Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law

Criminology and Criminal Justice

Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Judging Risk, Brandon L. Garrett, John Monahan Jan 2020

Judging Risk, Brandon L. Garrett, John Monahan

Faculty Scholarship

Risk assessment plays an increasingly pervasive role in criminal justice in the United States at all stages of the process, from policing, to pre-trial, sentencing, corrections, and during parole. As efforts to reduce incarceration have led to adoption of risk-assessment tools, critics have begun to ask whether various instruments in use are valid and whether they might reinforce rather than reduce bias in criminal justice outcomes. Such work has neglected how decisionmakers use risk-assessment in practice. In this Article, we examine in detail the judging of risk assessment and we study why decisionmakers so often fail to consistently use such ...


Catching Killers With Consumer Genetic Information, Angela Hackstadt Nov 2019

Catching Killers With Consumer Genetic Information, Angela Hackstadt

University Libraries Faculty Scholarship

In April 2018, Joseph James D'Angelo was arrested as a suspect in the Golden State Killer case. DNA evidence collected at a 1980 crime scene finally shed light on the murderer's identity in early 2018 when investigators turned to GEDMatch, a service that allows users to upload and share DNA data obtained from consumer genetic tests. Consumer genetic testing, DNA collection, and familial DNA searching all raise ethical and privacy concerns. If investigators are using genetic genealogy to solve cold cases, where does that leave consumers?


Rap On Trial: Race, Lyrics, And Guilt In America, Erik Nielson, Andrea L. Dennis Nov 2019

Rap On Trial: Race, Lyrics, And Guilt In America, Erik Nielson, Andrea L. Dennis

Bookshelf

A groundbreaking exposé about the alarming use of rap lyrics as criminal evidence to convict and incarcerate young men of color

“If you believe that I’m a cop killer, you believe David Bowie is an astronaut.” —Rapper Ice-T, on the persona he adopted in the song “Cop Killer”

Should Johnny Cash have been charged with murder after he sang, “I shot a man in Reno just to watch him die”? Few would seriously subscribe to this notion of justice. Yet in 2001, a rapper named Mac whose music had gained national recognition was convicted of manslaughter after the prosecutor ...


Merciless: Psychopathic Criminals And How The Criminal Justice System Can Protect Us From Them, Dilara Gingerich Apr 2019

Merciless: Psychopathic Criminals And How The Criminal Justice System Can Protect Us From Them, Dilara Gingerich

Student Symposium

For my presentation, I will discuss an independent study I did with Dr. Durst in the Fall of 2018, in which I wrote about psychopaths and ways the criminal justice system (CJS) can protect society from them. I will first briefly define psychopathy and explain the personality traits associated with it. I will dedicate the rest of my time to explaining ways I believe the CJS can use information about psychopathy to protect society from criminals with that condition. Psychopathy is a subtype of antisocial personality disorder (APD) that is characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse, manipulative and ...


Never Again! Surviving Liberalized Prostitution In Germany, Sandra Norak, Ingeborg Kraus Oct 2018

Never Again! Surviving Liberalized Prostitution In Germany, Sandra Norak, Ingeborg Kraus

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article, co-authored by a six-year survivor of the sex trade industry in Germany (Sandra Norak) and a psychologist and trauma therapist (Ingeborg Kraus), provides perspectives on the difficulty of withstanding the coercion of traffickers and the difficulties of exiting prostitution in a country in which prostitution has been legalized, normalized and made “a job like any other.” This normalization persuades survivors to believe their traffickers that it is a legitimate occupation and encourages them to endure the violence. Liberalization also has prevented the development of needed trauma services to those seeking to exit the sex trade industry.


Judicious Imprisonment, Gregory Jay Hall Sep 2018

Judicious Imprisonment, Gregory Jay Hall

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Starting August 21, 2018, Americans incarcerated across the United States have been striking back — non-violently. Inmates with jobs are protesting slave-like wages through worker strikes and sit-ins. Inmates also call for an end to racial disparities and an increase in rehabilitation programs. Even more surprisingly, many inmates have begun hunger strikes. Inmates are protesting the numerous ills of prisons: overcrowding, inadequate health care, abysmal mental health care contributing to inmate suicide, violence, disenfranchisement of inmates, and more. While recent reforms have slightly decreased mass incarceration, the current White House administration could likely reverse this trend. President Donald Trump’s and ...


