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Knowledge

2011

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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Organizational Capacity To Absorb External Knowledge: An Exploratory Study Of Public And Nonprofit Decision Makers' Perceptions Of Impediments And Facilitators, Linda S. Birtley Dec 2011

Organizational Capacity To Absorb External Knowledge: An Exploratory Study Of Public And Nonprofit Decision Makers' Perceptions Of Impediments And Facilitators, Linda S. Birtley

Theses and Dissertations

Research indicates that many youth-serving agencies do not adopt evidence-based innovations in the field of youth violence prevention. This qualitative study was designed to explore a sample of community-based decision makers’ perceptions of why innovative, evidence-based programs and practices for the prevention of violence by youth are, or are not, adopted at the local level. The rationale for this study was that knowledge of evidence-based innovations in youth violence prevention originates primarily from research scientists who are external to the organizations that are the intended recipients of the innovations. Prior research has not viewed the failure to adopt evidence-based innovations ...


Evaluating The Knowledge Assets Of Innovative Companies, Helen M. Hasan, Maen Al-Hawari Nov 2011

Evaluating The Knowledge Assets Of Innovative Companies, Helen M. Hasan, Maen Al-Hawari

Helen Hasan

In the current post-industrial society, knowledge is recognised as a primary source of a company's wealth. However knowledge assets are much more difficult to identify and measure than are the physical assets with which we are much more familiar. (Boisot 1998) As a company's innovative capacity may be dependent upon its ability to take advantage of its knowledge assets, it is important to be able to identify and measure those assets. While large companies can afford extensive knowledge management projects, there is a acute need for a method by which managers in smaller organisations can easily and reliably ...


Anomalies In The System: Is A New Educational Paradigm Upon Us?, Ed Cunliff, John Barthell Oct 2011

Anomalies In The System: Is A New Educational Paradigm Upon Us?, Ed Cunliff, John Barthell

Administrative Issues Journal

In this article, we describe the palpable changes of a paradigm shift in higher education. Although this shift has been described and/or predicted elsewhere, we affirm the transition from over 30 years of collective teaching and administrative experience at a predominantly undergraduate institution (PUI) with historical roots as a state normal school. In many respects, the anomalies that Thomas Kuhn predicted in such a transition are all the more evident given our institution’s history. These anomalies include (but are not limited to) 1) the state of knowledge “ownership” (as mediated by the internet), 2) student-centered (vs. faculty-centered) educational ...


Measurement Of The Agglomeration And The Geographic Concentration Of The Innovation Across Mexican States, Vicente German-Soto, Luis Gutiérrez Flores Aug 2011

Measurement Of The Agglomeration And The Geographic Concentration Of The Innovation Across Mexican States, Vicente German-Soto, Luis Gutiérrez Flores

Vicente German-Soto

Nowadays, the extent of the innovation activities for the productivity and the economic growth is evident in regional economics. A large body of theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that to achieve higher well-being levels of the population it is essential to reinforce the innovation capacity of the economies. In this work we measure the extent of agglomeration and the geographic concentration across Mexican states using an endogenous innovation approach estimated through econometric techniques. The size of the regional economies to assess the importance of the scale effects is also a central concern. Using data from the Mexican states, evidence is ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Knowledge And Anchoring Effects: Is The Type Of Knowledge Important?, Andrew Robert Smith Jul 2011

Exploring The Relationship Between Knowledge And Anchoring Effects: Is The Type Of Knowledge Important?, Andrew Robert Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Numeric estimates are influenced by a variety of factors including a person's knowledge and the presence of numeric anchors. In general, greater knowledge leads to more accurate estimates and the presence of anchors decreases accuracy. This dissertation is focused on the relationship between these two factors. At an intuitive level, it seems that increased knowledge should lead to a decrease in anchoring effects. Unfortunately, the research on knowledge and anchoring is quite mixed. This dissertation describes four studies--the first three were experimental and the last was correlational--that addressed two primary questions: 1) Does knowledge level moderate anchoring effects such ...


