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Evidence

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Articles 1 - 30 of 294

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Evidence In Health Controversies, Sally Jackson Jun 2020

Evidence In Health Controversies, Sally Jackson

OSSA Conference Archive

Health controversies involve the now-familiar complexities of polylogue: multiple positions, multiple players, and multiple places. A vexing issue that cuts across many health topics is what counts as evidence. Several different expert fields may each try to enforce their own evidence standards, and lay participants (whose well-being depends on any expert consensus that may form) often bring their own distinctive forms of evidence. This presentation examines disagreements over evidence within a series of case studies.


Assessing Evidence Relevance By Disallowing Assessment, John Licato, Michael Cooper Jun 2020

Assessing Evidence Relevance By Disallowing Assessment, John Licato, Michael Cooper

OSSA Conference Archive

Guidelines for assessing whether potential evidence is relevant to some argument tend to rely on criteria that are subject to well-known biasing effects. We describe a framework for argumentation that does not allow participants to directly decide whether evidence is potentially relevant to an argument---instead, evidence must prove its relevance through demonstration. This framework, called WG-A, is designed to translate into a dialogical game playable by minimally trained participants.


Evidence, Arrest Circumstances, And Felony Cocaine Case Processing, Jacqueline G. Lee, Alexander Testa Apr 2020

Evidence, Arrest Circumstances, And Felony Cocaine Case Processing, Jacqueline G. Lee, Alexander Testa

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications and Presentations

Case evidence and situational arrest characteristics are widely speculated to influence courtroom actor decisions, yet such measures are infrequently included in research. Using new data on felony cocaine cases from an urban county in a Southern non-guideline state, this study examines how physical evidence and arrest circumstances affect three stages of case processing: initial charge type, charge reduction, and sentence length. The influence of evidence appeared strongest at the early stage when prosecutors chose the appropriate charge, though certain evidentiary and arrest measures continued to influence later decisions. Charge reductions were driven mostly by legal factors, and while guilt should ...


Power And Statistical Significance In Securities Fraud Litigation, Jill E. Fisch, Jonah B. Gelbach Feb 2020

Power And Statistical Significance In Securities Fraud Litigation, Jill E. Fisch, Jonah B. Gelbach

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Event studies, a half-century-old approach to measuring the effect of events on stock prices, are now ubiquitous in securities fraud litigation. In determining whether the event study demonstrates a price effect, expert witnesses typically base their conclusion on whether the results are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level, a threshold that is drawn from the academic literature. As a positive matter, this represents a disconnect with legal standards of proof. As a normative matter, it may reduce enforcement of fraud claims because litigation event studies typically involve quite low statistical power even for large-scale frauds.

This paper, written for ...


Organisational-Level Assessment Of Cloud Computing Adoption: Evidence From The Australian Smes, Salim Al Isma'ili, Mengxiang Li, Jun Shen, Pu Huang, Qiang He, Wu Zhan Jan 2020

Organisational-Level Assessment Of Cloud Computing Adoption: Evidence From The Australian Smes, Salim Al Isma'ili, Mengxiang Li, Jun Shen, Pu Huang, Qiang He, Wu Zhan

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

Cloud Computing (CC) is an emerging technology that can potentially revolutionise the application and delivery of IT. There has been little research, however, into the adoption of CC in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). The indicators show that CC has been adopted very slowly. There is also a significant research gap in the investigation of the adoption of this innovation in SMEs. This article explores how the adoption of CC in Australia is related to technological factors, risk factors, and environmental factors. The study provides useful insights that can be utilised practically by SMEs, policymakers, and cloud vendors.


Evaluation Of A Novel Dna Collection Matrix Designed To Improve Recovery Of Touch Dna From Non-Porous Surfaces, Eric Ramirez Dec 2019

Evaluation Of A Novel Dna Collection Matrix Designed To Improve Recovery Of Touch Dna From Non-Porous Surfaces, Eric Ramirez

Student Theses

The collection of touch DNA from evidence has been a challenge in the field of Forensic Biology for decades. There are numerous collection protocols, substrates, and solutions that have been used to varying levels of success. Currently, no single method or substrate stands out as the single most effective collection protocol. The Gene Link Omni Matrix™ K105 solution is a novel collection method that can be sprayed onto the surface of non-porous evidence. The matrix dries into a film, capturing cells and cell-free DNA which can be scraped off and collected into a tube. During extraction, the matrix dissolves into ...


