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Full-Text Articles in Speech and Rhetorical Studies

Regulating Pavement Dwellers: The Politics Of The Visibly Poor In Public Space, Lauren Marie Larin Mar 2017

Regulating Pavement Dwellers: The Politics Of The Visibly Poor In Public Space, Lauren Marie Larin

Dissertations and Theses

Many researchers argue the increasing reliance on sit/lie ordinances to regulate homeless people's use of public space is one in a suite of neoliberal policies that shape the geographies of public space in cities to serve the needs of global capital. However, these policies are developed at the local, not global, level as specific actors make claims in the public sphere that communicatively shape policy formation. Through comparative case study, this research asks, how do different actors, situated in specific local and global contexts, influence the adoption of sit/lie ordinances?

I examine two cases of policymaking in ...


Is Scholarship Advancing?: An Analysis Of Fifteen Years Of Framing Research, Joseph Zachary Provencher Mar 2016

Is Scholarship Advancing?: An Analysis Of Fifteen Years Of Framing Research, Joseph Zachary Provencher

Dissertations and Theses

In 2011, Porismita Borah published "Conceptual Issues in Framing Theory: A Systematic Examination of a Decade’s Literature" to shed light on the status of framing research, and attempt to answer several scholars' criticisms of framing research practices (Carragee and Roefs 2004, D'Angelo, 2002, Entman, 1993). Borah argues that framing research has several areas of necessary improvement, and her prescription is for future research to be able to examine specific framing issues or effects, but also be able to connect with broader understandings of framing.

The following content analysis of framing research, conducted between the year 2000 and 2013 ...


A Study Of Small Talk Among Males: Comparing The U.S. And Japan, Chie Furukawa Jan 2014

A Study Of Small Talk Among Males: Comparing The U.S. And Japan, Chie Furukawa

Dissertations and Theses

This study seeks to understand the social interaction of small talk in two different countries. Defining small talk as 'phatic communion' and 'social talk' as contrasted to 'core business talk' and 'work-related talk,' Holmes (2000) claims that small talk in the workplace is intertwined with main work-talk. Small talk can help build solidarity and rapport, as well as maintain good relationships between workers. Much of the research on small talk has been focused on institutional settings such as business and service interactions; thus, there is a need for research on non-institutional small talk between participants without established relationships.

This study ...


A Dialect Study Of Oregon Norms, Lisa Wittenberg Hillyard Jan 2004

A Dialect Study Of Oregon Norms, Lisa Wittenberg Hillyard

Dissertations and Theses

The pioneers and settlers of the Oregon Territory were not of one ilk. They came from various places and brought their separate speech patterns with them. This study sought to identify which major North American English dialect was present in the first half of the 20th century in Oregon. Analysis relied on the descriptions for the Southern, Northern, Midlands, and Western dialects. Some dialect features have acoustic measurements attached to their descriptions, and others do not. The analytical process was based on acoustic measurements for vowel classes and individual tokens, as well as global observations about the place of a ...


Oregon Survey Of Initial Nursing Care For Infants With Cleft Lip ± Palate, Kirsten Joy Lindaas Aug 1997

Oregon Survey Of Initial Nursing Care For Infants With Cleft Lip ± Palate, Kirsten Joy Lindaas

Dissertations and Theses

This study investigated the current status of initial nursing services provided by Oregon hospitals to families of newborns with cleft lip ± palate. The research questions asked were: (a) Do hospitals provide assistance to parents of newborns with cleft lip ± palate? (b) Do hospitals identify and refer to craniofacial specialists? ( c) Is level of associated services provided to families of newborns with cleft lip ± palate correlated to the number of births that occur at the hospital in which the infant was delivered? (d) Do hospitals provide inservice education programs in cleft lip and palate? (e) Do hospital staff perceive a need ...


An Ethnography Of Classroom Interaction In Hoshuko: A Case Study Of The Japanese Supplementary School Classroom, Nobuko Higashi Jun 1997

An Ethnography Of Classroom Interaction In Hoshuko: A Case Study Of The Japanese Supplementary School Classroom, Nobuko Higashi

Dissertations and Theses

Based on the Ethnography of Communication perspective, this study explores the patterns and norms for interaction in a hoshuko classroom setting, as well as the participants' socially-constructed reality of hoshuko schooling. The focus of this study is the classroom communication patterns of the participants of a first grade hoshuko classroom in the U.S. Hoshuko, Japanese supplementary school, is one type of school for overseas Japanese children which they attend on weekends or after regular, weekday school hours at local schools in their host country. The school is "supplementary" in the sense that the students learn subjects they would have ...


