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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Moderated Mediation Model Of Gender, Posttraumatic Cognitions, And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms After Military Sexual Assault, Hallie S. Tannahill Aug 2022

A Moderated Mediation Model Of Gender, Posttraumatic Cognitions, And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms After Military Sexual Assault, Hallie S. Tannahill

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Military sexual assault (MSA) is associated with the greatest risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD severity beyond other trauma types. Sexual revictimization further increases this risk and severity. However, not all who experience MSA revictimization develop PTSD. This suggests there may be a key mechanism that explains the association between MSA and PTSD. Posttraumatic cognitions (PTC), which include an overall domain and subdomains of self, world, and self-blame, may be one such mechanism between MSA and PTSD, although this link has not yet been examined in the context of MSA revictimization. Further, literature suggests that men and women ...


Diversity And Multi-Cultural Education In The 21st Century: An Oer / Coil / Ztc Course Text, Oluremi "Remi" Alapo Jun 2022

Diversity And Multi-Cultural Education In The 21st Century: An Oer / Coil / Ztc Course Text, Oluremi "Remi" Alapo

Open Educational Resources

CLDV100 (Liberal Arts) Introduction to Multicultural Studies in the 21st Century: 3 hrs. 3 crs.

A study of what culture is; how it influences the choices we make; how to deal positively with conflicts that inevitably arise in working/living situations with people of diverse cultures. It is a course structured to raise multicultural awareness and fortify students' social skills in dealing with cultural differences. It includes an ethnographic study of cultural groups in the U.S.A. Through the study of cultural concepts, this course develops skills in critical thinking, writing, and scholarly documentation. Not open to students with ...


Systematic Review Of Racial, Ethnic And Gender Differences On Financial Knowledge In The United States, Luisa Blanco, Cruz Garcia, Rosemary Gutierrez Jun 2022

Systematic Review Of Racial, Ethnic And Gender Differences On Financial Knowledge In The United States, Luisa Blanco, Cruz Garcia, Rosemary Gutierrez

School of Public Policy Working Papers

We conducted a systematic review of racial, ethnic, and gender differences on financial knowledge in the United States. We reviewed journal publications that specifically study or consider racial, ethnic, and gender differences in financial knowledge during the period 2010-2021. We include in this review a total of 33 papers, where nine focus on racial and ethnic differences, 14 focus on gender differences, and 10 consider racial, ethnic, and gender differences. From the reviewed studies, we estimate the average financial knowledge racial and ethnic gap, where Whites score on average 19 percentage points higher than Blacks, 14 percentage points higher than ...


Gender, Sex, & Emerging Adulthood, Katarina Andrea Reyes Jun 2022

Gender, Sex, & Emerging Adulthood, Katarina Andrea Reyes

Psychology and Child Development

Emerging adulthood is a key developmental period when individuals explore and make meaning of their intimate relationships. National trends suggest that experimentation with non-committed relationships has increased (Olmstead, 2020), particularly for females (Netting & Reynolds, 2018). Young women utilize casual sex to explore sex, while men use sex for pleasure (Sizemore & Olmstead, 2017). Moreover, the double sexual standard impacts women’s sexual satisfaction and self-esteem (Williams & Jovanovic, 2018). Little research has examined how sex influences emerging adult’s self-esteem. Previous research has primarily relied on survey data to understand women’s and men’s experiences. Narrative identity scholars posit that individuals can make meaning of their experiences when given the opportunity to construct their life in story-like or narrative terms (McAdams, 2013, Adler et al. 2017). Using a well-established narrative identity instrument, the Love Life Story Interview (Dunlop et al., 2018), we analyze the love life stories of 31 emerging adults (15 males, 15 females, and 1 transgender male; 41% White; 83% Heterosexual) in order to understand how sex impacts emerging adult’s intimacy development. Our study indicates that women and men both view sex as an opportunity for exploration, yet men are more likely to conclude that sex is not a priority in relationships whereas women strive to achieve empowerment in their sexual relationships. Our findings suggest that although today’s emerging adults may have ...