The Developing Brain: New Directions In Science, Policy, And Law, Susan Frelich Appleton, Deanna M. Barch, Anneliese M. Schaefer Jan 2018

The Developing Brain: New Directions In Science, Policy, And Law, Susan Frelich Appleton, Deanna M. Barch, Anneliese M. Schaefer

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


A Case Study Of Overcrowding In A County Jail In The Southeast United States, Marquice Robinson Jan 2018

A Case Study Of Overcrowding In A County Jail In The Southeast United States, Marquice Robinson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

For the past several decades, the county jail in a large metropolitan city in the southeast United States has been overcrowded, which has resulted in violence within the jail, excessive costs to the Sheriff's Office, and a requirement of Federal oversight of the jail from 2005 to 2015. In spite of these events, little is understood about why jail overcrowding is prevalent in the county and what impacts overcrowding may have on the communities around the jail. Using Shaw and McKay's social disorganization theory as the foundation, the purpose of this case study was to understand the unique ...


Finding The Jury: State Legislative Responses To Blakely V. Washington, Don Stemen, Daniel F. Wilhelm Oct 2017

Finding The Jury: State Legislative Responses To Blakely V. Washington, Don Stemen, Daniel F. Wilhelm

Don Stemen

No abstract provided.


Aggravated Sentencing: Blakely V. Washington, Jon Wool, Don Stemen Oct 2017

Aggravated Sentencing: Blakely V. Washington, Jon Wool, Don Stemen

Don Stemen

No abstract provided.


Today's Porn: Not A Constitutional Right; Not A Human Right, Patrick Trueman Jul 2017

Today's Porn: Not A Constitutional Right; Not A Human Right, Patrick Trueman

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Effective Social Media Use By Law Enforcement Agencies: A Case Study Approach To Quantifying And Improving Efficacy And Developing Agency Best Practices, David T. Snively Dec 2016

Effective Social Media Use By Law Enforcement Agencies: A Case Study Approach To Quantifying And Improving Efficacy And Developing Agency Best Practices, David T. Snively

Master of Public Administration Practicums

In the wake of protests against law enforcement for an array of reasons, law enforcement officers and agencies have a responsibility to recognize and utilize the available mediums of communication with which they may best develop a connection to the communities they serve. Furthermore, law enforcement agencies must be informed that established, traditional methods of news dissemination – such as press conferences and printed articles – are now both ineffective and under-utilized, replaced in large part by social media live-time reports. For that reason, law enforcement agency executives must address both the responsibility to provide appropriately timed updates to critical incidents and ...


Persona Non Grata: The Marginalization Of Legal Scholarship In Criminology And Criminal Justice Journals, Brenda I. Rowe, Wesley S. Mccann, Craig Hemmens Dec 2016

Persona Non Grata: The Marginalization Of Legal Scholarship In Criminology And Criminal Justice Journals, Brenda I. Rowe, Wesley S. Mccann, Craig Hemmens

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Recently, concern has been voiced within the academy regarding the marginalization of legal scholarship within the criminology and criminal justice (CCJ) discipline. Although conventional wisdom and anecdotal evidence indicate that it is difficult to get legal scholarship published in CCJ journals, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on the representation of legal scholarship in CCJ journals. The present study assesses the representation of legal scholarship in 20 CCJ journals from 2005 through 2015, examining both trends over time and variation across journals. Findings indicate legal scholarship comprises a very small portion of articles published, there has been a steep ...


The Political Implications Of Felon Disenfranchisement Laws In The United States, Katharine G. Connaughton Jan 2016

The Political Implications Of Felon Disenfranchisement Laws In The United States, Katharine G. Connaughton

CMC Senior Theses

This empirical study analyzes the political implications for presidential election outcomes that stem from varying felon disenfranchisement laws within the United States. In the past decade incarceration rates have drastically increased, consequently augmenting the disenfranchised population. This paper focuses on presidential election outcomes and state political party majorities in the election years 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012. I use demographic characteristics to calibrate assumptions for voter turnout and political party choice among the disenfranchised populations within each state. I then apply these voting populations to historical election outcomes and find that three state political party outcomes change, as well as ...


Challenges For Investigating Sex Trafficking: The Role Of Decriminalized Prostitution, Donna M. Hughes Dr., Melanie Shapiro Esq Oct 2015

Challenges For Investigating Sex Trafficking: The Role Of Decriminalized Prostitution, Donna M. Hughes Dr., Melanie Shapiro Esq

Donna M. Hughes

This presentation is a case study of challenges to investigating sex trafficking created by decriminalized prostitution. For 29 years (from 1980 to 2009) in Rhode Island, engaging in prostitution was not prohibited or regulated. Commercial sex acts were private and beyond the interest of the state. Lack of laws or regulations of prostitution created a permissive legal, economic, and cultural environment for the growth of prostitution businesses. Local police were impeded from investigating alleged sex trafficking because police had no legal cause to investigate private activities. In interviews, law enforcement officials repeatedly stated that they did not have the laws ...


Parole And Probation Officers' Perceptions Of Management Effectiveness In Baltimore County, Maryland, Valencia Tamir Johnson Dr. Aug 2015

Parole And Probation Officers' Perceptions Of Management Effectiveness In Baltimore County, Maryland, Valencia Tamir Johnson Dr.

