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Full-Text Articles in Speech and Rhetorical Studies

Regulating Pavement Dwellers: The Politics Of The Visibly Poor In Public Space, Lauren Marie Larin Mar 2017

Regulating Pavement Dwellers: The Politics Of The Visibly Poor In Public Space, Lauren Marie Larin

Dissertations and Theses

Many researchers argue the increasing reliance on sit/lie ordinances to regulate homeless people's use of public space is one in a suite of neoliberal policies that shape the geographies of public space in cities to serve the needs of global capital. However, these policies are developed at the local, not global, level as specific actors make claims in the public sphere that communicatively shape policy formation. Through comparative case study, this research asks, how do different actors, situated in specific local and global contexts, influence the adoption of sit/lie ordinances?

I examine two cases of policymaking in ...


Is Scholarship Advancing?: An Analysis Of Fifteen Years Of Framing Research, Joseph Zachary Provencher Mar 2016

Is Scholarship Advancing?: An Analysis Of Fifteen Years Of Framing Research, Joseph Zachary Provencher

Dissertations and Theses

In 2011, Porismita Borah published "Conceptual Issues in Framing Theory: A Systematic Examination of a Decade’s Literature" to shed light on the status of framing research, and attempt to answer several scholars' criticisms of framing research practices (Carragee and Roefs 2004, D'Angelo, 2002, Entman, 1993). Borah argues that framing research has several areas of necessary improvement, and her prescription is for future research to be able to examine specific framing issues or effects, but also be able to connect with broader understandings of framing.

The following content analysis of framing research, conducted between the year 2000 and 2013 ...


A Study Of Small Talk Among Males: Comparing The U.S. And Japan, Chie Furukawa Jan 2014

A Study Of Small Talk Among Males: Comparing The U.S. And Japan, Chie Furukawa

Dissertations and Theses

This study seeks to understand the social interaction of small talk in two different countries. Defining small talk as 'phatic communion' and 'social talk' as contrasted to 'core business talk' and 'work-related talk,' Holmes (2000) claims that small talk in the workplace is intertwined with main work-talk. Small talk can help build solidarity and rapport, as well as maintain good relationships between workers. Much of the research on small talk has been focused on institutional settings such as business and service interactions; thus, there is a need for research on non-institutional small talk between participants without established relationships.

This study ...


A Dialect Study Of Oregon Norms, Lisa Wittenberg Hillyard Jan 2004

A Dialect Study Of Oregon Norms, Lisa Wittenberg Hillyard

Dissertations and Theses

The pioneers and settlers of the Oregon Territory were not of one ilk. They came from various places and brought their separate speech patterns with them. This study sought to identify which major North American English dialect was present in the first half of the 20th century in Oregon. Analysis relied on the descriptions for the Southern, Northern, Midlands, and Western dialects. Some dialect features have acoustic measurements attached to their descriptions, and others do not. The analytical process was based on acoustic measurements for vowel classes and individual tokens, as well as global observations about the place of a ...


Examining The Relationship Between Three Speech Features And Intelligibility Ratings Of Black English Preschoolers As Judged By Standard English Listeners, Britteny Sue Asher Jun 1996

Examining The Relationship Between Three Speech Features And Intelligibility Ratings Of Black English Preschoolers As Judged By Standard English Listeners, Britteny Sue Asher

Dissertations and Theses

Linguistic diversification within our public schools has demanded professional responsibility from speech-language pathologists (SLPs) serving nonstandard English speaking students. Understanding and recognizing normal cultural linguistic differences is the responsibility of the SLP. This study focused on the relationship of three speech features to intelligibility ratings of 10 preschool aged Black English speakers as assigned by 4 licensed standard English speaking SLPs with varying experience. The SLPs also rated the perceived effect of these speech features (i.e., articulation, speaking rate, and resonance) on intelligibility. Using the Pearson product-moment correlation, ratings were correlated and found to demonstrate an association between intelligibility ...