Applying Evidence-Based Research Principles In Review Design: Supporting Graduate And Faculty Research In The Life Sciences, Chris Fournier, Kate Ghezzi-Kopel Oct 2019

Applying Evidence-Based Research Principles In Review Design: Supporting Graduate And Faculty Research In The Life Sciences, Chris Fournier, Kate Ghezzi-Kopel

Upstate New York Science Librarians Conference

The reproducibility crisis in published scientific work is changing the way that research is designed and conducted. Librarians in academic institutions can play a key role in promoting improved adherence to evidence-based guidelines for performing literature reviews. The Cornell Systematic Review Team has developed a checklist, https://osf.io/2edg9/?pid=ezqpd, that can be used in research consultations as a conversation framework when assisting patrons with review design. This checklist is informed by widely accepted best practices for development of a sound systematic review protocol. Discussing this checklist with patrons promotes increased transparency, reduction of bias, and improved reproducibility ...


Law Library Blog (October 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Oct 2019

Law Library Blog (October 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Some Thoughts On The Evidentiary Aspects Of Technologically Produced Or Presented Evidence, Fredric I. Lederer Sep 2019

Some Thoughts On The Evidentiary Aspects Of Technologically Produced Or Presented Evidence, Fredric I. Lederer

Fredric I. Lederer

No abstract provided.


Courtroom Technology: For Trial Lawyers The Future Is Now, Fredric I. Lederer Sep 2019

Courtroom Technology: For Trial Lawyers The Future Is Now, Fredric I. Lederer

Fredric I. Lederer

No abstract provided.


Ehearsay, Jeffrey Bellin Sep 2019

Ehearsay, Jeffrey Bellin

Jeffrey Bellin

No abstract provided.


Justice Begins Before Trial: How To Nudge Inaccurate Pretrial Rulings Using Behavioral Law And Economic Theory And Uniform Commercial Laws, Michael Gentithes May 2019

Justice Begins Before Trial: How To Nudge Inaccurate Pretrial Rulings Using Behavioral Law And Economic Theory And Uniform Commercial Laws, Michael Gentithes

William & Mary Law Review

Injustice in criminal cases often takes root before trial begins. Overworked criminal judges must resolve difficult pretrial evidentiary issues that determine the charges the State will take to trial and the range of sentences the defendant will face. Wrong decisions on these issues often lead to wrongful convictions. As behavioral law and economic theory suggests, judges who are cognitively busy and receive little feedback on these topics from appellate courts rely upon intuition, rather than deliberative reasoning, to resolve these questions. This leads to inconsistent rulings, which prosecutors exploit to expand the scope of evidentiary exceptions that almost always disfavor ...


Minimum Quotation Size And Market Quality: Evidence From The Modern Otc Markets, Kemerey Thompson May 2019

Minimum Quotation Size And Market Quality: Evidence From The Modern Otc Markets, Kemerey Thompson

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

I examine the effects of a change in the minimum quotation size on liquidity and volatility in the modern over-the-counter (OTC) markets. On November 12, 2012, the Financial Industry Regulatory Agency (FINRA) introduced a pilot program to adjust the minimum quote sizes for securities transactions in the OTC markets. I find that an increase in the minimum quote size decreases OTC market quality as spreads widen and volatility increases. In contrast, I find that a decrease in the minimum quote size improves OTC market quality, but the results are sensitive to the price of the security. These results offer important ...


Law Library Blog (April 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Apr 2019

Law Library Blog (April 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Between Brady Discretion And Brady Misconduct, Bennett L. Gershman Apr 2019

Between Brady Discretion And Brady Misconduct, Bennett L. Gershman

Dickinson Law Review

The Supreme Court’s decision in Brady v. Maryland presented prosecutors with new professional challenges. In Brady, the Supreme Court held that the prosecution must provide the defense with any evidence in its possession that could be exculpatory. If the prosecution fails to timely turn over evidence that materially undermines the defendant’s guilt, a reviewing court must grant the defendant a new trial. While determining whether evidence materially undermines a defendant’s guilt may seem like a simple assessment, the real-life application of such a determination can be complicated. The prosecution’s disclosure determination can be complicated under the ...


