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Articles 1 - 30 of 482

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Influence Through Intimidation: Evidence From Business Lobbying And The Regulatory Process, Cary Coglianese, Alex Acs Oct 2020

Influence Through Intimidation: Evidence From Business Lobbying And The Regulatory Process, Cary Coglianese, Alex Acs

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Interest group influence in the policy process is often assumed to occur through a mechanism of exchange, persuasion, or subsidy. Here, we explore how business groups may also exert influence by intimidating policymakers—a form of persuasion, but one based not on the provision of policy information but of political information. We develop a theory where a business firm lobbies a regulator to communicate political information about its capacity to commit to future influence-seeking activities that would sanction the regulator. The regulator assesses the credibility of this message by evaluating the firm’s commitment to lobbying. Guided by our theory ...


Negotiating With Gatekeepers: Reflexivity In Exploring Turkish Men’S Engagement In Domestic Violence Perpetrator Interventions In The Uk, Zeynep Turhan Phd, Claudia Bernard Phd Aug 2020

Negotiating With Gatekeepers: Reflexivity In Exploring Turkish Men’S Engagement In Domestic Violence Perpetrator Interventions In The Uk, Zeynep Turhan Phd, Claudia Bernard Phd

The Qualitative Report

This article explores methodological and ethical challenges and complexities in negotiating access with gatekeepers in research that examines Turkish perpetrators’ engagement in domestic violence interventions in the UK. This research presents the examples and conceptual information about the process of working with gatekeepers based on the sensitive research topic. This paper draws on the first author’s own experiences and the emotional impact of undertaking such sensitive research where community leaders held patriarchal beliefs. It also argues that there are challenges in building trust and rapport with gatekeepers which are related to gender power relations; stigmatisation in the community; ideologies ...


Criminalizing Childhood: The Politics Of Violence At Delhi's Urban Margins, Ragini Saira Malhotra Jul 2020

Criminalizing Childhood: The Politics Of Violence At Delhi's Urban Margins, Ragini Saira Malhotra

Doctoral Dissertations

The intensification of neoliberal economic reforms and new patterns of middle-class consumption in India have coincided with rising levels of urban inequality and poverty. Yet India’s capital, Delhi, positions itself as a “world-class city,” invoking neoliberal state aspirations to justify widespread violence against communities living and working in state-contested spaces. While much has been written about the reproduction of urban inequality and poverty in India, this body of scholarship under-emphasizes mechanisms of social control and violence, specifically, criminalization by the state.
To understand these dynamics, children’s experiences are particularly important given their age-based potential and vulnerabilities. To give ...


Contested Dam Development In Iran: A Case Study Of The Exercise Of State Power Over Local People, Elham Hoominfar, Claudia Radel Jul 2020

Contested Dam Development In Iran: A Case Study Of The Exercise Of State Power Over Local People, Elham Hoominfar, Claudia Radel

Sociology, Social Work and Anthropology Student Research

In this article, we address the interaction of the Iranian State, an agent of power, with affected village residents, as four dam projects are planned and implemented. Dams, recently positioned as a green energy source, are a central component to Iran’s national development strategies; yet historically their construction has been a source of significant conflict and resistance around the world. We focus on ten villages facing displacement or partial loss of lands at the time of the research, and we answer the question: During dam building and resettlement processes, how have residents experienced their role in decision making and ...


Not So Minor Feelings, Reshmi Dutt-Ballerstadt Jul 2020

Not So Minor Feelings, Reshmi Dutt-Ballerstadt

Faculty Publications

This creative nonfiction essay by Reshmi Dutt-Ballerstadt about race, silencing, and families originally appeared in Entropy.


Introduction To The Special Issue: Religion, Power, And Resistance: New Ideas For A Divided World, Anna Halahoff, Sam Han, Caroline Starkey, James V. Spickard Jun 2020

Introduction To The Special Issue: Religion, Power, And Resistance: New Ideas For A Divided World, Anna Halahoff, Sam Han, Caroline Starkey, James V. Spickard

Our House Articles, Posters, and Presentations

The world is currently gripped by pressing environmental, social, and economic challenges. Many people have lost faith that existing power structures can handle them, but they have come to no consensus on solutions. We thus find ourselves in increasingly divided societies, riven by ideological battles for the future of the human and the more-than-human world. In its myriad forms, religion plays many roles in this picture. It can be an underlying source of divisions as well as a powerful means of addressing them.