Gender Equity Commission Priorities: An Archival Study And Prospects For The Future, Maria D' Agostino, Nicole M. Elias May 2022

Gender Equity Commission Priorities: An Archival Study And Prospects For The Future, Maria D' Agostino, Nicole M. Elias

Publications and Research

This research explores the priorities of the gender equity commission in New York City over forty-five years. Archival commission data was organized thematically to understand the history of gender equity and suggest future possibilities for gender equity beyond New York City. In our historical analysis, we see an expansion of the definition of gender and an adoption of an intersectional approach to gender. We identify four historical gender priorities: sexual harassment and violence, pay equity and economic advancement, health and safety, and gender recognition and celebration. To address systemic issues of gender inequity, we recommend local level administrators embed an ...


Who Has My Back? Perceptions Of Anti-Racist And Anti-Sexist Allyship Are Predicted By Race, Gender, And Past Behavior, R. Grace Drake May 2022

Who Has My Back? Perceptions Of Anti-Racist And Anti-Sexist Allyship Are Predicted By Race, Gender, And Past Behavior, R. Grace Drake

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

After facing racial or gender discrimination, people often seek support or allyship from others. However, who will provide effective support or allyship is often uncertain. To understand how people of color and women navigate this uncertainty, in two studies we randomly assigned participants to read a series of vignettes about potential allies. In each vignette, a person was described as either Black, Asian, Hispanic, or White and either a man or woman. Participants also sometimes learned that the person had a history of allyship behavior. Participants were then asked to envision that someone made a racist (Study 1) or sexist ...


Towards Safer Recruitment Of Ethiopian Women Into Domestic Work Abroad: Early Findings From The Meneshachin ‘Our Departure’ Qualitative Study, Joanna Busza, Zewdneh Shewamene, Cathy Zimmerman May 2022

Towards Safer Recruitment Of Ethiopian Women Into Domestic Work Abroad: Early Findings From The Meneshachin ‘Our Departure’ Qualitative Study, Joanna Busza, Zewdneh Shewamene, Cathy Zimmerman

Gender Equality

This report presents preliminary findings from the first phase of data collection of the Meneshachin ‘Our Departure’ qualitative study conducted by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in collaboration with the Population Council in Ethiopia and the Freedom Fund, with support and funding from the U.S. Department of State. The study aims to inform the development of feasible, responsible recruitment measures that could reduce the risk of labor exploitation and trafficking experienced by Ethiopian migrant women seeking domestic work abroad. The research focuses on the role of different actors in arranging Ethiopian women’s migration to the ...


Gendered Language And Entrepreneurial Joiners, Mihwa Seong May 2022

Gendered Language And Entrepreneurial Joiners, Mihwa Seong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation explores the impact of gendered language in start-up job advertisements on the perceived attractiveness of start-ups among individuals (‘joiners’) interested in working for new firms. While entrepreneurship research has established the prominent role of entrepreneurial joiners in start-ups and the importance of building a gender-diverse team, we know relatively less about how start-ups can attract more women joiners. This dissertation seeks to investigate whether women’s ratings of the attractiveness of joining start-ups increases significantly when start-ups use more feminine language in place of male-centric gendered language. Compared to men, I theorize that women are more sensitive to ...


On The Impact Of Imf Loans And Conditions: A Gender Lens, Reem Ahmed Kamal May 2022

On The Impact Of Imf Loans And Conditions: A Gender Lens, Reem Ahmed Kamal

Future Journal of Social Science

This paper attempts to examine the impact of IMF programs and subsequent policy conditions from a gender lens. We argue that the IMF’s orthodox adjustment policies deteriorate the development outcomes of women disproportionately, mainly due to undermining recipient states’ expenditure capacity on female-dominated work and service sectors. Consequently, women face hardships in managing their dual roles -in both the market and the domestic spheres- which affects the efficiency of society's productive and reproductive sectors. First, we detect the main macro and political-economic determinants of IMF participation using a probit estimation. Second, we use the predicted probabilities in stage ...