A Comparison Of Parent Interview And Direct Assessment Of Receptive Language In Preschool-Aged Children With Cerebral Palsy, Susan Kathleen Livick Jun 1997

A Comparison Of Parent Interview And Direct Assessment Of Receptive Language In Preschool-Aged Children With Cerebral Palsy, Susan Kathleen Livick

Dissertations and Theses

Cerebral palsy is a multiply handicapping condition which may affect motor skills, hearing, sight, speech and cognitive functioning. Assessment instruments which do not rely on an intact sensory and motor system are needed for use with the population with cerebral palsy in order to obtain valid information regarding levels of functioning. The information obtained from the results of modified assessment instruments can be used to plan and implement intervention at the child's current level of functioning. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not parent interview/report is a reliable means of assessing receptive communication ...


Temporal Characteristics Of Fluent Speech In The Stuttered Utterances Of Children, Dixon Ira Kirsch May 1997

Temporal Characteristics Of Fluent Speech In The Stuttered Utterances Of Children, Dixon Ira Kirsch

Dissertations and Theses

Studies investigating the stuttered speech of children are fewer in number as compared to those exploring adult dysfluency. This is notable as the features that characterize child stuttering are generally thought to be significantly different from those that describe advanced stuttering. Clinical intervention programs currently use timing-based interventions as one means of treating stuttering. As such, acoustic data describing the timing disorder is critical to determining the efficacy of these programs for both children and adults. The present study investigated the difference in duration (in msec) between words of stuttered and nonstuttered utterances of children. The words immediately before and ...


A Lay Theory Of Relational Satisfaction With Best Friends In Japan, Eriko Maeda May 1997

A Lay Theory Of Relational Satisfaction With Best Friends In Japan, Eriko Maeda

Dissertations and Theses

Using a total of 529 Japanese college students (275 females, 254 males) living in Japan, the present study employed five sequential stages. First, it explored Japanese people's beliefs about relational satisfaction with best friends and the organization of these beliefs. In order to explore these beliefs and their organization, this study replicated Cole and Bradac's (1994) study of a lay theory of relational satisfaction with best friends, which focused on people from the United States. The study then examined similarities and differences of Japanese beliefs and organization of the beliefs with those of the U.S. Lastly, the ...


A Comparison Of Speech Intelligibility Measures Between Unsophisticated Listener Judgements And Orthographic Transcription, Carla J. Dukart Nov 1996

A Comparison Of Speech Intelligibility Measures Between Unsophisticated Listener Judgements And Orthographic Transcription, Carla J. Dukart

Dissertations and Theses

Intelligible speech is a primary component for successful communication. However, the speech of children with disordered phonologies is often unintelligible. Therefore, when assessing the speech intelligibility of children in order to determine whether they qualify for intervention services, speech-language pathologists need reliable evaluation tools. The focus of this investigation was the measurement of speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between two methods for measuring speech intelligibility. The first, identification method, involves the listener transcribing a speech sample from which the percentage of words understood is calculated. The second, scaling procedure, involves the listener estimating ...


A Pilot Study: Normative Data On The Intelligibility Of 3 1/2 Year Old Children, Karen Mary Ware Nov 1996

A Pilot Study: Normative Data On The Intelligibility Of 3 1/2 Year Old Children, Karen Mary Ware

Dissertations and Theses

Most of the previous published research involving intelligibility has focused on persons with various disabilities or delays. Minimal research has been conducted on intelligibility in young children with no diagnosed speech and/ or language disorders. The result is a gap in normative data by which to set a standard to judge speech as being at an acceptable level of intelligibility for a particular age group. The focus of this pilot study was to collect normative data on the intelligibility of young children, ages 3:6 ±2 months, with no diagnosed speech and/or language disorder. ~ Thirteen subjects, ages 3:6 ...


Temporal Characteristics Of Words Surrounding A Moment Of Stuttering In Preschool-Age Children, Gregory Keith Lilly Oct 1996

Temporal Characteristics Of Words Surrounding A Moment Of Stuttering In Preschool-Age Children, Gregory Keith Lilly

Dissertations and Theses

Until this time, few studies have examined differences in durational characteristics in words surrounding a moment of stuttering for untreated preschool children. It is important to determine whether or not untreated preschoolers' who stutter alter the duration of their speech when they stutter versus when they are fluent to determine what factors influence stuttering behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to examine the duration of words immediately before and after a stuttered word and the duration of the matched target word in the identical fluent utterance. The following questions were to be addressed: 1) Is there a significant ...


