And Chinese University Teachers, Xiaocheih Sun

Dissertations and Theses

Although intercultural scholars examine the differences in cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes between the U.S. and China, few specifically have studied cultural differences between U.S. and Chinese university classrooms. This study examines behavioral differences exhibited by U.S. teachers in U.S. university classrooms and Chinese teachers in Chinese university classrooms. This research addresses three areas of significance. First, Chinese students studying in the U.S. who read this thesis may be better able to cope with the U.S. educational system and communicate more effectively with both U.S. students and teachers. Second, this research may help ...


Independent Acoustic Stimulation Of The Amphibian And Basilar Papillae Of Rana Pipiens, Mark Parker Jul 1995

Independent Acoustic Stimulation Of The Amphibian And Basilar Papillae Of Rana Pipiens, Mark Parker

Dissertations and Theses

This study attempted to selectively stimulate and record from either the amphibian or basilar papillae of Rana pipiens. Computer-generated, frequency-specific clicks were used to elicit BSER's from either amphibian or basilar papillae. Narrowband noise fatiguers were presented in the frequency region of which each papillae are tuned. It was expected that a threshold shift would be elicited in the papillae that received the acoustic trauma, and that no threshold shift would be observed from the collateral papilla. The results of this experiment indicated that there was no overall difference between the threshold shift of either papilla. Furthermore, the amount ...


Dialogue And Critical Thinking In Personal Action, Amanda Elizabeth Feller Jul 1995

Dialogue And Critical Thinking In Personal Action, Amanda Elizabeth Feller

Dissertations and Theses

A common criticism of U.S. citizens today, whether as voters or students or workers, is that they are "lazy and apathetic". It is important to explore the validity of this criticism. This thesis begins with the premise that there are two prerequisites for citizenship in a democracy: (1) that citizens be willing to participate and (2) that citizens are able to participate. The purpose of this research is to examine a particular set of perspectives regarding social conditions which consistently impact the two aforementioned prerequisites. This examination addresses social conditions that undermine a person's ability to participate meaningfully ...


An Exploration Of Theoretical Issues Related To Mediation Found In The Social Science Literature, Cheryl E. Nally Jun 1995

An Exploration Of Theoretical Issues Related To Mediation Found In The Social Science Literature, Cheryl E. Nally

Dissertations and Theses

Mediation is a problem-solving approach to conflict management that is used more and more in virtually every context in which conflicts arise. This paper explores the wide range of meaning for the term 'mediation' as found in the social science literature and examines the question of what processes can properly be called mediation. It surveys the literature related to numerous theories of mediation and examines the meaning of the term as established in its various contexts. The mediation literature can be divided into the following contexts: public sector or court connected mediation, divorce mediation, international mediation, environmental mediation, community mediation ...


A Correlational Study: The 1-Minute Measure Of Homonymy And Intelligibility, Tamra Leanne Day Jun 1995

A Correlational Study: The 1-Minute Measure Of Homonymy And Intelligibility, Tamra Leanne Day

Dissertations and Theses

Identifying the severity level of unintelligibility objectively and efficiently holds critical clinical implications for speech assessment and intervention needs. The speech of children who demonstrate phonological deviations is frequently unintelligible. The use of an accurate and time-efficient measurement of intelligibility is necessary to screen children who may be producing phonological patterns that contribute to significantly reduced intelligibility in connected speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of concurrent validity between scores received on the 1-Minute Measure of Homonymy and Intelligibility (Hodson, 1992) and speech intelligibility as measured by the percent of words understood in connected speech ...


Clinical Application Of Two Phonological-Based Treatment Approaches, Holly Kiesz Royer Jun 1995

Clinical Application Of Two Phonological-Based Treatment Approaches, Holly Kiesz Royer

Dissertations and Theses

This single-subject study was designed to compare the effectiveness of two phonological-based treatment approaches with a preschool male with unintelligible speech characterized by multiple deficient phonological patterns. Four phonological patterns were chosen as targets based on results of the Assessment of Phonological ProcessesRevised (APP-R} (Hodson, 1986), as analyzed by the Computer Analysis of Phonological Deviation (CAPO) (Hodson, 1992a). The subject participated in 60-minute intervention sessions three times a week over an 8-week period. The phonological cycling approach (Hodson & Paden, 1991) was the focus of 4 weeks of intervention, and the minimal pairs approach (Tyler, Edwards, & Saxman, 1987) was the focus ...