Parental Perceptions Of The Efficacy Of Clinical Intervention For Speech-Language Disorders At Portland State University's Speech And Language Clinic, Deborah Ellen Anderson Jun 1996

Parental Perceptions Of The Efficacy Of Clinical Intervention For Speech-Language Disorders At Portland State University's Speech And Language Clinic, Deborah Ellen Anderson

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the survey as a method of assessing client satisfaction with clinical services and to then assess parental satisfaction of clinical services at Portland State University's language clinic using the survey method. The survey asked questions regarding the parents' perceived benefits from the clinic, their perception of the skills of the clinicians who served their children, and the parents' perception of the clinical atmosphere. Eighty-five Consumer Satisfaction Surveys were mailed to 81 parents of children receiving services at Portland State University Speech-Language Clinic between the years 1987 and 1994. Eleven surveys were ...


Intervention History Of Children With Slow Expressive Language Development, Kathleen Belfiore May 1996

Intervention History Of Children With Slow Expressive Language Development, Kathleen Belfiore

Dissertations and Theses

Children who are identified with slow expressive language development (SELD) around the age of two are producing less than fifty intelligible words or no two word phrases. Current research suggests that some children with SELD outgrow their delay while others continue to develop long term language difficulties. The literature shows varied findings of short term recovery but long term deficits, and shifts in the specific expressive language deficits ~s the child with SELD matures and encounters increased language demands. Suggestions are found for a mix of monitoring and early intervention, in step with signs of readiness and dynamic assessments, to ...


Effects Of Receptive Language Deficits On Persisting Expressive Language Delays, Traci Lee Giacherro Nov 1995

Effects Of Receptive Language Deficits On Persisting Expressive Language Delays, Traci Lee Giacherro

Dissertations and Theses

Predicting language outcomes in children who at age two are "late talkers" is a concern of Speech Language Pathologists. Currently, there is no conclusive data allowing specialists to predict which children will outgrow their delays and which children will not. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the effect of a receptive language delay on the outcome of the slow expressive language delayed child, and determine whether or not it is a viable predictor of poor outcomes. The subject information used in this project was compiled from the data collected and reported by Paul (1991) during the Portland ...


Behavioral Differences In The Classroom: U.S. University Teachers And Chinese University Teachers, Xiaocheih Sun Jul 1995

Behavioral Differences In The Classroom: U.S. University Teachers And Chinese University Teachers, Xiaocheih Sun

Dissertations and Theses

Although intercultural scholars examine the differences in cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes between the U.S. and China, few specifically have studied cultural differences between U.S. and Chinese university classrooms. This study examines behavioral differences exhibited by U.S. teachers in U.S. university classrooms and Chinese teachers in Chinese university classrooms. This research addresses three areas of significance. First, Chinese students studying in the U.S. who read this thesis may be better able to cope with the U.S. educational system and communicate more effectively with both U.S. students and teachers. Second, this research may help ...


An Exploration Of Theoretical Issues Related To Mediation Found In The Social Science Literature, Cheryl E. Nally Jun 1995

An Exploration Of Theoretical Issues Related To Mediation Found In The Social Science Literature, Cheryl E. Nally

Dissertations and Theses

Mediation is a problem-solving approach to conflict management that is used more and more in virtually every context in which conflicts arise. This paper explores the wide range of meaning for the term 'mediation' as found in the social science literature and examines the question of what processes can properly be called mediation. It surveys the literature related to numerous theories of mediation and examines the meaning of the term as established in its various contexts. The mediation literature can be divided into the following contexts: public sector or court connected mediation, divorce mediation, international mediation, environmental mediation, community mediation ...


A Correlational Study: The 1-Minute Measure Of Homonymy And Intelligibility, Tamra Leanne Day Jun 1995

A Correlational Study: The 1-Minute Measure Of Homonymy And Intelligibility, Tamra Leanne Day

Dissertations and Theses

Identifying the severity level of unintelligibility objectively and efficiently holds critical clinical implications for speech assessment and intervention needs. The speech of children who demonstrate phonological deviations is frequently unintelligible. The use of an accurate and time-efficient measurement of intelligibility is necessary to screen children who may be producing phonological patterns that contribute to significantly reduced intelligibility in connected speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of concurrent validity between scores received on the 1-Minute Measure of Homonymy and Intelligibility (Hodson, 1992) and speech intelligibility as measured by the percent of words understood in connected speech ...