A Study Of The Narrative Skills Of 7-Year Olds With Normal, Impaired, And Late Developing Language, Rita F. Hernandez Sep 1996

A Study Of The Narrative Skills Of 7-Year Olds With Normal, Impaired, And Late Developing Language, Rita F. Hernandez

Dissertations and Theses

The narrative, just like any lectured or monologue information which is shared, does not depend to any great extent on context. Therefore, ability to encode and decode the information to be presented verbally is required, that is, in order for the speaker to be able to verbalize what he or she wants to say while taking into consideration the listener's needs. This indicates that production of strong narratives depends on higher level language skills, and so children's narratives provide a sensitive means of assessing children's language development. The purpose of this study was to compare the narrative ...


The Effectiveness Of A Self-Directed Inservice Program To Educate Teachers About The Classroom Needs Of Students With Hearing Impairment, Teresa Michelle Whiteley Jul 1996

The Effectiveness Of A Self-Directed Inservice Program To Educate Teachers About The Classroom Needs Of Students With Hearing Impairment, Teresa Michelle Whiteley

Dissertations and Theses

Students with mild to moderate hearing losses, and some with severe hearing losses, are mainstreamed in a regular classroom for all or part of the day (Martin, Berstein, Daly & Cody, 1988). While these students may require special education services, the classroom teacher plays a vital role in the overall education and daily management of a child with a hearing impairment (Hass, 1987). Villa (1989) reported that many school employees have not received adequate training to educate these students. Therefore, it becomes the school's responsibility to educate teachers through a comprehensive inservice training program. One format for providing such a ...


Speech Understanding In Noise As A Function Of Microphone Placement In Hearing Aids, Erin Marlene Flowers Hand Jul 1996

Speech Understanding In Noise As A Function Of Microphone Placement In Hearing Aids, Erin Marlene Flowers Hand

Dissertations and Theses

Hearing aid users often complain of poor speech understanding in the presence of background noise. There have been many attempts to overcome this problem by hearing aid manufactures and dispensers. The purpose of the present study was to determine if differences existed between three different styles of hearing aids (i.e. in the ear (ITE), in the canal (ITC), and completely in the canal (CIC)) in the presence of a multi-talker babble. Five sensori-neural hearing impaired subjects were selected from the Portland State University audiology clinic. The subjects were required to listen to a recording of the California Consonant Test ...


Speech Recognition With Linear And Non-Linear Amplification In The Presence Of Industrial Noise, Marcia Ann Olson Jul 1996

Speech Recognition With Linear And Non-Linear Amplification In The Presence Of Industrial Noise, Marcia Ann Olson

Dissertations and Theses

In order to help reduce hearing loss, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulates noise levels in work environments. However, hearing aids are the primary rehabilitative service provided for individuals with an occupational hearing loss. Very little is being done to monitor hearing aid use in the work environment. Noise which may be safe to an unaided ear can amplified to levels that are damaging to the ear when a hearing aid is being worn. However, it is necessary for some individuals to wear amplification in these noisy environments for safety reasons. As a consequence it is important that these ...


Comparison Of Two Phonological Treatment Procedures For A Child With Phonological Deviations, Katherine Vaughan Kemper Jul 1996

Comparison Of Two Phonological Treatment Procedures For A Child With Phonological Deviations, Katherine Vaughan Kemper

Dissertations and Theses

Choosing an effective and efficient phonological treatment approach is an important decision for clinicians when treating children with phonological deviations. Current research supports the effectiveness of phonological treatment, but few studies have compared two approaches. More comparative studies are essential to support clinical intervention for children who are highly unintelligible. This single-subject study was designed to compare the effectiveness of two phonologically-based treatment approaches in facilitating an intelligible speech production system for one highly unintelligible preschool female. Multiple baselines across behaviors with an alternating treatment design were used in this descriptive study. This study sought to answer the following questions ...


Adolescents And Sex On The Soaps: A Content Analysis, Jenelle Gay Winter Jun 1996

Adolescents And Sex On The Soaps: A Content Analysis, Jenelle Gay Winter

Dissertations and Theses

This study updates prior examinations of sexual content on daytime soap operas by investigating verbal references, implied sexual acts and mentions of sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, it extends earlier work by analyzing the commitment level and age of those involved in the sexual content. Finally, this study will attempt to obtain a clear picture of what adolescents perceive while viewing these shows. This was investigated by conducting adolescent and adult focus groups to see how they talk about soap operas. Also, comparisons were made of adult and adolescent coding of the sexual content on soap operas. All daytime soap ...