The Affects Of Vocal Fatigue On Fundamental Frequency And Frequency Range In Actresses As Opposed To Non-Actresses, Ruth Ann Jenkins May 1995

The Affects Of Vocal Fatigue On Fundamental Frequency And Frequency Range In Actresses As Opposed To Non-Actresses, Ruth Ann Jenkins

Dissertations and Theses

Differences may exist between the voice qualities of those who professionally use and train their voices and those who do not. The examination of fundamental frequency and frequency range m actresses and non-actresses is integral to determining voice quality differences in these populations. These differences, whether the result of frequent use or training of the voice, may exist relative to fatiguing conditions such as may be experienced by actresses in the course of their work. Fatigue has been shown to produce greater effects in normals than in performers, particularly in singers (Gelfer, Andrews, and Schmidt, 1991). Little research has been ...


The Effectiveness Of The Phonological Cycling Approach In Treating An Unintelligible Child In The First Two Cycles Of Intervention, Anne Cole May 1995

The Effectiveness Of The Phonological Cycling Approach In Treating An Unintelligible Child In The First Two Cycles Of Intervention, Anne Cole

Dissertations and Theses

One preschool male who was highly unintelligible was enrolled in two cycles of direct intervention utilizing the phonological cycling approach (Hodson & Paden, 1991). Prior to treatment in cycles 1 and 2, the Assessment of Phonological Processes-Revised (APP-R) (Hodson, 1986) was administered to the subject to assess phonological deficiencies and to determine the target phonological patterns. A continuous speech sample was collected prior to cycle 1 to rate speech intelligibility. Based on the results obtained from the APP-R, target patterns, target words, and an individualized treatment plan were developed for each cycle. For the first cycle of intervention, the subject participated ...


Validity And Efficiency Of The Check-Slash Transcription Method For Measuring Intelligibility, Vicky Jo Bacon May 1995

Validity And Efficiency Of The Check-Slash Transcription Method For Measuring Intelligibility, Vicky Jo Bacon

Dissertations and Theses

Speech-language pathologists are routinely called upon to make professional assessments concerning a speaker's level of intelligibility. The use of subjective judgement procedures for estimating a percentage of intelligibility is the general practice of many speech-language pathologists because they require minimal time. Although efficient, these methods lack any form of numerical support, and their validity and reliability is questionable. The standard within the field that provides data support is the orthographic transcription method, but it is considered to be too time-consuming for practical application (Samar & Metz, 1988). Researchers continue to seek a measure that is both valid and efficient to ...


A Study Of The Duration Of Words Surrounding A Moment Of Stuttering, Jennifer Dawn Peterson May 1995

A Study Of The Duration Of Words Surrounding A Moment Of Stuttering, Jennifer Dawn Peterson

Dissertations and Theses

Until this point, not much research has examined the difference in temporal characteristics for untreated stutterers in words surrounding a moment of stuttering. It is important to determine whether or not stutterers who have not been in treatment alter the duration of their speech when they stutter versus when they are fluent to determine what aids in the increase of fluency. The purpose of the present study was to examine the duration of the word prior to and following a stuttered word and the duration of the corresponding word in a nonstuttered episode. The following questions were to be addressed ...


Comparison Of Prescribed Versus Actual Gain For Children With Profound Hearing Impairments, Kristin Rashelle Gilmer May 1995

Comparison Of Prescribed Versus Actual Gain For Children With Profound Hearing Impairments, Kristin Rashelle Gilmer

Dissertations and Theses

The early selection and use of an appropriate amplification system may be the most important aspect in the aural! rehabilitation of children who are hearing impaired. The main goal guiding the selection of hearing aids for children is to maximize their residual hearing through amplification in order to facilitate speech and language development. Seewald, Ross, and Stelmachciwicz (1987) have developed a speech-spectrum based procedure for selecting hearing aid characteristics for children referred to as the Desired Sensation Level Procedure (DSL) approach. This is an objective method which has been developed specifically for use with young pre-verbal children. I The purpose ...