A Student Primer On Intersectionality: Not Just A Buzzword, Elodie Silberstein, Marisa Tramontano, Meghana V. Nayak Jun 2020

A Student Primer On Intersectionality: Not Just A Buzzword, Elodie Silberstein, Marisa Tramontano, Meghana V. Nayak

Open Educational Resources

This book:

● lays out the objectives of WS 166, Gender, Race, and Class, taught in the Women’s and Gender Studies Department, Pace University, New York City campus;

● provides a structure for any course addressing intersectionality, feminism, and oppression;

● describes the framework of intersectionality, which examines societal issues by analyzing the interlocking systems of oppression that shape people’s lives;

● argues for a transnational application of intersectionality that also centers U.S. Black feminists’ contributions to understanding oppression;

● includes journal articles, TED Talks, and class exercises that are generally accessible for most students or interested readers without previous exposure to ...


Power And Negotiation: Review Of Current Evidence And Future Directions, Michael Schaerer, Laurel Teo, Nikhil Madan, Roderick I. Swaab Jun 2020

Power And Negotiation: Review Of Current Evidence And Future Directions, Michael Schaerer, Laurel Teo, Nikhil Madan, Roderick I. Swaab

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This review synthesizes the impact of power on individual and joint negotiation performance. Although power generally has positive effects on negotiators’ individual performance (value claiming), recent work suggests that more power is not always beneficial. Taking a dyadic perspective, we also find mixed evidence for how power affects joint performance (value creation); some studies show that equal-power dyads create more value than unequal-power dyads, but others find the opposite. We identify the source of power, power distribution, and competitiveness as critical moderators of this relationship. Finally, we suggest that future research should move beyond studying alternatives in dyadic deal-making, identify ...


From Protecting To Performing Privacy, Garfield Benjamin May 2020

From Protecting To Performing Privacy, Garfield Benjamin

The Journal of Sociotechnical Critique

Privacy is increasingly important in an age of facial recognition technologies, mass data collection, and algorithmic decision-making. Yet it persists as a contested term, a behavioural paradox, and often fails users in practice. This article critiques current methods of thinking privacy in protectionist terms, building on Deleuze's conception of the society of control, through its problematic relation to freedom, property and power. Instead, a new mode of understanding privacy in terms of performativity is provided, drawing on Butler and Sedgwick as well as Cohen and Nissenbaum. This new form of privacy is based on identity, consent and collective action ...


The Politicization Of The Genocide Label: Genocide Rhetoric In The Un Security Council, Michelle E. Ringrose May 2020

The Politicization Of The Genocide Label: Genocide Rhetoric In The Un Security Council, Michelle E. Ringrose

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article examines the intersection of language, power and national interest by discussing how the UN Security Council permanent five (P5) members navigate the linguistic rhetoric of genocide in debates surrounding the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A discourse analysis methodology is adopted to ascertain how P5 member-states framed the genocide in Srebrenica through an analysis of linguistic themes and silences in council debates. This article argues that UN P5 members use language as a mechanism to frame a conflict in a particular way that aligns with their own national political interests. The article reaffirms the importance of genocide recognition ...


The Work Of Art In The Age Of Surveillance: Towards A Society Of Civil Power, Grace Eunhae Cho May 2020

The Work Of Art In The Age Of Surveillance: Towards A Society Of Civil Power, Grace Eunhae Cho

Graduate School of Art Theses

State and corporate power have expanded and enforced their dominant territory and influence through the development of visual technology. Art and visual technology are inseparable. Thus, art has been utilized as an essential tool through which power glamorizes and visualizes its authority. Over the course of the modern age, power has increasingly adopted different strategies in order to conceal its appearance. In particular, the development of information and communication technology has enabled power to be not only invisible but also intangible. This thesis, "The Work of Art in The Age of Surveillance: Towards A Society of Civil Power," explores how ...


