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Dissertations and Theses

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Regulating Pavement Dwellers: The Politics Of The Visibly Poor In Public Space, Lauren Marie Larin Mar 2017

Regulating Pavement Dwellers: The Politics Of The Visibly Poor In Public Space, Lauren Marie Larin

Dissertations and Theses

Many researchers argue the increasing reliance on sit/lie ordinances to regulate homeless people's use of public space is one in a suite of neoliberal policies that shape the geographies of public space in cities to serve the needs of global capital. However, these policies are developed at the local, not global, level as specific actors make claims in the public sphere that communicatively shape policy formation. Through comparative case study, this research asks, how do different actors, situated in specific local and global contexts, influence the adoption of sit/lie ordinances?

I examine two cases of policymaking in ...


Is Scholarship Advancing?: An Analysis Of Fifteen Years Of Framing Research, Joseph Zachary Provencher Mar 2016

Is Scholarship Advancing?: An Analysis Of Fifteen Years Of Framing Research, Joseph Zachary Provencher

Dissertations and Theses

In 2011, Porismita Borah published "Conceptual Issues in Framing Theory: A Systematic Examination of a Decade’s Literature" to shed light on the status of framing research, and attempt to answer several scholars' criticisms of framing research practices (Carragee and Roefs 2004, D'Angelo, 2002, Entman, 1993). Borah argues that framing research has several areas of necessary improvement, and her prescription is for future research to be able to examine specific framing issues or effects, but also be able to connect with broader understandings of framing.

The following content analysis of framing research, conducted between the year 2000 and 2013 ...


A Study Of Small Talk Among Males: Comparing The U.S. And Japan, Chie Furukawa Jan 2014

A Study Of Small Talk Among Males: Comparing The U.S. And Japan, Chie Furukawa

Dissertations and Theses

This study seeks to understand the social interaction of small talk in two different countries. Defining small talk as 'phatic communion' and 'social talk' as contrasted to 'core business talk' and 'work-related talk,' Holmes (2000) claims that small talk in the workplace is intertwined with main work-talk. Small talk can help build solidarity and rapport, as well as maintain good relationships between workers. Much of the research on small talk has been focused on institutional settings such as business and service interactions; thus, there is a need for research on non-institutional small talk between participants without established relationships.

This study ...


A Dialect Study Of Oregon Norms, Lisa Wittenberg Hillyard Jan 2004

A Dialect Study Of Oregon Norms, Lisa Wittenberg Hillyard

Dissertations and Theses

The pioneers and settlers of the Oregon Territory were not of one ilk. They came from various places and brought their separate speech patterns with them. This study sought to identify which major North American English dialect was present in the first half of the 20th century in Oregon. Analysis relied on the descriptions for the Southern, Northern, Midlands, and Western dialects. Some dialect features have acoustic measurements attached to their descriptions, and others do not. The analytical process was based on acoustic measurements for vowel classes and individual tokens, as well as global observations about the place of a ...


Examining The Relationship Between Three Speech Features And Intelligibility Ratings Of Black English Preschoolers As Judged By Standard English Listeners, Britteny Sue Asher Jun 1996

Examining The Relationship Between Three Speech Features And Intelligibility Ratings Of Black English Preschoolers As Judged By Standard English Listeners, Britteny Sue Asher

Dissertations and Theses

Linguistic diversification within our public schools has demanded professional responsibility from speech-language pathologists (SLPs) serving nonstandard English speaking students. Understanding and recognizing normal cultural linguistic differences is the responsibility of the SLP. This study focused on the relationship of three speech features to intelligibility ratings of 10 preschool aged Black English speakers as assigned by 4 licensed standard English speaking SLPs with varying experience. The SLPs also rated the perceived effect of these speech features (i.e., articulation, speaking rate, and resonance) on intelligibility. Using the Pearson product-moment correlation, ratings were correlated and found to demonstrate an association between intelligibility ...