The Rise And Fall Of The Fact (Research Materials), Holy Cross Libraries Jan 2019

The Rise And Fall Of The Fact (Research Materials), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to "The Rise and Fall of the Fact" a lecture by award-winning author and speaker Jill Lepore held at the College of the Holy Cross on January 31, 2019.

Lepore is the David Woods Kemper ’41 Professor of American History at Harvard University who teaches classes in evidence, historical methods, humanistic inquiry, and American history. Much of her scholarship explores absences and asymmetries in the historical record, with a particular emphasis on the histories and technologies of evidence and of privacy. As a wide-ranging and ...


Dna Integrity In Forensic Samples, Samantha L. Ramey Jan 2019

Dna Integrity In Forensic Samples, Samantha L. Ramey

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

When packaged genetic evidence samples are stored in close proximity, there is a higher chance for cross-contamination, which can lead to potential false results. The goal of this study was to test DNA storage methods and environments to determine the best way to avoid potential cross-contamination. Established protocols for storing different types of genetic evidence samples were evaluated: biological swabs and DNA cards. A known concentration of pig DNA was introduced to the evidence samples. Three different evidence drying times of the DNA-free swabs and cards were implemented before packaging: immediate packaging, an hour drying, and 24 hours drying. The ...


Support For The Precautionary Principle, Jennifer Mather Jun 2018

Support For The Precautionary Principle, Jennifer Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

The precautionary principle gives the animal the benefit of the doubt when its sentient status is not known. This is necessary for advanced invertebrates such as cephalopods because research and evidence concerning the criteria for sentience are scattered and often insufficient to give us the background for the decision.


Luminescence: Lighting The Invisible World Of Crime Scenes, Jessica Alexander Jun 2018

Luminescence: Lighting The Invisible World Of Crime Scenes, Jessica Alexander

Academic Excellence Showcase Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Unpacking The Role Of Data In Philanthropy: Prospects For An Integrated Framework, R. Patrick Bixler, Marisa Zappone, Lin Rui Li, Samer Atshan Jun 2018

Unpacking The Role Of Data In Philanthropy: Prospects For An Integrated Framework, R. Patrick Bixler, Marisa Zappone, Lin Rui Li, Samer Atshan

The Foundation Review

This article reports qualitative research that explores the role of data in philanthropy and proposes an integrated framework. Interviews with charitable foundations in central Texas, including members of a regional evaluation and learning collaborative, reveal an orientation toward data that is becoming increasingly institutionalized.

The research suggests that data are generated and used in a multiplicity of ways, including identifying populations and geographies in need of investment, informing funding decisions for service delivery as well as policy research and advocacy; evaluation and learning; and measuring community impact.

This article discusses these thematic findings, notes specific practices, and presents six principles ...


Evidence-Based Decision-Making In Canada’S Protected Areas Organizations: Implications For Management Effectiveness, Christopher J. Lemieux, Mark W. Groulx, Stephen Bocking, Thomas J. Beechey Apr 2018

Evidence-Based Decision-Making In Canada’S Protected Areas Organizations: Implications For Management Effectiveness, Christopher J. Lemieux, Mark W. Groulx, Stephen Bocking, Thomas J. Beechey

Geography and Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Aichi Biodiversity Target 19 calls on Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to improve, share, transfer, and apply knowledge. In this study, we provide an initial assessment of the state of evidence-based decision-making in Canada’s protected areas organizations by examining (1) the value and use of various forms of evidence by managers and (2) the extent to which institutional conditions enable or inhibit the use of evidence in decision-making. Results revealed that although managers value and use many forms of evidence in their decision-making, information produced by staff and their organizations are given priority. Other ...


Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid And Arachidonic Acid In Early Life: What Is The Best Evidence For Policymakers?, Stewart Forsyth, Philip C. Calder, Francis Zotor, Paul Amuna, Barbara J. Meyer, Bruce Holub Jan 2018

Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid And Arachidonic Acid In Early Life: What Is The Best Evidence For Policymakers?, Stewart Forsyth, Philip C. Calder, Francis Zotor, Paul Amuna, Barbara J. Meyer, Bruce Holub

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Background: A wealth of information on the functional roles of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) from cellular, animal, and human studies is available. Yet, there remains a lack of cohesion in policymaking for recommended dietary intakes of DHA and ARA in early life. This is predominantly driven by inconsistent findings from a relatively small number of randomised clinical trials (RCTs), which vary in design, methodology, and outcome measures, all of which were conducted in high-income countries. It is proposed that this selective evidence base may not fully represent the biological importance of DHA and ARA during early and ...


A Systematic Review Of Evidence For The Clubhouse Model Of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Colleen E. Mckay, Katie L. Nugent, Matthew Johnsen, William W. Eaton, Charles W. Lidz Jan 2018

A Systematic Review Of Evidence For The Clubhouse Model Of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, Colleen E. Mckay, Katie L. Nugent, Matthew Johnsen, William W. Eaton, Charles W. Lidz

Psychiatry Publications

The Clubhouse Model has been in existence for over sixty-five years; however, a review that synthesizes the literature on the model is needed. The current study makes use of the existing research to conduct a systematic review of articles providing a comprehensive understanding of what is known about the Clubhouse Model, to identify the best evidence available, as well as areas that would benefit from further study. Findings are summarized and evidence is classified by outcome domains. Fifty-two articles met the selection criteria of Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT's), quasi-experimental studies, or observational studies for domains of employment (N = 29 ...


Strategies Of Policy Advocacy Organizations And Their Theoretical Affinities: Evidence From Q-Methodology, Sheldon Gen, Amy Conley Wright Jan 2018

Strategies Of Policy Advocacy Organizations And Their Theoretical Affinities: Evidence From Q-Methodology, Sheldon Gen, Amy Conley Wright

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Policy advocacy is an increasingly important function for many nonprofit organizations, yet their advocacy activities have largely escaped theoretical grounding. The literature on nonprofits has described how they engage in policy advocacy, without linking them to theories of policy change. The policy studies literature, on the other hand, has explained how various forms of influence result in policy change, but has largely ignored organizational perspectives on those processes. These two literatures remain largely disconnected. Drawing upon interviews with a purposive sample of policy advocacy directors at 31 nonprofit organizations, this study applies Q-methodology to identify and describe six distinct policy ...


Evidence For Sample Selection Effect And Hawthorne Effect In Behavioural Hiv Prevention Trial Among Young Women In A Rural South African Community, Molly Rosenberg, Audrey Pettifor, Rhian Twine, James Hughes, F Gomez-Olive, Ryan Wagner, Afolabi Sulaimon, Stephen Tollman, Amanda Selin, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Kathleen Kahn Jan 2018

Evidence For Sample Selection Effect And Hawthorne Effect In Behavioural Hiv Prevention Trial Among Young Women In A Rural South African Community, Molly Rosenberg, Audrey Pettifor, Rhian Twine, James Hughes, F Gomez-Olive, Ryan Wagner, Afolabi Sulaimon, Stephen Tollman, Amanda Selin, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Kathleen Kahn

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Objectives We examined the potential influence of both sample selection effects and Hawthorne effects in the behavioural HIV Prevention Trial Network 068 study, designed to examine whether cash transfers conditional on school attendance reduce HIV acquisition in young South African women. We explored whether school enrolment among study participants differed from the underlying population, and whether differences existed at baseline (sample selection effect) or arose during study participation (Hawthorne effect). Methods We constructed a cohort of 3889 young women aged 11-20 years using data from the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System. We compared school enrolment in 2011 (trial start ...