The Effectiveness Of The Phonological Cycling Approach In Treating An Unintelligible Child In The First Two Cycles Of Intervention, Anne Cole May 1995

The Effectiveness Of The Phonological Cycling Approach In Treating An Unintelligible Child In The First Two Cycles Of Intervention, Anne Cole

Dissertations and Theses

One preschool male who was highly unintelligible was enrolled in two cycles of direct intervention utilizing the phonological cycling approach (Hodson & Paden, 1991). Prior to treatment in cycles 1 and 2, the Assessment of Phonological Processes-Revised (APP-R) (Hodson, 1986) was administered to the subject to assess phonological deficiencies and to determine the target phonological patterns. A continuous speech sample was collected prior to cycle 1 to rate speech intelligibility. Based on the results obtained from the APP-R, target patterns, target words, and an individualized treatment plan were developed for each cycle. For the first cycle of intervention, the subject participated ...


Silence: A Comparison Of Japanese And U.S. Interpretation, Mimi Murayama Feb 1995

Silence: A Comparison Of Japanese And U.S. Interpretation, Mimi Murayama

Dissertations and Theses

It is commonly argued that silence is an important Japanese communication strategy, with the goal of making oneself understood without words; on the other hand, in the U.S., silence tends to be filled by speaking, and speaking up clearly and the facilitation of talking is preferred. However, our knowledge about how silence is interpreted in the U.S. and Japan is weak and based on anecdotal evidence. Therefore, this study examines how people in the U.S. and Japan interpret silence according to contexts, examining what kinds of social rules underlie their interpretation. Interpretation is guided by how people ...


The Relationship Between Intelligibility And Length And Complexity Of Language In A Group Of 4- And 5-Year-Old Children, Susan Fodell Nov 1994

The Relationship Between Intelligibility And Length And Complexity Of Language In A Group Of 4- And 5-Year-Old Children, Susan Fodell

Dissertations and Theses

Previous research has indicated that speech and linguistic variables develop concurrently. When one aspect of speech and linguistic development is delayed, there are typically associated delays in another area as well. This interactive relationship has been studied extensively in the context of phonological and syntactical development, as well as fluency and syntactical development. The relationship between intelligibility and linguistic proficiency has not been studied as extensively. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between varying levels of intelligibility and length and complexity of language in preschool-aged children. Mean length of utterance was correlated with the mean percentage ...


Nonlinguistic Cognitive Performance And Expressive And Receptive Language Scores In Children With Expressive Language Delay, Deborah Kay Warren Nov 1994

Nonlinguistic Cognitive Performance And Expressive And Receptive Language Scores In Children With Expressive Language Delay, Deborah Kay Warren

Dissertations and Theses

This study was part of the Portland Language Development Project. The purpose was to establish reliability for the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test. Additionally, nonlinguistic cognitive performance scores were correlated with soores from expressive and receptive language test soores. Finally, scores of overall cognitive function and of nonlinguistic cognitive function in children with normally developing language (NL) and with expressive language delay (ELD) were compared. The original group size was 60 children, 30 with ELD at the age of 20 months, and 30 who were a matched control group. These subjects were reevaluated during Kindergarten. The Draw-A-Man Test was administered to assess ...


Second Grade Academic Performance In Normal Children, Children With A History Of, And Children With Expressive Language Delay, Kathleen Ann Clancy Nov 1994

Second Grade Academic Performance In Normal Children, Children With A History Of, And Children With Expressive Language Delay, Kathleen Ann Clancy

Dissertations and Theses

Interest in children who are diagnosed with expressive language delay has increased over the years. This has resulted in follow-up studies which have suggested that these children would have difficulties in academics during their elementary school years (Hall & Tomblin, 1978; Weiner, 1974) The current study sought to determine if children with a history of and children with continued expressive language delay would have problems with academics once they reached the second grade. The Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) was used to measure academic performance. It was chosen for it's reliable standardization and use of five different subtest areas to determine overall ...