Valencia T Johnson

Management practices in the rehabilitation and criminal justice system are primarily concerned with how employees sense, collect, organize, and process information regarding the criminal offender. The purpose of this quantitative study was to measure parole and probation officers' perceptions regarding management support and effectiveness in the workplace, with particular emphasis on communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution. Herzberg's 2-factor theory of motivation served as the theoretical framework for the study, supporting the concept of participatory management as a central factor in job satisfaction. A researcher-designed, Likert-type questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected sample of 31 parole and probation officers ...


Parole And Probation Officers' Perceptions Of Management Effectiveness In Baltimore County, Maryland, Valencia Tamir Johnson Jan 2015

Parole And Probation Officers' Perceptions Of Management Effectiveness In Baltimore County, Maryland, Valencia Tamir Johnson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Management practices in the rehabilitation and criminal justice system are primarily concerned with how employees sense, collect, organize, and process information regarding the criminal offender. The purpose of this quantitative study was to measure parole and probation officers' perceptions regarding management support and effectiveness in the workplace, with particular emphasis on communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution. Herzberg's 2-factor theory of motivation served as the theoretical framework for the study, supporting the concept of participatory management as a central factor in job satisfaction. A researcher-designed, Likert-type questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected sample of 31 parole and probation officers ...


Capitalism And Criminal Justice, Peter Kraska, John Brent Oct 2014

Capitalism And Criminal Justice, Peter Kraska, John Brent

Peter Kraska

Capitalism and Criminal Justice examines how state and economic forces work together through a dialectic process in efforts to prepare social and cultural capital for economic accumulation. This unique book demonstrates the close working relationship between the state and market by focusing on two recent trends: the emergence of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (cage-fighting) and the use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). These trends are examined as illustrative of the state/market nexus in sanctioning and criminalizing transgressive behaviors. The books aims to both deepen criminology’s understanding of the criminalization/legalization process, and introduce a genre of theoretical work ...


Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent Aug 2014

Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent

Doctoral Dissertations

What do community interpreting for the Deaf in western societies, conference interpreting for the European Parliament, and language brokering in international management have in common? Academic research and professional training have historically emphasized the linguistic and cognitive challenges of interpreting, neglecting or ignoring the social aspects that structure communication. All forms of interpreting are inherently social; they involve relationships among at least three people and two languages. The contexts explored here, American Sign Language/English interpreting and spoken language interpreting within the European Parliament, show that simultaneous interpreting involves attitudes, norms and values about intercultural communication that overemphasize information and ...


Terrorism, International., Jibey Asthappan Jan 2014

Terrorism, International., Jibey Asthappan

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

International terrorism is a relatively new phenomenon considering the age of terrorism. Terrorism has been used for over 2,000 years, but international terrorism as we know it today was made possible by technological advances. This entry begins by reviewing pivotal historical events that led to terrorism's use, as well as the underlying reasons for terrorism today. The article then discusses the influence of political stability and culture on international terrorism. Finally, a brief discussion of counter-terrorism strategies highlights the means by which terrorism is prevented.


Navajo Peacemaking And Māori Restorative Justice: A Comparison Of Process And Procedure, Alethia Z. Fenney Aug 2012

Navajo Peacemaking And Māori Restorative Justice: A Comparison Of Process And Procedure, Alethia Z. Fenney

All Regis University Theses

Due to the failure of some crime control approaches in law enforcement alternatives are being examined to determine their applicability in today's society. One of the approaches gaining criminological attention is "Navajo Peacemaking". another similar style of crime control is the Māori restorative justice process used in New Zealand. The purposed of this research study is to examine and compare these processes to determine their applicability as crime prevention tools in U.S. towns and cities. Walter Miller's Focal Concerns Theory was used to address the difference in motivation between mainstream culture and its subcultures. The results from ...


Using John Grisham's The Innocent Man To Create A Significant Learning Experience For Undergraduate Students In A Psychology And The Law Course, Emily Stark Jul 2011

Using John Grisham's The Innocent Man To Create A Significant Learning Experience For Undergraduate Students In A Psychology And The Law Course, Emily Stark

Psychology Faculty Publications

Imagine a man, suffering from alcoholism and schizophrenia, drifting through his small town, known mostly for getting thrown out of bars. When a graphic murder occurs, this man’s name gets linked to the victim, and police focus on him as a suspect. Although there is no evidence against him, a combination of poor police work and a town’s desire for closure lead to this innocent man being convicted of the crime and sentenced to death. Down to his last appeal, after spending 12 years on death row, a fair and honest judge is finally convinced to take a ...