Examining The Relationship Between Three Speech Features And Intelligibility Ratings Of Black English Preschoolers As Judged By Standard English Listeners, Britteny Sue Asher Jun 1996

Examining The Relationship Between Three Speech Features And Intelligibility Ratings Of Black English Preschoolers As Judged By Standard English Listeners, Britteny Sue Asher

Dissertations and Theses

Linguistic diversification within our public schools has demanded professional responsibility from speech-language pathologists (SLPs) serving nonstandard English speaking students. Understanding and recognizing normal cultural linguistic differences is the responsibility of the SLP. This study focused on the relationship of three speech features to intelligibility ratings of 10 preschool aged Black English speakers as assigned by 4 licensed standard English speaking SLPs with varying experience. The SLPs also rated the perceived effect of these speech features (i.e., articulation, speaking rate, and resonance) on intelligibility. Using the Pearson product-moment correlation, ratings were correlated and found to demonstrate an association between intelligibility ...


A Study Of The Correlation Between The Articulation Competence Index (Aci) And The Percentage Of Words Understood In The Continuous Speech Of 4- And 5-Year-Olds Of Varying Phonological Competence, Susan Coll Mitchell Jun 1996

A Study Of The Correlation Between The Articulation Competence Index (Aci) And The Percentage Of Words Understood In The Continuous Speech Of 4- And 5-Year-Olds Of Varying Phonological Competence, Susan Coll Mitchell

Dissertations and Theses

Intelligibility refers to how recognizable a speaker's words are to the listener. Severity, a broader but closely related concept, incorporates intelligibility, disability, and handicap. Many factors influence intelligibility, including speech sound production, voice, and prosody, as well as a number of linguistic and contextual factors. Clinicians and researchers in the field of speechlanguage pathology require accurate measures of intelligibility and severity to assess and describe communicative functioning and to measure change over time. Determining the most accurate and efficient measurement approaches has been the focus of recent attention in the field. This study was a preliminary investigation of the ...


Gender Differences In The Language Development Of Late-Talking Toddlers At Age 3, Nancy Ann Johnson Jun 1996

Gender Differences In The Language Development Of Late-Talking Toddlers At Age 3, Nancy Ann Johnson

Dissertations and Theses

Language is a major part of a child's early developmental growth. Research examining early language shows a wide variation in the rate of language acquisition and its pattern of development. These variations also exist when language development is delayed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of a relationship between gender and language delay by looking for significant differences in the language skills of 3-year-old boys and girls who were identified as late-talkers (LTs) at the age of 2. Data used for analysis in this study were retrieved from data collected earlier as part of the ...


An Organizational Profile: Members' Understanding Of Discrimination, Debra Cay Hornibrook Jun 1996

An Organizational Profile: Members' Understanding Of Discrimination, Debra Cay Hornibrook

Dissertations and Theses

Cultural diversity in the United States is an issue of concern and organizations must now learn to function effectively with an increasingly diverse workforce. Since the history of U.S. organizations is a history of institutional discrimination against most ethnic and racial groups of people and the privileging of a dominant group, managing workforce diversity now constitutes one of the most difficult and important issues human resource professionals address. This study is concerned with the issues of workforce diversity, most specifically with how organizational members understand and respond to discrimination, and the utilization of this understanding to discuss implications for ...


Parental Perceptions Of The Efficacy Of Clinical Intervention For Speech-Language Disorders At Portland State University's Speech And Language Clinic, Deborah Ellen Anderson Jun 1996

Parental Perceptions Of The Efficacy Of Clinical Intervention For Speech-Language Disorders At Portland State University's Speech And Language Clinic, Deborah Ellen Anderson

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the survey as a method of assessing client satisfaction with clinical services and to then assess parental satisfaction of clinical services at Portland State University's language clinic using the survey method. The survey asked questions regarding the parents' perceived benefits from the clinic, their perception of the skills of the clinicians who served their children, and the parents' perception of the clinical atmosphere. Eighty-five Consumer Satisfaction Surveys were mailed to 81 parents of children receiving services at Portland State University Speech-Language Clinic between the years 1987 and 1994. Eleven surveys were ...


Temperament Differences In Children With A History Of Slow Expressive Language Development And Their Peers With Normal Language Development, Beth Ann Jones May 1996

Temperament Differences In Children With A History Of Slow Expressive Language Development And Their Peers With Normal Language Development, Beth Ann Jones

Dissertations and Theses

Language is the way in which individuals are able to express ideas, feelings, needs, expectations, and form relationships with others in their surrounding environment. A disruption in language development may negatively impact a child's social development. Research shows that children with language delays or disorders tend to have increased social and behavioral difficulties (Cantwell & Baker, 1977; Caulfield, Fischel, DeBaryshe, & Whitehurst, 1989). However, research has not examined temperament differences in young children with language delays or disorders. The question this study sought to answer was: Is there a significant difference in the dimensions of temperament between children with a history of slow ...