A Thumb On The Scale: Chinese Investment And Influence In Ecuador And Colombia, Christina Pendergrast May 2020

A Thumb On The Scale: Chinese Investment And Influence In Ecuador And Colombia, Christina Pendergrast

Honors Theses

Over the past two decades, Chinese involvement in the developing world has increased dramatically, raising concerns over the intentions behind the provision of development packages. Critics have accused China of a practice known as debt-trap diplomacy, a method of ensnaring less developed nations by providing more loans than those nations have the ability to feasibly pay back. While China denies that their loan and investment packages are provided with any ulterior motive, the influence held by an investor like China has the potential to impact these partner countries for decades to come. In light of the scope of China’s ...


Public-School Systems Are Criminalizing Our Young People: Giving Voice To The Marganilized, Carrie Stoltzfus Apr 2020

Public-School Systems Are Criminalizing Our Young People: Giving Voice To The Marganilized, Carrie Stoltzfus

Graduate Theses & Dissertations

A phenomenological qualitative study using Critical Race Theory and counter-storytelling was completed to investigate what K-12 public schools should be doing to keep young people out of the school-to-prison pipeline (STPP). This study took place in a large city in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Interviews were completed with former students of the researcher who were previously incarcerated, educational professionals, and justice system professionals. Additionally, observations of the court systems and document reviews were completed in order to triangulate findings. Themes emerged around factors that lead to incarceration and the preferred practices to support young people to avoid ...


Racism In America: A Psychological Approach, Brett S. Burton Apr 2020

Racism In America: A Psychological Approach, Brett S. Burton

Student Publications

America is a country that has racism interwoven into its history and ingrained within its society. Blacks have been subjected to this racism and oppression for generations, and at a higher level than other minority groups. More recently in American society, we can see a transition from overt discrimination to covert discrimination through policies and legislation that affect racial groups differently. Foucault and Bentham’s Panopticon can be used to discuss the true systematic violence imposed on blacks and we can further that discussion by investigating the War on Drugs and Mass Incarceration and how they represent reincarnations of previous ...


In Our Own Words: Institutional Betrayals, Reshmi Dutt-Ballerstadt Mar 2020

In Our Own Words: Institutional Betrayals, Reshmi Dutt-Ballerstadt

Faculty Publications

When Dr. Reshmi Dutt-Ballerstadt, professor of English at Linfield College, asked a large group of underrepresented faculty members why they left their higher education institutions, they told her the real reasons for their departures — those that climate surveys don't capture.

This essay originally appeared as part of Conditionally Accepted, a career advice blog for Inside Higher Ed providing news, information, personal stories, and resources for scholars who are, at best, conditionally accepted in academe. Conditionally Accepted is an anti-racist, pro-feminist, pro-queer, anti-transphobic, anti-fatphobic, anti-ableist, anti-ageist, anti-classist, and anti-xenophobic online community.


Simulation-Based Power And Sample Size Calculation For Designing Interrupted Time Series Analyses Of Count Outcomes In Evaluation Of Health Policy Interventions, Wei Liu, Shangyuan Ye, Bruce A. Barton, Melissa A. Fischer, Colleen Lawrence, Elizabeth J. Rahn, Maria I. Danila, Kenneth G. Saag, Paul A. Harris, Stephenie C. Lemon, Jeroan J. Allison, Bo Zhang Mar 2020

Simulation-Based Power And Sample Size Calculation For Designing Interrupted Time Series Analyses Of Count Outcomes In Evaluation Of Health Policy Interventions, Wei Liu, Shangyuan Ye, Bruce A. Barton, Melissa A. Fischer, Colleen Lawrence, Elizabeth J. Rahn, Maria I. Danila, Kenneth G. Saag, Paul A. Harris, Stephenie C. Lemon, Jeroan J. Allison, Bo Zhang

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

Objective: The purpose of this study was to present the design, model, and data analysis of an interrupted time series (ITS) model applied to evaluate the impact of health policy, systems, or environmental interventions using count outcomes. Simulation methods were used to conduct power and sample size calculations for these studies.

Methods: We proposed the models and analyses of ITS designs for count outcomes using the Strengthening Translational Research in Diverse Enrollment (STRIDE) study as an example. The models we used were observation-driven models, which bundle a lagged term on the conditional mean of the outcome for a time series ...