Parental Perceptions Of The Efficacy Of Clinical Intervention For Speech-Language Disorders At Portland State University's Speech And Language Clinic, Deborah Ellen Anderson Jun 1996

Parental Perceptions Of The Efficacy Of Clinical Intervention For Speech-Language Disorders At Portland State University's Speech And Language Clinic, Deborah Ellen Anderson

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the survey as a method of assessing client satisfaction with clinical services and to then assess parental satisfaction of clinical services at Portland State University's language clinic using the survey method. The survey asked questions regarding the parents' perceived benefits from the clinic, their perception of the skills of the clinicians who served their children, and the parents' perception of the clinical atmosphere. Eighty-five Consumer Satisfaction Surveys were mailed to 81 parents of children receiving services at Portland State University Speech-Language Clinic between the years 1987 and 1994. Eleven surveys were ...


Using A Computer Program About Pediatric Hearing Evaluations To Help Educate Parents, Jeanne E. Aleskus May 1996

Using A Computer Program About Pediatric Hearing Evaluations To Help Educate Parents, Jeanne E. Aleskus

Dissertations and Theses

Hearing assessment techniques, and counseling for the pediatric population are different from those used on adults. Parents will often not have any prior knowledge of how their child's hearing will be assessed. Therefore, many questions may pertain to the mechanics of the evaluation. Audiologists may find the questions take away some of their counseling time and they have less time to discuss the diagnosis and prognosis of the child. The purpose of this study was to determine if a computer program developed with information about pediatric evaluations could be used to educate individuals about this process. Twenty subjects were ...


Children With Early Language Delay: A Group Case Study Of Outcomes In Intermediate Grades, Tracey Abild-Lane May 1996

Children With Early Language Delay: A Group Case Study Of Outcomes In Intermediate Grades, Tracey Abild-Lane

Dissertations and Theses

Current research in early language development suggests that children who were diagnosed during preschool with expressive language delay would demonstrate difficulties during elementary school years (Scarborough and Dobrich, 1990). This purpose of the present study was to qualitatively describe the outcome of children with a history of early language delay and differing levels of expressive performance (ELD and HELD), as reported by the parents. A questionnaire was developed to determine the children's current age and grade level, past and present reading ability and reading interests, best and worst academic subject, special services and diagnosed disability, speech and language concerns ...


Intervention History Of Children With Slow Expressive Language Development, Kathleen Belfiore May 1996

Intervention History Of Children With Slow Expressive Language Development, Kathleen Belfiore

Dissertations and Theses

Children who are identified with slow expressive language development (SELD) around the age of two are producing less than fifty intelligible words or no two word phrases. Current research suggests that some children with SELD outgrow their delay while others continue to develop long term language difficulties. The literature shows varied findings of short term recovery but long term deficits, and shifts in the specific expressive language deficits ~s the child with SELD matures and encounters increased language demands. Suggestions are found for a mix of monitoring and early intervention, in step with signs of readiness and dynamic assessments, to ...


Effects Of Receptive Language Deficits On Persisting Expressive Language Delays, Traci Lee Giacherro Nov 1995

Effects Of Receptive Language Deficits On Persisting Expressive Language Delays, Traci Lee Giacherro

Dissertations and Theses

Predicting language outcomes in children who at age two are "late talkers" is a concern of Speech Language Pathologists. Currently, there is no conclusive data allowing specialists to predict which children will outgrow their delays and which children will not. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the effect of a receptive language delay on the outcome of the slow expressive language delayed child, and determine whether or not it is a viable predictor of poor outcomes. The subject information used in this project was compiled from the data collected and reported by Paul (1991) during the Portland ...


Influence Of Heater Orientation On Fluctuations In Steady-State Nucleate Boiling, William F. Osborne Nov 1995

Influence Of Heater Orientation On Fluctuations In Steady-State Nucleate Boiling, William F. Osborne

Dissertations and Theses

In observations of steady-state nucleate boiling, fluctuations in the temperature and heat flux might initially appear to be completely random. However, it was shown that, for a vertically mounted platinum wire in liquid nitrogen, the fluctuations about the steady-state exhibit an average counterclockwise circulation when the heat flux is plotted versus the superheat temperature. An area associated with the average circulation was proposed as a numerical measure of stability for steady-state nucleate boiling. The mechanisms for the generation of these fluctuations are thought to be the feedback of the bubbles rising past the wire and the differential heating and cooling ...