Comparison Of Training Methods In A Branch Environment, Lisa Peterson Davidson Nov 1994

Comparison Of Training Methods In A Branch Environment, Lisa Peterson Davidson

Dissertations and Theses

This study addressed a need to identify the effectiveness of in-branch, employee administered training programs. A comparison of various training methods and a ranking of the effectiveness of those methodologies would enable managers to make informed training design and purchase decisions. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between four training methods as evaluated by post-training assessment scores. This study also sought to determine the following: 1) did all four methods significantly impact short term material recall?, and 2) did gender impact training effectiveness? The training methods studied were: video; study guide; video plus study guide; video ...


Gender Differences In Slow Expressive Language Development, Cynthia Lee Hare-Blye Oct 1994

Gender Differences In Slow Expressive Language Development, Cynthia Lee Hare-Blye

Dissertations and Theses

The contemporary research suggests that some children who present with early language delays as toddlers outgrow their delays while others continue to develop long-term language difficulties. Several studies over the years have focused on factors that might aid in predicting the outcome of late talkers. This current study emphasized exploring gender as a possible predictive factor. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist in the rate of growth in language skills, as indexed by scores on the Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) procedure (Lee, 1974) of boys versus girls who are late to start talking as ...


The Effects Of Phonological Processes On The Speech Intelligibility Of Young Children, Susanne Shotola-Hardt Oct 1994

The Effects Of Phonological Processes On The Speech Intelligibility Of Young Children, Susanne Shotola-Hardt

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between occurrence of 10 phonological processes, singly and in groups, with mean percentage of intelligibility of connected speech samples. Participants in the study included 4 adult listeners (3 females, one male) and 46 speakers aged 48 to 66 months (16 females, 30 males). Percentage of occurrence scores for phonological processes (independent variables) were obtained by the administration of The Assessment of Phonological Processes - Revised (Hodson, 1986). Percentage of intelligibility for 100-word connected speech samples (dependent variables) were obtained by orthographic transcription (words understood divided by 100). The single processes showing ...


Temporal Characteristics Of Words Surrounding A Moment Of Stuttering, Janice Kaye Young Oct 1994

Temporal Characteristics Of Words Surrounding A Moment Of Stuttering, Janice Kaye Young

Dissertations and Theses

Past theories have shown that stuttering results from a breakdown in the speaker's accurate timing of movement from one sound to the next. The efficacy of timing therapies is based on the proposal that stuttering diminishes as the amount of planning time for the phonetic voice-onset coordinations increases (Perkins, Bell, Johnson & Stocks, 1979). Acoustic information as to the parameters of the timing breakdown is critical to designing fluency facilitation and stuttering treatment programs. The present research investigated differences in word durations in the vicinity of the stuttered moment. Durations of words inunediately preceding and following the stutter were examined and compared to the exact words of a corresponding fluent sample from the same speaker. Stimulus material consisted of 83 phonetically balanced sentences read twice by each subject with an imposed 30 minute break between readings to minimize adaptation effects. Data analysis consisted of spectrographic measurement of durations of words (in msec.) inunediately preceding and following the stuttered word and comparison of durations of the same words from the same speaker's fluent production sample. Word durations before the stuttered sample (BSTUT) were compared to word durations before the nonstuttered sample (BNSTUT). A second comparison looked at the duration of a word after a stuttered word (ASTUT), and that of the nonstuttered sample (ANSTUT). One sample, two-tailed t-tests determined the existence of significant differences at the .OS level of confidence in word durations both preceding and following the stuttered moment when compared to word durations of the fluently produced corresponding match. Word duration patterns are consistent with those found by Viswanath (1989) and suggest that the anticipatory effect of the disruption on word duration is strong followed by a recovery period after the stuttered moment. In conclusion, this finding is consistent with theories suggesting that stuttering is a disorder of timing and supports the efficacy of timing therapies in the management of fluency programs (Andrews, Howie, Dosza & Guitar, 1982; Andrews, Guitar & Howie, 1980, Brayton & Conture, 1978, Ingham, Montgomery & Uliana, 1983). There is need for additional research to corroborate present findings.