Developing Adaptability: A Theory For The Design Of Integrated-Embedded Training Systems, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Rebecca J. Toney, Morell E. Mullins, Daniel A. Weissbein, Kenneth G. Brown, Bradford S. Bell May 2011

Developing Adaptability: A Theory For The Design Of Integrated-Embedded Training Systems, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Rebecca J. Toney, Morell E. Mullins, Daniel A. Weissbein, Kenneth G. Brown, Bradford S. Bell

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] This convergence of forces – environmental, technological, and economic – is driving a reconceptualization of the nature of training systems. Training is shifting from an inefficient, time consuming, and expensive enterprise to one that can be delivered efficiently, as needed, and just-in-time. It is shifting from an off-site single episode to a systematic series of learning experiences that are integrated in the workplace and embedded in work technology. It is shifting from a primary emphasis on retention and reproduction to a broader emphasis that also includes the development of adaptive knowledge and skills (Kozlowski, 1998). Training will not be a separate ...


Self-Assessments Of Knowledge: Where Do We Go From Here?, Bradford Bell, Jessica Federman May 2011

Self-Assessments Of Knowledge: Where Do We Go From Here?, Bradford Bell, Jessica Federman

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] In this paper, we argue that there remain several unanswered questions surrounding self-assessments of knowledge that must be addressed before we can reach a more definitive conclusion on the viability of these measures. The answers to these questions may provide further evidence that self-assessments should not be used as an indicator of learning or they may serve to qualify the conditions under which self-assessments can be used with reasonable confidence. In either case, addressing these issues is critical if work in this area is to influence how researchers and practitioners evaluate trainees’ learning.


We Need To Talk: Advancing Urban School Social Worker Knowledge Of Adhd And Collaboration With Teachers, Mery F. Diaz May 2011

We Need To Talk: Advancing Urban School Social Worker Knowledge Of Adhd And Collaboration With Teachers, Mery F. Diaz

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

The high prevalence of ADHD continues to present a challenge, particularly in high poverty urban schools. Low-income children of color are both more likely to be diagnosed with the disorder and more likely to be under-treated compared to their Caucasian peers. While significant attention is paid to what teachers across a variety of school settings know about ADHD, little is known about school social workers knowledge of ADHD. In addition, little is also known about the collaborative processes by which school social workers support teachers in addressing ADHD in urban schools. Utilizing a mixed-methods survey design, this study explored urban ...


Knowledge And Perception Of The Role Of Targeted Ultrasound In Detecting Down Syndrome Among A High Risk Population, Ashley M. Henriksen May 2011

Knowledge And Perception Of The Role Of Targeted Ultrasound In Detecting Down Syndrome Among A High Risk Population, Ashley M. Henriksen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The purpose of this study was to determine the perception and knowledge of targeted ultrasound in women who screen positive for Down syndrome in the first or second trimester, and to assess the perceived detection rate of Down syndrome by targeted ultrasound in this population. While several studies have reported patient perceptions’ of routine ultrasound, no study has specifically examined knowledge regarding the targeted ultrasound and its role in detecting Down syndrome. A targeted ultrasound is a special ultrasound during the second trimester offered to women who may be at a higher-than-average risk of having a baby with some type ...


What Is A Human Person? An Exploration & Critique Of Contemporary Perspectives, Emmanuel Cumplido May 2011

What Is A Human Person? An Exploration & Critique Of Contemporary Perspectives, Emmanuel Cumplido

Senior Honors Projects

What is a Human Person? An Exploration and Critique of Physicalist Perspectives

Emmanuel Cumplido

Faculty Sponsor: Donald Zeyl, Philosophy

Answers to the question “What is a human person?” that have garnered the allegiance of people throughout millennia fall under two broad categories: “physicalism” and “dualism”. One of the earliest renditions of physicalism was the philosophy of the ancient Greek atomists. In their view, all of reality could be explained through two principles: atoms and empty space. As a consequence, people were thought to be nothing but assemblages of atoms in space. Plato’s Phaedo presents one of the earliest philosophical ...


Goal Orientation And Ability: Interactive Effects On Self-Efficacy, Performance, And Knowledge, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W.J. Kozlowski Apr 2011

Goal Orientation And Ability: Interactive Effects On Self-Efficacy, Performance, And Knowledge, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W.J. Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

This study examined the direct relationship of goal orientation – and the interaction of goal orientation and cognitive ability -- with self-efficacy, performance, and knowledge in a learning context. The current paper argues that whether a particular type of goal orientation is adaptive or not adaptive depends on individuals' cognitive ability. Results indicated that the direct associations of learning and performance orientations were consistent with previous research. Learning orientation was positively related to self-efficacy, performance, and knowledge, while performance orientation was negatively related to only one outcome, performance. The interactions between goal orientation and ability also supported several hypotheses. As expected, learning ...