Behavioral Differences In The Classroom: U.S. University Teachers And Chinese University Teachers, Xiaocheih Sun Jul 1995

Behavioral Differences In The Classroom: U.S. University Teachers And Chinese University Teachers, Xiaocheih Sun

Dissertations and Theses

Although intercultural scholars examine the differences in cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes between the U.S. and China, few specifically have studied cultural differences between U.S. and Chinese university classrooms. This study examines behavioral differences exhibited by U.S. teachers in U.S. university classrooms and Chinese teachers in Chinese university classrooms. This research addresses three areas of significance. First, Chinese students studying in the U.S. who read this thesis may be better able to cope with the U.S. educational system and communicate more effectively with both U.S. students and teachers. Second, this research may help ...


Independent Acoustic Stimulation Of The Amphibian And Basilar Papillae Of Rana Pipiens, Mark Parker Jul 1995

Independent Acoustic Stimulation Of The Amphibian And Basilar Papillae Of Rana Pipiens, Mark Parker

Dissertations and Theses

This study attempted to selectively stimulate and record from either the amphibian or basilar papillae of Rana pipiens. Computer-generated, frequency-specific clicks were used to elicit BSER's from either amphibian or basilar papillae. Narrowband noise fatiguers were presented in the frequency region of which each papillae are tuned. It was expected that a threshold shift would be elicited in the papillae that received the acoustic trauma, and that no threshold shift would be observed from the collateral papilla. The results of this experiment indicated that there was no overall difference between the threshold shift of either papilla. Furthermore, the amount ...


Dialogue And Critical Thinking In Personal Action, Amanda Elizabeth Feller Jul 1995

Dialogue And Critical Thinking In Personal Action, Amanda Elizabeth Feller

Dissertations and Theses

A common criticism of U.S. citizens today, whether as voters or students or workers, is that they are "lazy and apathetic". It is important to explore the validity of this criticism. This thesis begins with the premise that there are two prerequisites for citizenship in a democracy: (1) that citizens be willing to participate and (2) that citizens are able to participate. The purpose of this research is to examine a particular set of perspectives regarding social conditions which consistently impact the two aforementioned prerequisites. This examination addresses social conditions that undermine a person's ability to participate meaningfully ...


An Exploration Of Theoretical Issues Related To Mediation Found In The Social Science Literature, Cheryl E. Nally Jun 1995

An Exploration Of Theoretical Issues Related To Mediation Found In The Social Science Literature, Cheryl E. Nally

Dissertations and Theses

Mediation is a problem-solving approach to conflict management that is used more and more in virtually every context in which conflicts arise. This paper explores the wide range of meaning for the term 'mediation' as found in the social science literature and examines the question of what processes can properly be called mediation. It surveys the literature related to numerous theories of mediation and examines the meaning of the term as established in its various contexts. The mediation literature can be divided into the following contexts: public sector or court connected mediation, divorce mediation, international mediation, environmental mediation, community mediation ...


A Correlational Study: The 1-Minute Measure Of Homonymy And Intelligibility, Tamra Leanne Day Jun 1995

A Correlational Study: The 1-Minute Measure Of Homonymy And Intelligibility, Tamra Leanne Day

Dissertations and Theses

Identifying the severity level of unintelligibility objectively and efficiently holds critical clinical implications for speech assessment and intervention needs. The speech of children who demonstrate phonological deviations is frequently unintelligible. The use of an accurate and time-efficient measurement of intelligibility is necessary to screen children who may be producing phonological patterns that contribute to significantly reduced intelligibility in connected speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of concurrent validity between scores received on the 1-Minute Measure of Homonymy and Intelligibility (Hodson, 1992) and speech intelligibility as measured by the percent of words understood in connected speech ...


The Effectiveness Of The Phonological Cycling Approach In Treating An Unintelligible Child In The First Two Cycles Of Intervention, Anne Cole May 1995

The Effectiveness Of The Phonological Cycling Approach In Treating An Unintelligible Child In The First Two Cycles Of Intervention, Anne Cole

Dissertations and Theses

One preschool male who was highly unintelligible was enrolled in two cycles of direct intervention utilizing the phonological cycling approach (Hodson & Paden, 1991). Prior to treatment in cycles 1 and 2, the Assessment of Phonological Processes-Revised (APP-R) (Hodson, 1986) was administered to the subject to assess phonological deficiencies and to determine the target phonological patterns. A continuous speech sample was collected prior to cycle 1 to rate speech intelligibility. Based on the results obtained from the APP-R, target patterns, target words, and an individualized treatment plan were developed for each cycle. For the first cycle of intervention, the subject participated ...


