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Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Review Of Recruitment, Adherence And Drop-Out Rates In Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Trials In Children And Adolescents, Inge S. M Van Der Wurff, Barbara J. Meyer, Renate H. M De Groot Jan 2017

A Review Of Recruitment, Adherence And Drop-Out Rates In Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Trials In Children And Adolescents, Inge S. M Van Der Wurff, Barbara J. Meyer, Renate H. M De Groot

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Introduction: The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation on health outcomes has been studied extensively with randomized controlled trials (RCT). In many research fields, difficulties with recruitment, adherence and high drop-out rates have been reported. However, what is unknown is how common these problems are in n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies in children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper will review n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies in children and adolescents with regard to recruitment, adherence and drop-out rates. Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed and Ovid databases were searched for papers reporting on RCT supplementing children and adolescents (2 ...


Algal Supplementation Of Vegetarian Eating Patterns Improves Plasma And Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid Concentrations And Omega-3 Indices: A Systematic Literature Review, Joel Craddock, Elizabeth Neale, Yasmine Probst, Gregory E. Peoples Jan 2017

Algal Supplementation Of Vegetarian Eating Patterns Improves Plasma And Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid Concentrations And Omega-3 Indices: A Systematic Literature Review, Joel Craddock, Elizabeth Neale, Yasmine Probst, Gregory E. Peoples

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Vegetarians are likely to have lower intakes of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than omnivorous populations who consume fish and animal products. As such, vegetarian populations have omega-3 indices up to 60% lower than those who consume marine products. Algae, the primary producer of DHA in the marine food chain, offer an alternative source of DHA for those who do not consume marine or animal products. This systematic review aims to examine the evidence for the relationship between supplementation with algal forms of DHA and increased DHA concentrations in vegetarian populations. The SCOPUS, Science Direct and Web of Science scientific databases ...


A Narrative Review Of Potential Treatment Strategies For Food Addiction, Shae-Leigh C. Vella, Nagesh B. Pai Jan 2017

A Narrative Review Of Potential Treatment Strategies For Food Addiction, Shae-Leigh C. Vella, Nagesh B. Pai

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The concept of food addiction (FA) remains controversial with research being in the nascent stages; FA like any addiction can have a devastating impact on the lives of those afflicted. There exists a clinical need for treatment strategies for those affected. This article reviews potential treatment strategies for FA. The treatment strategies target four core behaviours of the addiction phenotype specifically craving through the opioid system, impulsivity as a personality trait, compulsivity through the serotonergic system and lastly motivation through the dopaminergic system. A range of pharmacological and psychological interventions are reviewed. Future research should seek to test and validate ...


A Review Of Current Practice In Using Balloon Tamponade Technology In The Management Of Postpartum Haemorrhage, Christos Georgiou Jan 2014

A Review Of Current Practice In Using Balloon Tamponade Technology In The Management Of Postpartum Haemorrhage, Christos Georgiou

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The use of various Balloon tamponade technologies has steadily increased over the last five years in the management of postpartum haemorrhage. New methodologies and applications have been included beyond the original descriptions. Furthermore, novel approaches and mechanisms of action have also been suggested.No comparative trials involving "uterine/fertility sparing" approaches such as Balloon Tamponade Technology have been performed comparing the safety, efficiency and long term effects on endometrial and myometrial functions. However, balloon tamponade technology is rapidly becoming accepted as a preferred second line approach following failed first line uterotonics in many obstetric units.This paper reviews the current ...


Defining Professionalism In Medical Education: A Systematic Review, Hudson Birden, Nel Glass, Ian Wilson, Michelle Harrison, Tim Usherwood, Duncan Nass Jan 2014

Defining Professionalism In Medical Education: A Systematic Review, Hudson Birden, Nel Glass, Ian Wilson, Michelle Harrison, Tim Usherwood, Duncan Nass

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Introduction: We undertook a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the literature to identify how professionalism is defined in the medical education literature. Methods: Eligible studies included any articles published between 1999 and 2009 inclusive presenting viewpoints, opinions, or empirical research on defining medical professionalism. Results: We identified 195 papers on the topic of definition of professionalism in medicine. Of these, we rated 26 as high quality and included these in the narrative synthesis. Conclusion: As yet there is no overarching conceptual context of medical professionalism that is universally agreed upon. The continually shifting nature of the organizational and social ...


Identification And Evaluation Of Models Of Antenatal Care In Australia - A Review Of The Evidence, Erin Brock, Karen Charlton, Heather Yeatman Jan 2014

Identification And Evaluation Of Models Of Antenatal Care In Australia - A Review Of The Evidence, Erin Brock, Karen Charlton, Heather Yeatman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Background Antenatal care has been routine practice throughout the world since early in the 20th century, and in most developed countries, antenatal care consists of a scheduled program of individual consultations with a healthcare practitioner, using a doctor or midwife. Women seek antenatal care that provides a physical review of the health and development of their unborn baby, the reassurance and ability to be listened to and the opportunity for their partner to be involved in their care. Aims To identify the types of antenatal care services that are available to Australian women and investigate the views and opinions of ...