The Digital Subversion Of Urban Space: Power, Performance And Grime, Orlando Woods Mar 2020

The Digital Subversion Of Urban Space: Power, Performance And Grime, Orlando Woods

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Digital technologies play an increasingly prominent role in the reproduction of society and space. Rather than being studied as a separate category of understanding, the ways in which such technologies intersect with and inflect upon the real world has provided a recent focus of research. Urban music is inherently spatial, but the ways in which digital technologies have enabled artists to resist injustice, to reproduce space and to reclaim the right to the city has not yet been considered. This article fills the lacuna by exploring how grime artists harness digital technologies to resist marginalization by the mainstream and create ...


Listening To The Voices Of Community Health Workers: A Multilevel, Culture-Centered Approach To Overcoming Structural Barriers In U.S. Latinx Communities, Angela L. Palmer-Wackerly, Virginia Chaidez, Caitlyn Wayment, Jonathan Baker, Anthony Adams, Lorey A. Wheeler Jan 2020

Listening To The Voices Of Community Health Workers: A Multilevel, Culture-Centered Approach To Overcoming Structural Barriers In U.S. Latinx Communities, Angela L. Palmer-Wackerly, Virginia Chaidez, Caitlyn Wayment, Jonathan Baker, Anthony Adams, Lorey A. Wheeler

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Community Health Workers (CHWs) are often incorporated into efforts to reduce health disparities for vulnerable populations. However, their voices are rarely the focus of research when considering how to increase their job effectiveness and sustainability. The current study addresses this gap by privileging the voices of 28 CHWs who work with Latinx communities in Nebraska through in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Using a multilevel, Culture-Centered Approach (CCA) to Health Communication, we identified two key structural communication issues: (a) increasing language accommodation and (b) increasing (and stabilizing) network integration across three ecological levels of health behavior (individual, microsystem, and exosystem). This study shows ...


Who's Laughing Now, June Forte Jan 2020

Who's Laughing Now, June Forte

Mighty Pen Project Anthology & Archive

Using the Chain of Command as an appeal process, a woman soldier in the 70s reports her Company Commander and First Sergeant to the Brigade Commander when her immediate superiors refuse to listen to her grievance.

Articles, stories, and other compositions in this archive were written by participants in the Mighty Pen Project. The program, developed by author David L. Robbins, and in partnership with Virginia Commonwealth University and the Virginia War Memorial in Richmond, Virginia, offers veterans and their family members a customized twelve-week writing class, free of charge. The program encourages, supports, and assists participants in sharing their ...


The Construction And Impact Of Power In Cross-Sector Partnerships: An Interpretive Phenomenological Study, Kimberly Allyn Walker Jan 2020

The Construction And Impact Of Power In Cross-Sector Partnerships: An Interpretive Phenomenological Study, Kimberly Allyn Walker

Dissertations & Theses

In the United States, cross-sector partnerships, a form of collaboration, are becoming increasingly common in practice (Gray & Purdy, 2018). However, questions remain regarding the effectiveness of these partnerships and if the many challenges of using them can be overcome. In particular, the intersection of cross-sector partnerships and power, which can deeply impact these partnerships, needs more attention. This study used interpretive phenomenology to understand, from the participant perspective, (a) the experience and construction of power, (b) the impact of power on participants, and (c) how power dynamics in these initiatives compare to dynamics in organizations. Seventeen participants from four homelessness-focused ...


A New Data Driven Long-Term Solar Yield Analysis Model Of Photovoltaic Power Plants, Biplob Ray, Rakibuzzaman Shah, Md Rabiul Islam, Syed Islam Jan 2020

A New Data Driven Long-Term Solar Yield Analysis Model Of Photovoltaic Power Plants, Biplob Ray, Rakibuzzaman Shah, Md Rabiul Islam, Syed Islam

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

Historical data offers a wealth of knowledge to the users. However, often restrictively mammoth that the information cannot be fully extracted, synthesized, and analyzed efficiently for an application such as the forecasting of variable generator outputs. Moreover, the accuracy of the prediction method is vital. Therefore, a trade-off between accuracy and efficacy is required for the data-driven energy forecasting method. It has been identified that the hybrid approach may outperform the individual technique in minimizing the error while challenging to synthesize. A hybrid deep learning-based method is proposed for the output prediction of the solar photovoltaic systems (i.e. proposed ...