A Study Of The Duration Of Words Surrounding A Moment Of Stuttering, Jennifer Dawn Peterson May 1995

A Study Of The Duration Of Words Surrounding A Moment Of Stuttering, Jennifer Dawn Peterson

Dissertations and Theses

Until this point, not much research has examined the difference in temporal characteristics for untreated stutterers in words surrounding a moment of stuttering. It is important to determine whether or not stutterers who have not been in treatment alter the duration of their speech when they stutter versus when they are fluent to determine what aids in the increase of fluency. The purpose of the present study was to examine the duration of the word prior to and following a stuttered word and the duration of the corresponding word in a nonstuttered episode. The following questions were to be addressed ...


Comparison Of Prescribed Versus Actual Gain For Children With Profound Hearing Impairments, Kristin Rashelle Gilmer May 1995

Comparison Of Prescribed Versus Actual Gain For Children With Profound Hearing Impairments, Kristin Rashelle Gilmer

Dissertations and Theses

The early selection and use of an appropriate amplification system may be the most important aspect in the aural! rehabilitation of children who are hearing impaired. The main goal guiding the selection of hearing aids for children is to maximize their residual hearing through amplification in order to facilitate speech and language development. Seewald, Ross, and Stelmachciwicz (1987) have developed a speech-spectrum based procedure for selecting hearing aid characteristics for children referred to as the Desired Sensation Level Procedure (DSL) approach. This is an objective method which has been developed specifically for use with young pre-verbal children. I The purpose ...


Silence: A Comparison Of Japanese And U.S. Interpretation, Mimi Murayama Feb 1995

Silence: A Comparison Of Japanese And U.S. Interpretation, Mimi Murayama

Dissertations and Theses

It is commonly argued that silence is an important Japanese communication strategy, with the goal of making oneself understood without words; on the other hand, in the U.S., silence tends to be filled by speaking, and speaking up clearly and the facilitation of talking is preferred. However, our knowledge about how silence is interpreted in the U.S. and Japan is weak and based on anecdotal evidence. Therefore, this study examines how people in the U.S. and Japan interpret silence according to contexts, examining what kinds of social rules underlie their interpretation. Interpretation is guided by how people ...


Effects Of Oral And Silent Reading On The Reading Comprehension Performance Of Left Hemisphere-Damaged Individuals, Paul K. Akers Feb 1995

Effects Of Oral And Silent Reading On The Reading Comprehension Performance Of Left Hemisphere-Damaged Individuals, Paul K. Akers

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the method of reading (either aloud or silently) would affect the reading comprehension performance of left hemispheredamaged (LHD) and non-brain-damaged (NBD) subjects across inference levels using the Nelson Reading Skills Test (NRST) (Hanna, Schell, & Schreiner, 1977). The experimental group was comprised of fifteen subjects who had suffered a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) to the left hemisphere of the brain. Subjects were selected after they had demonstrated an adequate level of function on the Short Porch Index of Conununicative Ability (SPICA) (DiSimoni, Keith, & Darley, 1980), to perform the tasks required in ...


Methods Of Language Assessment: A Survey Of Oregon Public School Speech-Language Pathologists, Staci Lee Johnson Ball Jan 1995

Methods Of Language Assessment: A Survey Of Oregon Public School Speech-Language Pathologists, Staci Lee Johnson Ball