Gender Differences In Adaptive Behavior Between Two-Year-Old Boys And Girls With Slow Expressive Language Development, Christine Lee Rusnak May 1996

Gender Differences In Adaptive Behavior Between Two-Year-Old Boys And Girls With Slow Expressive Language Development, Christine Lee Rusnak

Dissertations and Theses

Research has suggested that there are significant differences between genders in various aspects of normal, as well as abnormal development. It has been established that more boys than girls have speech deficits, such as stuttering and poor articulation, are less social, and display more behavior problems (Eakins, 1978; Baker & Canhvell, 1982). However, past studies also suggest that females exhibit greater delays and deficits when affected by a disorder compared to males (Vogel, 1990; Paul, 1993). The question posed by this study is: How do the communication skills, both expressive and receptive, as well as daily living skills, socialization skills, and motor skills of two-year-old boys with slow expressive language development compare with the same skills in two year-old girls with slow expressive language development ...


Using A Computer Program About Pediatric Hearing Evaluations To Help Educate Parents, Jeanne E. Aleskus May 1996

Using A Computer Program About Pediatric Hearing Evaluations To Help Educate Parents, Jeanne E. Aleskus

Dissertations and Theses

Hearing assessment techniques, and counseling for the pediatric population are different from those used on adults. Parents will often not have any prior knowledge of how their child's hearing will be assessed. Therefore, many questions may pertain to the mechanics of the evaluation. Audiologists may find the questions take away some of their counseling time and they have less time to discuss the diagnosis and prognosis of the child. The purpose of this study was to determine if a computer program developed with information about pediatric evaluations could be used to educate individuals about this process. Twenty subjects were ...


Influence Of Articulation And Phonology Intervention On Children's Social And Emotional Characteristics, Tracy Lynn Carlisle May 1996

Influence Of Articulation And Phonology Intervention On Children's Social And Emotional Characteristics, Tracy Lynn Carlisle

Dissertations and Theses

It would be useful to obtain information about social and emotional characteristics in children who are receiving articulation/phonological intervention in order to assess the effectiveness of various treatment approaches from a social/emotional perspective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not articulation and phonological intervention influences children's social and emotional characteristics as perceived by their parents and, if so, which articulation approach (traditional vs. phonological cycling) results in more improvement in different domains of social and emotional characteristics. The specific social and emotional characteristics explored in this study are social skills, communication, independence, self-esteem ...


Phonological Awareness Skills In Children With Highly Unintelligible Speech, Sheryl Mohwinkel May 1996

Phonological Awareness Skills In Children With Highly Unintelligible Speech, Sheryl Mohwinkel

Dissertations and Theses

The phonological awareness skills of children with language disorders has been well addressed throughout the literature. Research into the phonological awareness skills of children with highly unintelligible speech, however, is still in its infancy. One published study has looked at the relationship between phonological awareness skills in children with persistent phonological impairments and in children with normal phonology (Webster & Plante, 1992). Significantly higher scores were recorded on three of the four phonological awareness measures for the children with normal phonology As phonology improved, so did the children's phonological awareness skills. The purposes of the present study were to determine ...


Children With Early Language Delay: A Group Case Study Of Outcomes In Intermediate Grades, Tracey Abild-Lane May 1996

Children With Early Language Delay: A Group Case Study Of Outcomes In Intermediate Grades, Tracey Abild-Lane

Dissertations and Theses

Current research in early language development suggests that children who were diagnosed during preschool with expressive language delay would demonstrate difficulties during elementary school years (Scarborough and Dobrich, 1990). This purpose of the present study was to qualitatively describe the outcome of children with a history of early language delay and differing levels of expressive performance (ELD and HELD), as reported by the parents. A questionnaire was developed to determine the children's current age and grade level, past and present reading ability and reading interests, best and worst academic subject, special services and diagnosed disability, speech and language concerns ...


Effects Of Posttraining Maintenance Sessions On Aphasic Subjects' Verbal Labeling, Connie Allene Freed May 1996

Effects Of Posttraining Maintenance Sessions On Aphasic Subjects' Verbal Labeling, Connie Allene Freed

Dissertations and Theses

For many years, treatment for word retrieval deficits has involved the use of various cueing techniques to help trigger retrieval of target words. Research has shown that accuracy for future retrieval of target words is best achieved by training subjects with semantically based cues. Personalized cues that are created by the subjects themselves to help remember a target word have been shown to be the most effective of the semantically based cues. However, even with the use of personalized cues, accuracy for naming tasks has been found to decrease once training is completed. Current research in memory indicates that, for ...