Ambient Ionisation Mass Spectrometry For The Characterisation Of Polymers And Polymer Additives: A Review, Martin R. L Paine, Philip J. Barker, Stephen J. Blanksby Jan 2014

Ambient Ionisation Mass Spectrometry For The Characterisation Of Polymers And Polymer Additives: A Review, Martin R. L Paine, Philip J. Barker, Stephen J. Blanksby

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The purpose of this review is to showcase the present capabilities of ambient sampling and ionisation technologies for the analysis of polymers and polymer additives by mass spectrometry (MS) while simultaneously highlighting their advantages and limitations in a critical fashion. To qualify as an ambient ionisation technique, the method must be able to probe the surface of solid or liquid samples while operating in an open environment, allowing a variety of sample sizes, shapes, and substrate materials to be analysed. The main sections of this review will be guided by the underlying principle governing the desorption/extraction step of the ...


The Effects Of Spending Time Outdoors In Daylight On The Psychosocial Wellbeing Of Older People And Family Carers: A Comprehensive Systematic Review Protocol, Victoria Traynor, Ritin Fernandez, Katherine Caldwell Jan 2013

The Effects Of Spending Time Outdoors In Daylight On The Psychosocial Wellbeing Of Older People And Family Carers: A Comprehensive Systematic Review Protocol, Victoria Traynor, Ritin Fernandez, Katherine Caldwell

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Review question/objective The overall objective of this research is to undertake a systematic review of the effects of spending time outdoors in daylight on the psychosocial wellbeing of older adults and family carers. The specific questions to be addressed are: Which aspects of psychosocial wellbeing are affected by spending time outdoors in daylight in older adults and family carers? To what extent is spending time outdoors in the daylight effective in improving aspects of psychosocial wellbeing in older adults and family carers?


Invited Review: Caseins And The Casein Micelle: Their Biological Functions, Structures, And Behavior In Foods, C Holt, J A. Carver, H Ecroyd, D C. Thorn Jan 2013

Invited Review: Caseins And The Casein Micelle: Their Biological Functions, Structures, And Behavior In Foods, C Holt, J A. Carver, H Ecroyd, D C. Thorn

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

A typical casein micelle contains thousands of casein molecules, most of which form thermodynamically stable complexes with nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate. Like many other unfolded proteins, caseins have an actual or potential tendency to assemble into toxic amyloid fibrils, particularly at the high concentrations found in milk. Fibrils do not form in milk because an alternative aggregation pathway is followed that results in formation of the casein micelle. As a result of forming micelles, nutritious milk can be secreted and stored without causing either pathological calcification or amyloidosis of the mother's mammary tissue. The ability to sequester nanoclusters ...


The Needs Of People With Alcohol-Related Brain Injury (Arbi): A Review Of The International Literature, Renee Brighton, Victoria Traynor, Lorna Moxham, Janette Curtis Jan 2013

The Needs Of People With Alcohol-Related Brain Injury (Arbi): A Review Of The International Literature, Renee Brighton, Victoria Traynor, Lorna Moxham, Janette Curtis

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Purpose - Alcohol-related brain injury (ARBI) is part of a group of conditions that do not fit easily into existing systems of care. People living with ARBI require flexible health and social services to ensure they receive person-centred, therapeutic care and treatment. Effective service provision promotes recovery for people who continue to experience significant levels of morbidity and mortality due to symptoms that are potentially reversible or at least amendable to appropriate care and treatment options. There exist significant gaps in the provision of this care for these vulnerable populations. Design/methodology/approach - A literature review was undertaken of various scholarly ...


Post-Glacial Sea-Level Changes Around The Australian Margin: A Review, Stephen E. Lewis, Craig R. Sloss, Colin V. Murray-Wallace, Colin D. Woodroffe, Scott G. Smithers Jan 2013

Post-Glacial Sea-Level Changes Around The Australian Margin: A Review, Stephen E. Lewis, Craig R. Sloss, Colin V. Murray-Wallace, Colin D. Woodroffe, Scott G. Smithers

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

It has been known since Rhodes Fairbridge's first attempt to establish a global pattern of Holocene sea-level change by combining evidence from Western Australia and from sites in the northern hemisphere that the details of sea-level history since the Last Glacial Maximum vary considerably across the globe. The Australian region is relatively stable tectonically and is situated in the 'far-field' of former ice sheets. It therefore preserves important records of post-glacial sea levels that are less complicated by neotectonics or glacio-isostatic adjustments. Accordingly, the relative sea-level record of this region is dominantly one of glacio-eustatic (ice equivalent) sea-level changes ...