Dissertations and Theses

Much advice has been published in the last 40 years that has attempted to aid speech-language pathologists in choosing language assessment tools (e.g., Danwitz, 1981 & Darley, 1979 ). Questions have arisen about what tests are actually being used in public schools and the reasons for those tests being used over other tests. The data bank of information is minimal in this area as only one study has appeared in the literature in which Wilson, Blackmon, Hall, & Elcholtz, (1991), conducted a State survey of currently used language assessment instruments. The primary research question to be answered was: What methods of language assessment are being used in Oregon? Secondary questions to be answered were: (a) What factors influence the selection and use of the chosen procedures?, (b) What are the dates of development of the tests used most frequently, (c) By what means do the public school clinicians keep themselves current with new trends and information in the field? There were 567 questionnaires mailed out to Oregon Speech-Language Pathologists who worked in the public school setting and served children 4-9 years of age. Of the 297 respondees, only 4 reported not using any formal instruments for language assessment. Results show 9 main standardized tests were used for measuring expressive language by the majority of the respondents. Listed in order of frequency of use, they are: TOLD, EOWPVT, WORD test, CELF, LPT, SPELT, ASSET, TOPS, and the PLS. For receptive language, also in order of frequency of use, the 1 O main tests were as follows: PPVT, TOLD, CELF, TACL, ASSET, BOEHM, PLS, ROWPVT, BRACKEN, and the LPT. Factors that influenced the selection and use of specific tests included: personal experience; ease of administration; time restraints; budgets and availability of tests and district protocols for assessments. Dates of publication, new and revisions, for both the expressive and receptive tests used ranged from 1983 - 1990. At the time of this survey, the main ways that clinicians were keeping themselves current for new tests on the market were word of mouth from associates, inservices on new tests, and reading new information in journals.


Nonlinguistic Cognitive Performance And Expressive And Receptive Language Scores In Children With Expressive Language Delay, Deborah Kay Warren Nov 1994

Nonlinguistic Cognitive Performance And Expressive And Receptive Language Scores In Children With Expressive Language Delay, Deborah Kay Warren

Dissertations and Theses

This study was part of the Portland Language Development Project. The purpose was to establish reliability for the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test. Additionally, nonlinguistic cognitive performance scores were correlated with soores from expressive and receptive language test soores. Finally, scores of overall cognitive function and of nonlinguistic cognitive function in children with normally developing language (NL) and with expressive language delay (ELD) were compared. The original group size was 60 children, 30 with ELD at the age of 20 months, and 30 who were a matched control group. These subjects were reevaluated during Kindergarten. The Draw-A-Man Test was administered to assess ...


The Relationship Between Intelligibility And Length And Complexity Of Language In A Group Of 4- And 5-Year-Old Children, Susan Fodell Nov 1994

The Relationship Between Intelligibility And Length And Complexity Of Language In A Group Of 4- And 5-Year-Old Children, Susan Fodell

Dissertations and Theses

Previous research has indicated that speech and linguistic variables develop concurrently. When one aspect of speech and linguistic development is delayed, there are typically associated delays in another area as well. This interactive relationship has been studied extensively in the context of phonological and syntactical development, as well as fluency and syntactical development. The relationship between intelligibility and linguistic proficiency has not been studied as extensively. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between varying levels of intelligibility and length and complexity of language in preschool-aged children. Mean length of utterance was correlated with the mean percentage ...


Comparison Of Training Methods In A Branch Environment, Lisa Peterson Davidson Nov 1994

Comparison Of Training Methods In A Branch Environment, Lisa Peterson Davidson

Dissertations and Theses

This study addressed a need to identify the effectiveness of in-branch, employee administered training programs. A comparison of various training methods and a ranking of the effectiveness of those methodologies would enable managers to make informed training design and purchase decisions. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between four training methods as evaluated by post-training assessment scores. This study also sought to determine the following: 1) did all four methods significantly impact short term material recall?, and 2) did gender impact training effectiveness? The training methods studied were: video; study guide; video plus study guide; video ...


Second Grade Academic Performance In Normal Children, Children With A History Of, And Children With Expressive Language Delay, Kathleen Ann Clancy Nov 1994

Second Grade Academic Performance In Normal Children, Children With A History Of, And Children With Expressive Language Delay, Kathleen Ann Clancy

Dissertations and Theses

Interest in children who are diagnosed with expressive language delay has increased over the years. This has resulted in follow-up studies which have suggested that these children would have difficulties in academics during their elementary school years (Hall & Tomblin, 1978; Weiner, 1974) The current study sought to determine if children with a history of and children with continued expressive language delay would have problems with academics once they reached the second grade. The Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) was used to measure academic performance. It was chosen for it's reliable standardization and use of five different subtest areas to determine overall ...