The Nature And Authority Of Scripture : Historical Sources And Theological Engagement For Congregational Awareness And Reflection, Carson Reed May 1995

The Nature And Authority Of Scripture : Historical Sources And Theological Engagement For Congregational Awareness And Reflection, Carson Reed

Doctor of Ministry Project/Theses

For many Christians, biblical authority is rooted in the concept of inerrancy or in the historical veracity. But within a increasingly post-modern culture, the church faces a crisis in both of these foundations. The modern presuppositions that undergird the inerrancy doctrine and the historical-critical method are showing distinct cracks in the once seamless confidence placed in both approaches. Additionally, for Churches of Christ, understandings about the nature and authority of Scripture area just below the surface of a number of issues confronting congregations. This project/thesis seeks to address this growing dilemma within the context of the Westlake Church of ...


The Effects Of Ear Canal Pressure Variation On Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions, Jodi L. Head Apr 1995

The Effects Of Ear Canal Pressure Variation On Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions, Jodi L. Head

Dissertations and Theses

The middle ear system is a vital component in the propagation mechanism of otoacoustic emissions. As such, investigation of the effect of variation in middle ear impedance on the measurement of emissions is warranted. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) have gained recognition as a means of gaining frequency specific information on auditory function. As the effects of changes in middle ear impedance will vary as a function of frequency, a clear definition of the relationship between middle ear impedance and DPOAE amplitude across the frequency spectrum is needed. Twenty adults (ages 20-37) with normal hearing and normal middle ear function ...


Silence: A Comparison Of Japanese And U.S. Interpretation, Mimi Murayama Feb 1995

Silence: A Comparison Of Japanese And U.S. Interpretation, Mimi Murayama

Dissertations and Theses

It is commonly argued that silence is an important Japanese communication strategy, with the goal of making oneself understood without words; on the other hand, in the U.S., silence tends to be filled by speaking, and speaking up clearly and the facilitation of talking is preferred. However, our knowledge about how silence is interpreted in the U.S. and Japan is weak and based on anecdotal evidence. Therefore, this study examines how people in the U.S. and Japan interpret silence according to contexts, examining what kinds of social rules underlie their interpretation. Interpretation is guided by how people ...


Effects Of Oral And Silent Reading On The Reading Comprehension Performance Of Left Hemisphere-Damaged Individuals, Paul K. Akers Feb 1995

Effects Of Oral And Silent Reading On The Reading Comprehension Performance Of Left Hemisphere-Damaged Individuals, Paul K. Akers

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the method of reading (either aloud or silently) would affect the reading comprehension performance of left hemispheredamaged (LHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) subjects across inference levels using the Nelson Reading Skills Test (NRST) (Hanna, Schell, & Schreiner, 1977). The experimental group was comprised of fifteen subjects who had suffered a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) to the left hemisphere of the brain. Subjects were selected after they had demonstrated an adequate level of function on the Short Porch Index of Conununicative Ability (SPICA) (DiSimoni, Keith, & Darley, 1980), to perform the tasks required in ...


Using A Computer Program To Influence The Expectations Senior Adults Have Regarding Hearing Aids, Carol I. Sayre Feb 1995

Using A Computer Program To Influence The Expectations Senior Adults Have Regarding Hearing Aids, Carol I. Sayre

Dissertations and Theses

A disabling condition that is common for many senior adults is hearing impairment. Studies have shown that a substantial number of people who could benefit from amplification choose not to use hearing aid. Often the reasons may be because they have unrealistic expectations of what hearing aids can do. These unrealistic expectations are not necessarily from personal use, but the senior adult is often influenced by the media, acquaintances, or advertisements. The purpose of this study was to determine if a computer program developed with information about hearing aids and their use could be used to influence the expectations senior ...


Methods Of Language Assessment: A Survey Of Oregon Public School Speech-Language Pathologists, Staci Lee Johnson Ball Jan 1995

Methods Of Language Assessment: A Survey Of Oregon Public School Speech-Language Pathologists, Staci Lee Johnson Ball