Efficacy Of Audio-Visual Aided Instruction For Improving Students’ Interest And Achievement In Stem Subjects: Implications For Library Practice, William Onu, Anthony Uchechukwu Uzoigwe, Fakolade Benjamin Ayodele, Oluwatoyin Comfort Oluwatosin, Deborah Dele May 2022

Efficacy Of Audio-Visual Aided Instruction For Improving Students’ Interest And Achievement In Stem Subjects: Implications For Library Practice, William Onu, Anthony Uchechukwu Uzoigwe, Fakolade Benjamin Ayodele, Oluwatoyin Comfort Oluwatosin, Deborah Dele

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Considering that science and technology is key to comprehending and providing solution to problems plaguing humanity, STEM education is vital to a great future. With this being so, students are encouraged to develop skills and competencies needed to become educators, innovators, researchers, and leaders in different STEM domains, who can solve the most pressing problems facing humanity, now and in the future. However, there seem to be shortage of interest from students to pursue STEM careers. In a bid contribute to raising the level of interest in STEM subjects, this study, conducted in Nsukka education zone of Enugu state, sought ...


A Woman’S Place Is In The Resistance: An Ecofeminist Response To Climate Change May 2022

A Woman’S Place Is In The Resistance: An Ecofeminist Response To Climate Change

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper addresses the unique impacts of climate change on women and gender diverse people throughout the world, and seeks to move beyond identifying them solely as victims by instead focusing on their dynamic role in environmental activism while addressing the need for a gendered approach to climate policy. The inclusion of gender is often absent in much of environmental literature, which leaves women’s experience of climate change unseen and unaddressed. Beginning with a case study of the Indigenous women of Standing Rock and their battle against the Dakota Access Pipeline, this paper seeks to understand the critical involvement ...


Documenting & Describing Experiences Of Marginalized Gender Identities In Healthcare, Laura Stepnowski May 2022

Documenting & Describing Experiences Of Marginalized Gender Identities In Healthcare, Laura Stepnowski

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review

Despite its importance to quality and length of life, health varies widely among the U.S. population depending on various sociodemographic factors, such as age, race, gender, and income. This research focuses on the perception of treatment for those with marginalized gender identities. There is a long history of discrepancies in healthcare, but no time such as the present seems to be filled with such a nuanced perspective of quality of treatment for those with marginalized gender identities. This became evident through the focus groups conducted for this study. Findings show that participants used more collaborative language when discussing their ...


Disparities In Response, Motivations, And Self-Efficacy To Entrepreneurially Minded Learning Within Underrepresented Students' Groups, Kaitlin Hall May 2022

Disparities In Response, Motivations, And Self-Efficacy To Entrepreneurially Minded Learning Within Underrepresented Students' Groups, Kaitlin Hall

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Systemic racism in the United States is embedded within the policies that have created oppression for certain groups. Women, people of color, and those from low-income families have less access to entrepreneurial knowledge due to the education gap. It has been determined that less than 20 percent of US patents entail a female inventor. Black and Hispanic college graduates also lack this access as fewer than half as many individuals hold patents. Ensuring that these populations are educated in inventor knowledge can facilitate greater inclusion. The historical Brown vs the Board of Education intended to end unequal public schooling. It ...


Let's Talk About Social Justice, Anna Fender May 2022

Let's Talk About Social Justice, Anna Fender

Honors Projects

This paper is a summary of a Social Justice Senior Mentored Activism and honors thesis project. For the project, the student hosted three dinners over the course of the Fall 2021 semester, each focusing on a different major social justice topic and identity category. The dinners were collectively called: Let’s Talk About Social Justice, and the individual dinners were called: Let’s Talk About: Religion & Spirituality, Let’s Talk About: Race & Ethnicity, and Let’s Talk About: Gender & Sexuality. The dinners were catered by local restaurants and caterers and fed about 30 participants per dinner. Each business was Black ...