"We Don't Need No Education!" Really?, Rodger E. Broome Mar 2011

"We Don't Need No Education!" Really?, Rodger E. Broome

Rodger E. Broome

Why fire service employees, fire departments, and communities benefit from college educated firefighters.


Information-Seeking Behaviors Of First-Semester Veterinary Students: A Preliminary Report, Sharon A. Weiner, Gretchen Stephens, Abdelfattah Y.M. Nour Mar 2011

Information-Seeking Behaviors Of First-Semester Veterinary Students: A Preliminary Report, Sharon A. Weiner, Gretchen Stephens, Abdelfattah Y.M. Nour

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Although emphasis in veterinary education is increasingly being placed on the ability to find, use, and communicate information, studies on the information behaviors of veterinary students or professionals are few. Improved knowledge in this area will provide valuable information for course and curriculum planning and the design of information resources. This article describes a survey of the information-seeking behaviors of first-semester veterinary students at Purdue University. A survey was administered as the first phase of a progressive semester-long assignment for a first semester DVM course in systemic mammalian physiology. The survey probed for understanding of the scientific literature and its ...


The Art Of Learning: Wildfire, Amenity Migration And Local Environmental Knowledge, Christine Eriksen, T Prior Jan 2011

The Art Of Learning: Wildfire, Amenity Migration And Local Environmental Knowledge, Christine Eriksen, T Prior

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Communicating the need to prepare well in advance of the wildfire season is a strategic priority for wildfire management agencies worldwide. However, there is considerable evidence to suggest that although these agencies invest significant effort towards this objective in the lead up to each wildfire season, landholders in at-risk locations often remain under-prepared. One reason for the poor translation of risk information materials into actual preparation may be attributed to the diversity of people now inhabiting wildfire-prone locations in peri-urban landscapes. These people hold widely varying experiences, beliefs, attitudes and values relating to wildfire, which influence their understanding and interpretation ...


Science Fiction, Cultural Knowledge And Rationality: How Stem Cell Researchers Talk About Reproductive Cloning, Nicola J. Marks Jan 2011

Science Fiction, Cultural Knowledge And Rationality: How Stem Cell Researchers Talk About Reproductive Cloning, Nicola J. Marks

Faculty of Arts - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


Don't Let The Sport And Rec Officer Get Hold Of It: Indigenous Festivals, Big Aspirations And Local Knowledge, Lisa Slater Jan 2011

Don't Let The Sport And Rec Officer Get Hold Of It: Indigenous Festivals, Big Aspirations And Local Knowledge, Lisa Slater

Faculty of Arts - Papers (Archive)

This paper discusses the findings of a three-year study that examined the role and significance of Australian Indigenous cultural festivals on community and youth wellbeing. The study found that Indigenous organisations and communities, funded by government and philanthropic agencies, are increasingly using festivals as vehicles to strengthen social connections, intergenerational knowledge transmission and wellbeing (Phipps & Slater 2010). However, at both a state and national level, Indigenous affairs routinely continue to assert social norms based upon non- Indigenous national ideals of experience and wellbeing. On the basis of the empirical findings, it becomes clear that there is a need to promote ...


Knowledge Sharing Through Virtual Layers In Regional Sustainable Development Networks, Rosemary A. Van Der Meer, Luba Torlina, Jamie Mustard Jan 2011

Knowledge Sharing Through Virtual Layers In Regional Sustainable Development Networks, Rosemary A. Van Der Meer, Luba Torlina, Jamie Mustard

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Our research examines how the organisational structure facilitates knowledge sharing within the group. This case study examines a Victorian regional sustainable group using interviews and social network analysis to identify the group's organisational structure and its effect on knowledge sharing between the members. Our findings indicate that while the mixed membership, lack of hierarchy and layered structure are complex, these elements work together to provide members with a rich body of knowledge. The diversity and differences in membership are complimentary and combined can provide a more in-depth understanding of the regional sustainable development issues.


Teacher Knowledge Activated In The Context Of Designing Problems, Barbara Butterfield, Mohan Chinnappan Jan 2011

Teacher Knowledge Activated In The Context Of Designing Problems, Barbara Butterfield, Mohan Chinnappan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The investigation of teachers' knowledge that informs practice in the mathematics classroom is an important area for research. This issue is addressed in our larger research program which is aimed at characterising the complexity and multi-dimensionality of this knowledge. A report on an earlier phase of this program (Butterfield & Chinnappan, 2010) showed that pre-service teachers tended to activate more common content knowledge than content that is required for teaching. We build on this previous work by examining the kinds of knowledge that a cohort of pre-service teachers activated in the context of designing a learning task.