The Concepts Of Mother In Children's Stories In Translation From Print To Visual Media: A Content Analysis, Karen Martin Tanski Sep 1994

The Concepts Of Mother In Children's Stories In Translation From Print To Visual Media: A Content Analysis, Karen Martin Tanski

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this research was two-fold. First, this thesis sought to uncover the implicit concepts associated with mothers in children's stories. Second, this thesis attempted to chart changes in portrayals of mother when translated from print to a visual medium. This research maintains that the concepts of mother in children's stories contain cultural ideals that are related to society's evolving perceptions of mother. Eighteen mother/surrogate mother portrayals were analyzed in 15 novels and 15 videotapes. Each portrayal was coded according to marital status, range of behaviors, 41 individual behaviors within five categories, and the amount ...


Facilitating Independent Communication For An Adult With Severe, Nonfluent Aphasia Using A Voice Output Communication Aid, Jane Mary Stayer Jul 1994

Facilitating Independent Communication For An Adult With Severe, Nonfluent Aphasia Using A Voice Output Communication Aid, Jane Mary Stayer

Dissertations and Theses

Aphasia is an acquired general impairment of the language processes resulting from brain damage that is frequently caused by cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Persons with aphasia have a history of retaining important communication competencies that have the potential for helping them succeed in using augmented communication systems. Using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems by adults with aphasia has been studied, but few studies have reported successfully using AAC systems in rehabilitating adults with aphasia. New advanced technologies including the availability of devices that talk, store a lot of information, and are relatively small can give AAC the potential to affect ...


The R-Stick Appliance As A Device To Facilitate The Phoneme /R/, Rosemary Leblanc Jul 1994

The R-Stick Appliance As A Device To Facilitate The Phoneme /R/, Rosemary Leblanc

Dissertations and Theses

One of the most common articulation errors made by children is on the phoneme Ir I. Treatment techniques for this sound have varied and have included the stimulus approach (Van Riper, 1972), phonetic placement techniques (Scripture, 1923), the sensory-motor approach (McDonald, 1964), the motokinesthetics approach (Young & Hawk, 1938), and sequential programming approach (Shriberg, 1975; Wood, 1988), to name a few. An integral part of many of these treatment methods is the use of the auditory stimulation. An innovative technique using a prosthetic device to facilitate the production of Ir I was used by Leonti, Blakeley, and Louis (1975), in the treatment of a 9.8 year old male ...


The Use Of Faceplate Assemblies As Facsimiles Of Custom Hearing Instruments, James A. Fenwick Jul 1994

The Use Of Faceplate Assemblies As Facsimiles Of Custom Hearing Instruments, James A. Fenwick

Dissertations and Theses

Custom-designed hearing instruments comprise the majority of those dispensed in the United States today. Because of their custom nature, there has been no means of evaluating them until they have been completed. There would be advantages to evaluating custom instruments prior to their completion. This study investigates a means of evaluating custom instruments prior to their final assembly into the customized shell. This is done by having the subject listen to the circuitry of the instrument while it is still mounted on the faceplate, which is accomplished by coupling the faceplate assembly to the subject's ear with foam earplug ...


A Comparison Between Trained Ear Estimation And Orthographic Transcription When Measuring Speech Intelligibility Of Young Children, Nancy Kay Sugarman Jun 1994

A Comparison Between Trained Ear Estimation And Orthographic Transcription When Measuring Speech Intelligibility Of Young Children, Nancy Kay Sugarman

Dissertations and Theses

When the primary mode of communication is speech, the crucial ingredient for successful communication is intelligible speech. The speech of children with disordered phonologies is often unintelligible. Accurate and reliable measurement of speech with compromised intelligibility is essential if appropriate treatment procedures are to be chosen and implemented. The focus of this investigation was the measurement of speech intelligibility in young children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the subjective method of trained ear estimation and the objective method of orthographic transcription when measuring the speech intelligibility of young speakers with a wide range of ...