Observing Gender Role Salience And Gender Role Flexibility As Potential Buffers Between Levels Of Household Responsibilities And Experiences With Work-Family Conflict And Role Overload, Roberta Alexis Salgado May 2022

Observing Gender Role Salience And Gender Role Flexibility As Potential Buffers Between Levels Of Household Responsibilities And Experiences With Work-Family Conflict And Role Overload, Roberta Alexis Salgado

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Despite the known link between the level of household responsibilities and negative experiences/outcomes (e.g. work-family conflict, role overload), few studies have observed how gender-role beliefs may impact these relationships. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between level of household responsibilities and experiences with work-family conflict and role overload. Further, we considered potential buffers of these relationships by examining the moderating effects of gender role flexibility and gender role saliency. Data for the study were collected from a sample of employed parents, 18 years old or older, residing in the United States, who were currently ...


Pognalysis: An Analysis Of Gender And Language On Twitch.Tv, Julia Michelle Cardillo May 2022

Pognalysis: An Analysis Of Gender And Language On Twitch.Tv, Julia Michelle Cardillo

Honors College Theses

With the success of the video game and eSports industries, comes the rise of Twitch.tv (also known as Twitch), the most popular live-streaming platform today. Being that the most popular activity to stream on Twitch.tv is video games, there is a lot of overlap between those who play video games or are avid eSports fans and those who watch Twitch. However, these communities are notorious for their hostility towards women. The goal of this study is to assess, if any, the differences in atmosphere, as well as the differences in the presence of gendered language/harassment, profanity, and ...


The Representation Of Women In Disney Animated Films, Sharik Jimenez May 2022

The Representation Of Women In Disney Animated Films, Sharik Jimenez

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Disney animated feature film is a big global entertainment arena. This paper analyzes multiple animated Disney classic movies based on the subject of women’s representation. These films are interesting to study because the targeted audience is children, and the stereotypical patterns that these Disney classic films portray may play an important role in their lives. It was found that the character development in the Disney animation films, focuses on giving the primary or the central character more pervasive roles, especially in cases where they are considered the female gender. However, they are gender role concerns in the Disney films ...


Perceived Covid-19 Threat Across The Intersections Of Age, Race/Ethnicity, And Gender, Christina Varghese May 2022

Perceived Covid-19 Threat Across The Intersections Of Age, Race/Ethnicity, And Gender, Christina Varghese

Sociology and Criminology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Studying how perceived threat of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) differs across intersections of age and race/ethnicity as well as age and gender will create a basis for identifying subgroups at greater risk of negative mental health outcomes. I analyzed nationally representative survey data collected in February 2021 from the Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel (N=9,069). To measure perceived threat, the respondents were asked whether COVID-19 is considered 0) no threat, minor threat, or 1) major threat for personal and population health. Race/ethnicity, gender, and age categories are used as independent variables. Results from ...


Anger In The Overlooked: A Gendered Analysis Of The January 6, 2021 Capitol Hill Breach, Elizabeth Bender May 2022

Anger In The Overlooked: A Gendered Analysis Of The January 6, 2021 Capitol Hill Breach, Elizabeth Bender

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

The violence seen at the U.S. Capitol Building on January 6, 2021 has sparked concern at the threat of domestic violent extremism (DVE) within the United States. Over 700 individuals have been federally charged in connection with the events of January 6 including almost 100 women. Women’s involvement in DVE is underestimated and understudied. This project utilized a corpus of over 1,000 court documents to content code variables relating to violence and DVE affiliation for the individuals who have been federally charged in relation to January 6th. The results of the coding process were then used to ...


Factors For Success Of International Female Doctoral Students In Science In The United States, Maria Patricia Cantu May 2022

Factors For Success Of International Female Doctoral Students In Science In The United States, Maria Patricia Cantu

Theses & Dissertations

Factors for Success of International Female Doctoral Students in Science in the United States

Many international doctoral female students in the sciences in the United States do not obtain a degree despite their large investment in time, effort, and financial resources. The loss of highly prepared and credentialed international female doctoral students, who have a genuine interest in science but who choose not to pursue their studies to graduation or switch careers due to real or perceived barriers, signifies such a loss not just for the women themselves and their families but for their countries of origin, their hosts universities ...