Model Predictive Control For A New Magnetic Linked Multilevel Inverter To Integrate Solar Photovoltaic Systems With The Power Grids, A M. Mahfuz-Ur-Rahman, Md Rabiul Islam, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Danny Sutanto Jan 2020

Model Predictive Control For A New Magnetic Linked Multilevel Inverter To Integrate Solar Photovoltaic Systems With The Power Grids, A M. Mahfuz-Ur-Rahman, Md Rabiul Islam, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Danny Sutanto

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

The multilevel inverters are becoming increasingly popular for use in the grid integration of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power plants due to their higher voltage handling capability and the better output power quality. There are several types of multilevel inverters that have been proposed in the literature; among them the active neutral point clamp (ANPC) multilevel inverters have been drawing significant attention specially for solving the problems with other multilevel inverters. However, with the increase of number of levels, the ANPC requires more electronic switches and flying capacitors, by which the complexity and the cost increases. In this paper, an ...


Increase In Volumetric Electrical Power Density Of A Linear Generator By Winding Optimization For Wave Energy Extraction, Selim Molla, Omar Farrok, Abidur Rahman, Md Samiul Bashir, Md Rabiul Islam, Abbas Z. Zouzani, M. A Parvez Mahmud Jan 2020

Increase In Volumetric Electrical Power Density Of A Linear Generator By Winding Optimization For Wave Energy Extraction, Selim Molla, Omar Farrok, Abidur Rahman, Md Samiul Bashir, Md Rabiul Islam, Abbas Z. Zouzani, M. A Parvez Mahmud

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

In this article, a method of winding optimization of the linear generator is proposed to increase the electrical power generation from the oceanic wave. A linear generator is designed in the ANSYS/Maxwell environment to analyze the proposed winding optimization method. The electrical and magnetic properties of the generator are extensively analyzed. The cross-sectional area and the number of turns of the copper conductor are optimized to maximize the output power. Load characteristics are also considered for different conductor sizes and turn numbers to determine a suitable operating point. A cooling system is also incorporated in the optimized linear generator ...


Conceptual Image Of English, Russian And Uzbek Socio-Political Discourse (Comparison), Gulnoza Amonova Phd Student Dec 2019

Conceptual Image Of English, Russian And Uzbek Socio-Political Discourse (Comparison), Gulnoza Amonova Phd Student

Philology Matters

The thesaurus of socio-political vocabulary is based on intra-systemic conceptual relations between units of this lexical group. The concept “power” is a structure-formed mean for this vocabulary. Being the main descriptors of the the-saurus of socio-political vocabulary, concepts project a number of their characteristics on to the lexical groups organized by them. Moreover, the structure of the corresponding branches of the thesaurus is largely determined by the internal, structural features of the concepts. As a result of this, it seems necessary to analyze these key con-cepts for socio-political vocabulary, as well as the concepts “people” and “nation” that are significant ...


Existence Of Media In Implementing The Role Of Watchdog In The Case Of Land Equipment For The Development Of New Yogyakarta International Airport, Gede Moenanto Soekowati, Aceng Abdullah, Evie Ariadne, Oekan Soekotjo Abdullah Dec 2019

Existence Of Media In Implementing The Role Of Watchdog In The Case Of Land Equipment For The Development Of New Yogyakarta International Airport, Gede Moenanto Soekowati, Aceng Abdullah, Evie Ariadne, Oekan Soekotjo Abdullah

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Media is the fourth element of power in four pillars of power in democratic countries. Power in a democratic country not only consists of the government or is called an executive, legislative power, judicial power, and press power.

In this connection, the study carried out is a qualitative study concerning which the press is expected to function as oversight and control of power. Qualitative research is carried out by observing, interviewing, and studying documents. 1. How is the existence of journalism supervision in the practice of journalism in land evictions for NYIA airport? 2. Why do residents of Temon Village ...