Gender Differences In Slow Expressive Language Development, Cynthia Lee Hare-Blye Oct 1994

Gender Differences In Slow Expressive Language Development, Cynthia Lee Hare-Blye

Dissertations and Theses

The contemporary research suggests that some children who present with early language delays as toddlers outgrow their delays while others continue to develop long-term language difficulties. Several studies over the years have focused on factors that might aid in predicting the outcome of late talkers. This current study emphasized exploring gender as a possible predictive factor. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist in the rate of growth in language skills, as indexed by scores on the Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) procedure (Lee, 1974) of boys versus girls who are late to start talking as ...


The Effects Of Phonological Processes On The Speech Intelligibility Of Young Children, Susanne Shotola-Hardt Oct 1994

The Effects Of Phonological Processes On The Speech Intelligibility Of Young Children, Susanne Shotola-Hardt

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between occurrence of 10 phonological processes, singly and in groups, with mean percentage of intelligibility of connected speech samples. Participants in the study included 4 adult listeners (3 females, one male) and 46 speakers aged 48 to 66 months (16 females, 30 males). Percentage of occurrence scores for phonological processes (independent variables) were obtained by the administration of The Assessment of Phonological Processes - Revised (Hodson, 1986). Percentage of intelligibility for 100-word connected speech samples (dependent variables) were obtained by orthographic transcription (words understood divided by 100). The single processes showing ...


Temporal Characteristics Of Words Surrounding A Moment Of Stuttering, Janice Kaye Young Oct 1994

Temporal Characteristics Of Words Surrounding A Moment Of Stuttering, Janice Kaye Young

Dissertations and Theses

Past theories have shown that stuttering results from a breakdown in the speaker's accurate timing of movement from one sound to the next. The efficacy of timing therapies is based on the proposal that stuttering diminishes as the amount of planning time for the phonetic voice-onset coordinations increases (Perkins, Bell, Johnson & Stocks, 1979). Acoustic information as to the parameters of the timing breakdown is critical to designing fluency facilitation and stuttering treatment programs. The present research investigated differences in word durations in the vicinity of the stuttered moment. Durations of words inunediately preceding and following the stutter were examined and compared to the exact words of a corresponding fluent sample from the same speaker. Stimulus material consisted of 83 phonetically balanced sentences read twice by each subject with an imposed 30 minute break between readings to minimize adaptation effects. Data analysis consisted of spectrographic measurement of durations of words (in msec.) inunediately preceding and following the stuttered word and comparison of durations of the same words from the same speaker's fluent production sample. Word durations before the stuttered sample (BSTUT) were compared to word durations before the nonstuttered sample (BNSTUT). A second comparison looked at the duration of a word after a stuttered word (ASTUT), and that of the nonstuttered sample (ANSTUT). One sample, two-tailed t-tests determined the existence of significant differences at the .OS level of confidence in word durations both preceding and following the stuttered moment when compared to word durations of the fluently produced corresponding match. Word duration patterns are consistent with those found by Viswanath (1989) and suggest that the anticipatory effect of the disruption on word duration is strong followed by a recovery period after the stuttered moment. In conclusion, this finding is consistent with theories suggesting that stuttering is a disorder of timing and supports the efficacy of timing therapies in the management of fluency programs (Andrews, Howie, Dosza & Guitar, 1982; Andrews, Guitar & Howie, 1980, Brayton & Conture, 1978, Ingham, Montgomery & Uliana, 1983). There is need for additional research to corroborate present findings.


The Concepts Of Mother In Children's Stories In Translation From Print To Visual Media: A Content Analysis, Karen Martin Tanski Sep 1994

The Concepts Of Mother In Children's Stories In Translation From Print To Visual Media: A Content Analysis, Karen Martin Tanski

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this research was two-fold. First, this thesis sought to uncover the implicit concepts associated with mothers in children's stories. Second, this thesis attempted to chart changes in portrayals of mother when translated from print to a visual medium. This research maintains that the concepts of mother in children's stories contain cultural ideals that are related to society's evolving perceptions of mother. Eighteen mother/surrogate mother portrayals were analyzed in 15 novels and 15 videotapes. Each portrayal was coded according to marital status, range of behaviors, 41 individual behaviors within five categories, and the amount ...