Dissertations and Theses

Much advice has been published in the last 40 years that has attempted to aid speech-language pathologists in choosing language assessment tools (e.g., Danwitz, 1981 & Darley, 1979 ). Questions have arisen about what tests are actually being used in public schools and the reasons for those tests being used over other tests. The data bank of information is minimal in this area as only one study has appeared in the literature in which Wilson, Blackmon, Hall, & Elcholtz, (1991), conducted a State survey of currently used language assessment instruments. The primary research question to be answered was: What methods of language assessment are being used in Oregon? Secondary questions to be answered were: (a) What factors influence the selection and use of the chosen procedures?, (b) What are the dates of development of the tests used most frequently, (c) By what means do the public school clinicians keep themselves current with new trends and information in the field? There were 567 questionnaires mailed out to Oregon Speech-Language Pathologists who worked in the public school setting and served children 4-9 years of age. Of the 297 respondees, only 4 reported not using any formal instruments for language assessment. Results show 9 main standardized tests were used for measuring expressive language by the majority of the respondents. Listed in order of frequency of use, they are: TOLD, EOWPVT, WORD test, CELF, LPT, SPELT, ASSET, TOPS, and the PLS. For receptive language, also in order of frequency of use, the 1 O main tests were as follows: PPVT, TOLD, CELF, TACL, ASSET, BOEHM, PLS, ROWPVT, BRACKEN, and the LPT. Factors that influenced the selection and use of specific tests included: personal experience; ease of administration; time restraints; budgets and availability of tests and district protocols for assessments. Dates of publication, new and revisions, for both the expressive and receptive tests used ranged from 1983 - 1990. At the time of this survey, the main ways that clinicians were keeping themselves current for new tests on the market were word of mouth from associates, inservices on new tests, and reading new information in journals.


Gendered Graphics: An Examination Of The Effect Of Gender On Visuals In Professional Communication , Michael Joseph Hassett Jan 1995

Gendered Graphics: An Examination Of The Effect Of Gender On Visuals In Professional Communication , Michael Joseph Hassett

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation reports a study that examines the effect of gender on the creation and interpretation of visuals used in diagrams of the sunflowerseed oil extraction process;Gender has long been considered an issue worth pursuing in studies of communication behaviors. Research completed on gender and communication can be divided into two areas: (1) studies investigating performance differences between males and females and (2) studies investigating the perception of differences between males and females. This dissertation explores definitions of gender and surveys research in gender and communication in both areas. It applies this research to the use of visual elements ...


Communication In A Rhetorical Corporation: An Ethnographic Study Of Change From Hierarchy To Self-Managed Teams , Jane M. Perkins Jan 1995

Communication In A Rhetorical Corporation: An Ethnographic Study Of Change From Hierarchy To Self-Managed Teams , Jane M. Perkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Based on three years of fieldwork in a "spin-off" software development company, this dissertation describes and discusses the impact on communication of current corporate restructuring. The ethnographic study focuses on the corporation's attempts to move from a hierarchical organizational structure to team-based management and on the communicative interactions that played a critical part in this change and were altered as a result. Motivated by disintegrating boundaries between the corporation, its coustomers, and its suppliers; by the breakdown of internal functional divisions into project teams; and by the altered power relationships between management and "knowledge workers," the corporation's employees ...


Rhetoric And Metaphor In The Emergence Of Modern Physics , Richard David Johnson Jan 1995

Rhetoric And Metaphor In The Emergence Of Modern Physics , Richard David Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation offers a series of rhetorical analyses of the seminal papers of the quantum theory. Specifically, it discusses the central role that metaphors play in the invention of new scientific arguments that form the basis of schools of scientific thought. The theory of metaphor that is developed for analysis is situated into the tradition of the rhetoric of the "older" sophists of ancient Greece. Metaphor, or more accurately 'trope,' was a constitutive feature of sophistic beliefs about language and rhetoric. Applied to scientific texts, the sophistic understanding of metaphor illustrates how scientific beliefs can be brought into contrast, leading ...


Explanatory Style And Perception Of Negative And Positive Daily Events, Amy K. Jester Jan 1995

Explanatory Style And Perception Of Negative And Positive Daily Events, Amy K. Jester

Masters Theses

This study investigated explanatory style and people's perceptions of negative and positive daily events. Explanatory style can be measured by rating causal explanations that people give on three dimensions; internality, stability, and globality. College students wrote stories in response to pictures, using the Thematic Apperceptive Test (TAT), and also completed a 28-day Daily Event Log Questionnaire. It was expected that how people explain good and bad events that happen to them, would be the same whether someone was explaining a personal daily event or explaining a story written in response to a picture. To prove this, it was expected ...