On The Connection Between Law And Justice, Anthony D'Amato Jan 2011

On The Connection Between Law And Justice, Anthony D'Amato

Faculty Working Papers

What does it mean to assert that judges should decide cases according to justice and not according to the law? Is there something incoherent in the question itself? That question will serve as our springboard in examining what is—or should be—the connection between justice and law. Legal and political theorists since the time of Plato have wrestled with the problem of whether justice is part of law or is simply a moral judgment about law. Nearly every writer on the subject has either concluded that justice is only a judgment about law or has offered no reason to ...


The Case For Clear And Convincing Evidence: Do Our Laws Value Property Over Children?, Tricia P. Martland Jan 2011

The Case For Clear And Convincing Evidence: Do Our Laws Value Property Over Children?, Tricia P. Martland

Justice Studies Faculty Publications

Our laws reflect our values. What we value, we make laws to protect. In this article, Tricia Martland describes the child custody statute in North Dakota, which is the only state to use “clear and convincing” standard of evidence. This means that children will not be placed with parents with a history of domestic violence unless there is clear and convincing evidence of their rehabilitation. Other states deem the clear and convincing standard too stringent. Yet this standard is often used with regard to property title. Do our laws indicate that we value things over children? Changing policy to apply ...


Qualitative And Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction Analysis For Forensic Examination Of Duct Tapes, Rebecca E. Bucht Jan 2010

Qualitative And Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction Analysis For Forensic Examination Of Duct Tapes, Rebecca E. Bucht

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Duct tapes are an increasingly important class of forensic evidence. This research has studied the value of using x-ray diffraction (XRD) to extend the ability of evidence examiners to gain additional information about a duct tape specimen.

Duct tapes are composed of five different layers. Starting from the non-adhesive side, these layers are the release coating, backing, scrim, primer and adhesive. The release coating assists in reducing unwind tension and preventing the tape from sticking to itself when on a roll. The backing layer serves as a support for the adhesive, and is usually based on polyethylene. The scrim is ...


Speak Your Voice On Prostitution Bill, Donna L. Landry, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Aug 2009

Speak Your Voice On Prostitution Bill, Donna L. Landry, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

Now is the time to speak your voice and urge your Senator to pass the House bill H5044A. Now is the time to close the loophole of indoor prostitution in Rhode Island. Negotiations are ongoing, so please write letters to your senator and circulate petitions now. 


De La Fiction Criminelle En Afrique. Relecture Des Films D’Ousmane Sembène, Alexie Tcheuyap Dec 2008

De La Fiction Criminelle En Afrique. Relecture Des Films D’Ousmane Sembène, Alexie Tcheuyap

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

For institutional, ideological and even sociological reasons, the detective genre had difficulty rising to prominence within literatures and especially within the field of African cinema. If one observes today its shy emergence in the works of some West African film directors and within popular Nigerian video films, it is nonetheless possible, thanks to a finer scrutiny of theories developed on the subject, to realize that some films by Ousmane Sembène contain aesthetic strategies that allow for a fresh assessment of the works of a director whose films were often reduced to their ideological aspects. This second reading also unravels the ...


Organised Crime In Ireland: A Policy Analysis Of The Introduction Of Organised Crime To The Irish Statute Book, Elizabeth Davey Sep 2008

Organised Crime In Ireland: A Policy Analysis Of The Introduction Of Organised Crime To The Irish Statute Book, Elizabeth Davey

Dissertations

This thesis is an examination of the policy process employed in the introduction of organised crime to the Irish Statute Book. Part 7 of the Criminal Justice Act 2006 creates, for the first time in Irish criminal law, specific organised crime offences. This thesis examines the different definitions of organised crime that have been proffered by various academics since the 1960s and highlights the difficulties that exist in coining an all-encompassing yet specific definition for the phenomenon. The methods by which Part 7 of the Criminal Justice Act 2006 became law are also scrutinised. The views of various interest groups ...


Extending The Reach Of The State Into The Post-Sentence Period: Section 26 Of The Criminal Justice Act 2007, Mary Rogan Jan 2008

Extending The Reach Of The State Into The Post-Sentence Period: Section 26 Of The Criminal Justice Act 2007, Mary Rogan

Articles

The Criminal Justice Act 2007 heralded a plethora of changes to Irish criminal law and procedure. The law on sentencing was also affected by its provisions. The focus of this article is on section 26 of that Act which introduces a general power on a court to make an order while passing sentence which will take effect on the expiration of a sentence of imprisonment. Under section 26 a court can impose two such orders, the “monitoring” order and the “protection of persons” order. The author assesses the background to the introduction of these dispositions and the potential application and ...


Finding The Jury: State Legislative Responses To Blakely V. Washington, Don Stemen, Daniel F. Wilhelm Jan 2005

Finding The Jury: State Legislative Responses To Blakely V. Washington, Don Stemen, Daniel F. Wilhelm

Criminal Justice & Criminology: Faculty Publications & Other Works

No abstract provided.