Identifying Groups Most Prone To Become Homeless, Jesse Kruse May 2022

Identifying Groups Most Prone To Become Homeless, Jesse Kruse

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This paper will attempt to determine if some groups are more prone to homelessness than other groups within the United States. Then, it will try to determine if some groups are more prone to homelessness within the Inland Empire. Research was conducted to identify if some contributing factors that cause homelessness affect some groups more than other groups. If the contributing factors to become homeless differs between different subgroups of homeless individuals, then perhaps different intervention strategies could be applied to each subgroup.


The Ivory Tower: An Intersectional View On Gender And Ethnicity In Academia Before And After The Transition To Online Work, Chelsea Robbins May 2022

The Ivory Tower: An Intersectional View On Gender And Ethnicity In Academia Before And After The Transition To Online Work, Chelsea Robbins

All Theses

A substantial body of research shows that female academics have faced lower salaries, fewer promotions, and lower rates of tenure than male academics. Proposed mechanisms include higher demands for unrewarded service in the teaching-research-service ratio and significant obstacles in balancing work and family. This study proposed the ‘Academic Tetrad,’ which includes the additional facet of home life, as an alternative to the traditional ‘Academic Trinity’ perspective. The present study utilized an intersectional perspective to examine the academic tetrad, key workplace variables, and work-life balance across the COVID-19 transition to online work. The findings countered previous research by showing equality on ...


Gender, Bottom-Line Mentality, And Workplace Mistreatment: The Roles Of Gender Norm Violation And Team Gender Composition, Kenneth Tai, Kiyoung Lee, Eugene Kim, Tiffany D. Johnson, Wei Wang, Michelle K. Duffy, Seongsu Kim May 2022

Gender, Bottom-Line Mentality, And Workplace Mistreatment: The Roles Of Gender Norm Violation And Team Gender Composition, Kenneth Tai, Kiyoung Lee, Eugene Kim, Tiffany D. Johnson, Wei Wang, Michelle K. Duffy, Seongsu Kim

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Although gender has been identified as an important antecedent in workplace mistreatment research, empirical research has shown mixed results. Drawing on role congruity theory, we propose an interactive effect of gender and bottom-line mentality on being the target of mistreatment. Across two field studies, our results showed that whereas women experienced more mistreatment when they had higher levels of bottom-line mentality, men experienced more mistreatment when they had lower levels of bottom-line mentality. In another field study, using round-robin survey data, we found that team gender composition influenced the degree to which the adoption of a bottom-line mentality by female ...


Communication Accommodation Of Surgeons With Student-Athletes, Emily Womble May 2022

Communication Accommodation Of Surgeons With Student-Athletes, Emily Womble

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Health communication is a topic that has been broadly researched for a while. It is an area that holds significance everyday due to the number of people involved and the number of people who rely on healthcare in general. Student-athletes sustain over a million injuries annually, over half of which required surgery (Corlette et al., 2015). However, the specific topic of communication between a surgeon and their studentathlete is one that is not studied much at all. Utilizing Communication Accommodation Theory as the theoretical framework, this study explored how surgeons currently use accommodation in their communication to their student-athletes. It ...


Deficiencies Within Guatemalan Criminal Justice Institutions When Detecting And Prosecuting Sextortion Crimes, Julia A. Bolotovsky May 2022

Deficiencies Within Guatemalan Criminal Justice Institutions When Detecting And Prosecuting Sextortion Crimes, Julia A. Bolotovsky

Student Theses

Sextortion is a form of corruption involving sexual exploitation, in which requests for monetary bribes are replaced by requests for sexual acts. Within Latin America, this crime is especially pertinent in Guatemala. Therefore, this study aims to identify which factors contribute to the occurrence of sextortion within Guatemala, while also analyzing the larger realm of violence against women. Based on semi-structured interviews with local experts and civil society activists, this study argues that sextortion is enabled by deficiencies within Guatemalan criminal justice institutions when detecting and prosecuting this crime. In order to effectively counter sextortion, more emphasis needs to be ...