Assembling Geographical Knowledge Of Changing Worlds, Pauline M. Mcguirk Jan 2011

Assembling Geographical Knowledge Of Changing Worlds, Pauline M. Mcguirk

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This piece is sympathetic to the critical questions and epistemological arguments Larner (2011) presents for the current conjuncture of global transformations. I mobilize Larner's arguments for process-oriented assemblage thinking and apply them to the particular conjuncture through which one of these transformations - climate change - is being problematized in the Australian empirical context, and its connection to existing and emergent institutional and political formations and knowledge practices. I also point to emergent process-oriented, situated scholarly accounts of climate change in Australia and their potential to expand the contestable spaces whereby alternative politicizations and alternative political and institutional forms might be ...


Media Effects And The Criminal Justice System: An Experimental Test Of The Csi Effect, Ryan Tapscott Jan 2011

Media Effects And The Criminal Justice System: An Experimental Test Of The Csi Effect, Ryan Tapscott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Across two studies, factors hypothesized to be involved in the CSI effect were examined. In study 1 (N = 245), a correlational design was used to determine relations between heavy crime drama viewers and their knowledge and expectations for scientific evidence. Heavy viewers were more knowledgeable about the criminal justice system and held greater expectations for scientific evidence than light crime drama viewers. In study 2 (N = 239), participants were randomly assigned to view four episodes of a crime drama, a medical drama, or no show and then complete measures of knowledge and expectations. Although no differences were found between conditions ...


Beyond Invention: Patent As Knowledge Law, Michael J. Madison Jan 2011

Beyond Invention: Patent As Knowledge Law, Michael J. Madison

Articles

The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Bilski v. Kappos, concerning the legal standard for determining patentable subject matter under the American Patent Act, is used as a starting point for a brief review of historical, philosophical, and cultural influences on subject matter questions in both patent and copyright law. The article suggests that patent and copyright law jurisprudence was constructed initially by the Court with explicit attention to the relationship between these forms of intellectual property law and the roles of knowledge in society. Over time, explicit attention to that relationship has largely disappeared from ...


Knowledge Curation, Michael J. Madison Jan 2011

Knowledge Curation, Michael J. Madison

Articles

This Article addresses conservation, preservation, and stewardship of knowledge, and laws and institutions in the cultural environment that support those things. Legal and policy questions concerning creativity and innovation usually focus on producing new knowledge and offering access to it. Equivalent attention rarely is paid to questions of old knowledge. To what extent should the law, and particularly intellectual property law, focus on the durability of information and knowledge? To what extent does the law do so already, and to what effect? This article begins to explore those questions. Along the way, the article takes up distinctions among different types ...


Social Workers' Knowledge And Attitudes About Treating Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Angelah Dawn Gomez Jan 2011

Social Workers' Knowledge And Attitudes About Treating Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Angelah Dawn Gomez

Wayne State University Theses

The current research seeks to understand how social work students and social work professionals increase their knowledge about AD/HD and how they formulate their attitudes about the disorder. The literature provided illustrates the many components of AD/HD risks, etiology, treatments, and professional opinions about the disorder. AD/HD is one of the most studied childhood mental health disorders in the nation. However, there is little research providing insight to social workers' knowledge and attitudes about the disorder. This is especially alarming because social workers are one of the largest professional populations to provide mental health services to children ...


Revisiting A Proposed Definition Of Professional Service Firms, Asghar Zardkoohi, Leonard Bierman, Daria Panina, Subrata Chakrabarty Dec 2010

Revisiting A Proposed Definition Of Professional Service Firms, Asghar Zardkoohi, Leonard Bierman, Daria Panina, Subrata Chakrabarty

Subrata Chakrabarty

We have attempted to explain why professional service firms (PSFs) even in some of the most canonical examples (e.g., law firms) fail to follow the traditional definition. Growth in the size and geographic diversification of law firms has transformed their organizational structures and in some cases even allowed outside investment. We believe an attempt at defining organizational structure and ownership for any industry, including PSFs, is exposed to creating too many exceptions that may fall outside the confines of the definition. In particular, the problem of defining an industry is that while a given definition may in one context ...