The Impact Of #Metoo: A Review Of Leaders With Supervisor Power On Employee Motivation, Mary Kovach Dec 2019

The Impact Of #Metoo: A Review Of Leaders With Supervisor Power On Employee Motivation, Mary Kovach

The Journal of Values-Based Leadership

This manuscript intends to advance existing research, specifically, in gender dissimilar supervisor-employee workplace dyads by integrating #MeToo with our existing knowledge concerning supervisor power and employee motivation. With the #MeToo movement re-energized in 2017, power in leadership positions was redefined. As a result, power held by a supervisor is likely to influence outcomes based on gender and the employees’ source of motivation. Supervisors who believed they were successful through influence were more likely to exhibit power to achieve success. However, employees’ source of the motivation was a moderating factor in those outcomes. Meaning, outcomes were dependent on the type of ...


The "Uncontacted" As Third Infamy, George Mentore Dec 2019

The "Uncontacted" As Third Infamy, George Mentore

Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America

This paper principally addresses the "problem" of anthropological thinking, that is, on how and why it remains with us and not with the peoples who do not subscribe to our contested regimes of truth. From my research on the topic, it appears we have not achieved any substantial moral progress on the question of exposure to indigenous otherness since the first European "contact." This failure is primarily due to our hardheaded rationalist refusal to accept our inability to access the felt reality of the Other directly. Or, better still, of the failure of our language to obtain the shared reality ...


Ethnic Power Dominance In A Resource-Rich Sub Saharan African State: An Analysis Of Violent Conflict Accelerators And The Mitigating Influence Of Civil Society In Nigeria, Victor O. Fakoya Dec 2019

Ethnic Power Dominance In A Resource-Rich Sub Saharan African State: An Analysis Of Violent Conflict Accelerators And The Mitigating Influence Of Civil Society In Nigeria, Victor O. Fakoya

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

My dissertation research explores the impacts of ethno-regional power dominance, trust, and violent conflict in a resources-rich multiethnic, sub-Saharan African state. This dissertation examines the impact that ethnic power dominance has on the relationship between conflict and civil society in a resource rich sub-Saharan African (SSA) nation examined. Relying upon intra-state case study analysis of the socio-political climate in Nigeria, I argue that distrust in the national government, when motivated by ethno-regional cleavages has an accelerating influence on the incidence of conflict. Using cross-national survey data in conjunction with field interview data, this research finds that in the regions where ...


Can "Slacktivism" Work? Perceived Power Differences Moderate The Relationship Between Social Media Activism And Collective Action Intentions Through Positive Affect, Mindi D. Foster, Eden J.V. Hennessey, Benjamin T. Blankenship, Abigail Stewart Nov 2019

Can "Slacktivism" Work? Perceived Power Differences Moderate The Relationship Between Social Media Activism And Collective Action Intentions Through Positive Affect, Mindi D. Foster, Eden J.V. Hennessey, Benjamin T. Blankenship, Abigail Stewart

Psychology Faculty Publications

We argue that the often-used critique of social media activism as merely a ‘feel-good’ mechanism can be countered by conceptualizing social media activism as a necessary type of collective action (i.e., consensus mobilization), incorporating theory on the benefits of positive feelings for activism, and by examining how power may affect these relationships. Women from two different samples (MTurk and university) were randomly assigned to recall a high- versus low-power experience, view real-world events of sexism, and then complete questionnaires assessing endorsement of social media activism, positive affect, and collective action intentions. A dual moderated mediation analyses at the second ...


Power In The Counseling Relationship: The Role Of Ignorance, Izaak L. Williams, Peg O'Connor Oct 2019

Power In The Counseling Relationship: The Role Of Ignorance, Izaak L. Williams, Peg O'Connor

Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice

This article explores the role of therapist self-disclosure in clinical settings. Distinctions are made between the enmeshed concepts of privacy, secrecy, and confidentiality to elucidate the role of ignorance in maintaining the power dynamics in therapeutic relationships. While some measure of privacy is essential to counseling practice, secretive behavior (in which the counselor divulges too little about themselves) can have a negative impact on the therapeutic relationship and the client’s therapeutic outcomes. There is, therefore, an under-appreciated and delicate balancing act between withholding information to protect the client and the counselor and revealing enough personal details to empower the ...