A Comparison Of The Cohesion In The Expository Discourse Of The Optimally-Healthy Young-Old And The Optimally-Healthy Oldest-Old, Penni Gay Siemens Jun 1994

A Comparison Of The Cohesion In The Expository Discourse Of The Optimally-Healthy Young-Old And The Optimally-Healthy Oldest-Old, Penni Gay Siemens

Dissertations and Theses

The group of people aged 85 years and older is the fastest growing chronological population on the United States (Neal et al., 1993), and while a considerable amount of research has focused on the language of the elderly (those over 65 years), relatively little study has focused specifically on those aged 85 and older. This study is valuable in that it includes a large sample of optimally healthy people aged 85 and older. This sample of the optimally-healthy oldest-old will help define what changes, if any, are a function of age alone and what changes are clinical (associated with some ...


Changing Values: A Study Of The Shift In Cultural Values And Perceptions Of U.S. High School Students Following Orientation And Exposure To Russian Culture, Linda Sue Warnock May 1994

Changing Values: A Study Of The Shift In Cultural Values And Perceptions Of U.S. High School Students Following Orientation And Exposure To Russian Culture, Linda Sue Warnock

Dissertations and Theses

When cultural values differ, it is difficult for people not to judge one another's behavior on the basis of their own individual and/or cultural values. Given the profound differences in Russian and American culture, the question of what happens when these two cultures interact comes to mind. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship of culture specific orientation, coupled with a two week sojourn in Russia on the sojourners' perceptions of cultural values. The sojourners were high school athletes participating in the first part of a Russian - American Track and Field Exchange. In order to ...


Perceived Communication During Organizational Change, Paula Blunck May 1994

Perceived Communication During Organizational Change, Paula Blunck

Dissertations and Theses

Organizational change often involves the creation of work teams. This research examines how the creation of self-managed work teams within a particular organization affects perceived communication. Previous research suggests that self-managed teams would socially construct a different view of the organization especially as it relates to power than would those in traditional organizational departments. Attitudes about communication and power within the organization are analyzed in nine self-managed teams and five traditional departments. This analysis is conducted through both qualitative and quantitative means. Group comments and discussions are used in a qualitative analysis. Multidimensional scaling is used to reveal underlying attitudinal ...


The Preferred Learning Styles Of Greek Efl Students And Greek Efl Teachers, Debra Jane Gregory May 1994

The Preferred Learning Styles Of Greek Efl Students And Greek Efl Teachers, Debra Jane Gregory

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred learning styles of Greek EFL students and teachers in Greece. The learning styles examined were visual, auditory, kinesthetic, tactile, group and individual. The study was conducted at a private English language school in Piraeus, Greece. Ninety-two Greek EFL students (33 male and 59 female) ranging in age from 13 to 22, and 11 Greek EFL teachers (3 male and 8 female) ranging in age from 22 to 52 constitute the sample. The study used the self-reporting learning style questionnaire that Reid (1987) developed to measure the preferred learning style preferences ...


Planning For Academic Success: Survey Of University Professors' Assessments Of Non-Native Students' Language Skill Needs, Carol Bondurant Sloan May 1994

Planning For Academic Success: Survey Of University Professors' Assessments Of Non-Native Students' Language Skill Needs, Carol Bondurant Sloan

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study is to examine which language skills university professors believe are most essential for academic success in Portland State University classes. The study can shed light on a question for future research: Do current academic ESL classes at Portland State University teach the necessary skills to help international students maximize their second-language learning potential in university-level courses. Enrollment statistics for 1993 I 94 show 53 percent of the 815 international students declared majors in two programs: the school of Business Administration and the school of Engineering and Applied Science. This study asked 31 instructors from business ...