Earthly Indifference And Human Difference - Book Review, Lesley Head Sep 2012

Earthly Indifference And Human Difference - Book Review, Lesley Head

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Inspired by, but also in reaction to the flattened topologies of Latourian relationality, Clark puts forward the notion of radical asymmetry. 'This is the bottom line of human being: we are utterly dependent on an earth and a cosmos that is, to a large degree, indifferent to us' (p. 50). With their disciplinary connection to the physical and natural sciences, geographers arguably need this lesson less than other social scientists. We should have learned it well from geologists who, spending their working lives in deepest time, tend to have a less anthropocentric perspective than others (perhaps accounting for their disproportionate ...


Assessing Competence During Professional Experience Placements For Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Systematic Review, Sharon Bourgeois, Denise Blanchard, Katherine Nelson Jan 2012

Assessing Competence During Professional Experience Placements For Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Systematic Review, Sharon Bourgeois, Denise Blanchard, Katherine Nelson

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Review Objectives To identify and synthesise the best available evidence about the meaningfulness of assessments of competence during the professional experience placement for undergraduate nursing students, with the overarching aim to make recommendations concerning strategies and initiatives that support assessment of competence for undergraduate nursing programs.

Review Questions What are undergraduate nurses‟ experiences of the clinical assessment of competence? What are registered nurses‟/health care professionals experiences of the clinical assessment of competence?


Quality Of Life For People With Schizophrenia: A Literature Review, Amira Alshowkan, Janette Curtis, Yvonne White Jan 2012

Quality Of Life For People With Schizophrenia: A Literature Review, Amira Alshowkan, Janette Curtis, Yvonne White

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Objective: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the study and evaluation of the quality of life for people with schizophrenia. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive literature review on the quality of life for people with schizophrenia who are living in the community. Method: An integrative literature review was undertaken to review literature in the field of medical/mental health in relevant databases. Results: A total of 21 studies were reviewed and categorised according to three themes identified from the literature: the quality of life and socio-demographic characteristics of people with schizophrenia ...


Climate Change And Displacement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives - Book Review, Carol Farbotko Jan 2012

Climate Change And Displacement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives - Book Review, Carol Farbotko

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

In the small but growing field of research into climate change and migration, there is much debate about terms. Attempts to definitively count the numbers or pinpoint the characteristics of 'climate refugees' are being discarded in favour of more nuanced descriptors, such as climate-induced migration, that are better attuned to the agency and complexity of populations on the move in a warming world. The choice of the word 'displacement' in the title of this book, therefore, reveals much about its editor's intent.


Re-Creating The Rural, Reconstructing Nature: An International Literature Review Of The Environmental Implications Of Amenity Migration, Jesse B. Abrams, Hannah Gosnell, Nicholas J. Gill, Peter J. Klepeis Jan 2012

Re-Creating The Rural, Reconstructing Nature: An International Literature Review Of The Environmental Implications Of Amenity Migration, Jesse B. Abrams, Hannah Gosnell, Nicholas J. Gill, Peter J. Klepeis

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The term 'amenity migration' describes a broad diversity of patterns of human movement to rural places in search of particular lifestyle attributes. This review of international literature, drawn from the authors' own prior research and searches on relevant databases, synthesises findings on the implications of amenity migration for the creation and distribution of environmental harms and benefits. Further, we critique common framings of amenity migration-related environmental transformations and offer suggestions for future research. Analysis is positioned within a review of five common themes reflected in the cases we consider: land subdivision and residential development; changes in private land use; cross-boundary ...


Approach To Multiple Pulmonary Nodules: A Case Report And Review Of Literature, Farshid Niknam, Jiezhong Chen, Sarbar Napaki, Morteza Aghmesheh Jan 2011

Approach To Multiple Pulmonary Nodules: A Case Report And Review Of Literature, Farshid Niknam, Jiezhong Chen, Sarbar Napaki, Morteza Aghmesheh

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Chest X-ray and CT examinations often find pulmonary nodules that could be malignant or benign. A case is presented and discussed here in order to improve diagnosis and management of pulmonary nodules. A 62-year-old lady was found to have multiple pulmonary nodules by X-ray when she complained of a cough and fever. This was confirmed by a CT scan. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of one of the lung lesions reported scant atypical epithelial cells that stained positive for TTF-1 and cytokeratin 7, but negative for cytokeratin 20. Thus, it was suspicious for large cell carcinoma. A videothoracoscopic lung biopsy and ...


National Review Of Food Label Law & Policy - Australia, Heather Yeatman Jan 2010

National Review Of Food Label Law & Policy - Australia, Heather Yeatman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Australia is the first country in the world to undertake a complete review of food label law and policy. This independent Review Panel is charged with examining current policies, standards and laws relevant to food labelling; the policy drivers impacting on demands for food labelling; and the policies and mechanisms that are needed to ensure that government plays its optimum role. Particular areas of nutrition focus include health claims and front of pack labelling. The genesis of the review was Australian governments' commitment to regulatory reform to create a seamless national economy, reduce the regulatory burden, and maintain or increase ...