A Sense Of Belongingness Among Undergraduate Students Across Race/Ethnicity, Class, And Gender, Francesca Marino Apr 2022

A Sense Of Belongingness Among Undergraduate Students Across Race/Ethnicity, Class, And Gender, Francesca Marino

Honors Projects

Research has shown that feelings of belongingness within an educational setting are likely to improve outcomes in various academic-related areas. In the present study, I examine BGSU undergraduate students’ sense of belongingness, feelings of value, and understanding of diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) efforts on campus. Using an online campus climate survey, I explore differences in perceptions and experiences among students with different social identities. In particular, I focus on differences across race/ethnicity, social class, and gender identity. Findings show that there are racial/ethnic and gender differences across feelings and perceptions of the general campus climate, DEI, belongingness ...


Demographic Disparities In College Students’ Psychological Adjustment During Covid-19, Anna Marston Apr 2022

Demographic Disparities In College Students’ Psychological Adjustment During Covid-19, Anna Marston

Honors Theses

The goal of the present study was to explore psychological adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic in undergraduate college students. Since March 2020, undergraduates have endured extended lockdowns, quarantines, and social distancing efforts that may affect mental health, especially for historically marginalized groups such as women and people of color. Furthermore, research on coping styles suggests that those who cope with a stressor such as a pandemic in healthy, adaptive ways may be protected against psychological difficulty. In February/March 2021 (Time 1) and again in April/May 2021 (Time 2), college students (N = 277) from two residential liberal arts institutions ...


Gendered Labor Market Outcomes During Covid-19: Evidence From Early Withdrawal Of Federal Pandemic Unemployment Compensation, Nicholas Di Apr 2022

Gendered Labor Market Outcomes During Covid-19: Evidence From Early Withdrawal Of Federal Pandemic Unemployment Compensation, Nicholas Di

Economics Honors Projects

Despite their importance in the social safety net, Unemployment Insurance (UI) benefits are expected to increase unemployment duration. I find that males, on average, face a greater drop in unemployment than females when (UI) is no longer offered in their respective state. Male’s unemployment rate dropped more by a magnitude of 0.7 percent compared to female’s which consists of about 11.5 percent of male unemployment during UI. Females who were married, were in lower family income brackets, or had children saw smaller changes in unemployment when UI programs were exhausted.


Young Children’S Tv Show Preferences And Perceptions Of Women In Stem, Lauren Berck Apr 2022

Young Children’S Tv Show Preferences And Perceptions Of Women In Stem, Lauren Berck

Undergraduate Theses

Women are joining STEM fields at higher rates, yet the stereotype of math and science being for men is still reinforced to children by their parents, their teachers, and especially what they watch. Children tend to trust characters of their same gender and are more likely to retain the lessons from the characters they trust. Since most of the shows children watch tend to display gender stereotypes, especially the stereotype of men being good in STEM, children are likely to enforce these stereotypes. The increase of women in STEM has increased interest in STEM for girls, but boys still tend ...


Self-Efficacy & Perception Of Mental Well-Being, Sarah L. Capen-Becerra, Sophie K. Louis, Abigail Danzig, Olimpia Sansone Apr 2022

Self-Efficacy & Perception Of Mental Well-Being, Sarah L. Capen-Becerra, Sophie K. Louis, Abigail Danzig, Olimpia Sansone

Psychology Presentations

When young adults have high self-efficacy, they tend to exhibit more resilience to stress and other mental health problems. Additionally, women are reported to experience depression at higher rates than men, which might be explained by potential gender bias in current diagnostic criteria. Our study examined the influence of gender and mental health self-efficacy on depression symptoms as well as the interaction of these two variables on depression outcomes in college aged-students. Participants (N = 58) were tasked to fill out an anonymous Qualtrics survey based on the Gender Inclusive Depression Scale (GIDS; Martin et al. (2013), and an additional question ...