Conditional Cash Transfers And The Reduction In Partner Violence For Young Women: An Investigation Of Causal Pathways Using Evidence From A Randomized Experiment In South Africa (Hptn 068), Kelly N. Kilburn, Audrey Pettifor, Jessie Edwards, Amanda Selin, Rhian Twine, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Ryan Wagner, James Hughes, Jing Wang, Kathleen Kahn Jan 2018

Conditional Cash Transfers And The Reduction In Partner Violence For Young Women: An Investigation Of Causal Pathways Using Evidence From A Randomized Experiment In South Africa (Hptn 068), Kelly N. Kilburn, Audrey Pettifor, Jessie Edwards, Amanda Selin, Rhian Twine, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Ryan Wagner, James Hughes, Jing Wang, Kathleen Kahn

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Introduction Evidence has shown that the experience of violence by a partner has important influences on women's risk of HIV acquisition. Using a randomized experiment in northeast South Africa, we found that a conditional cash transfer (CCT) targeted to poor girls in high school reduced the risk of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past 12 months by 34%. The purpose of this analysis is to understand the pathways through which the CCT affects IPV. Methods HPTN 068 was a phase 3, randomized controlled trial in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Eligible young women (aged 13-20) and their ...


Captured At The Scene: A Proposal For The Admissibility Of Visually Recorded Scene Statements From Domestic Violence Complainants In Western Australia, Benjamin Procopis Jan 2018

Captured At The Scene: A Proposal For The Admissibility Of Visually Recorded Scene Statements From Domestic Violence Complainants In Western Australia, Benjamin Procopis

Theses : Honours

In 2015, New South Wales introduced a legislative reform termed DVEC, which made admissible as evidence in chief, visually recorded statements from domestic violence complainants. Unlike other pre-recorded evidence, DVEC is captured at the scene of the incident, shortly after the event. The impetus for implementing DVEC was to overcome the issues identified with prosecuting domestic violence offences owing to the power imbalance in the relationship and the vulnerability of the complainant. In Western Australia, visually recorded statements from children and those with mental impairment are presently admissible for the same underpinning reasons. Police prosecutors and defence counsel participated in ...


First In Vitro Evidence Of Modulated Electro-Hyperthermia Treatment Performance In Combination With Megavoltage Radiation By Clonogenic Assay, Marjorie Mcdonald, Stephanie Corde, Michael L. F Lerch, Anatoly B. Rosenfeld, Michael A. Jackson, Moeava Tehei Jan 2018

First In Vitro Evidence Of Modulated Electro-Hyperthermia Treatment Performance In Combination With Megavoltage Radiation By Clonogenic Assay, Marjorie Mcdonald, Stephanie Corde, Michael L. F Lerch, Anatoly B. Rosenfeld, Michael A. Jackson, Moeava Tehei

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

Modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT) is a form of hyperthermia used in the treatment of cancer. It is a variation that relies on a particular form of enhanced selectivity to enable more effective cancerous cell death yet maintaining the integrity of healthy non-cancerous cells. It is yet to successfully make the major step into the wider medical community despite several encouraging trials. In this study, we investigate mEHT from an in vitro perspective. We demonstrate a supra-additive effect on 9 L gliosarcoma cells when exposed to mEHT in combination with MV X-ray radiation. The supra-additive effect is hypothesized to be induced by ...


The Logic And Limits Of Event Studies In Securities Fraud Litigation, Jill E. Fisch, Jonah B. Gelbach, Jonathan Klick Jan 2018

The Logic And Limits Of Event Studies In Securities Fraud Litigation, Jill E. Fisch, Jonah B. Gelbach, Jonathan Klick

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Event studies have become increasingly important in securities fraud litigation after the Supreme Court’s decision in Halliburton II. Litigants have used event study methodology, which empirically analyzes the relationship between the disclosure of corporate information and the issuer’s stock price, to provide evidence in the evaluation of key elements of federal securities fraud, including materiality, reliance, causation, and damages. As the use of event studies grows and they increasingly serve a gatekeeping function in determining whether litigation will proceed beyond a preliminary stage, it will be critical for courts to use them correctly.

This Article explores an array ...


Reevaluating The Parenting Wellbeing Gap: Evidence From The Wellbeing Module Of The American Time Use Survey, Daniela Veronica Negraia Jan 2018

Reevaluating The Parenting Wellbeing Gap: Evidence From The Wellbeing Module Of The American Time Use Survey, Daniela Veronica Negraia

Theses and Dissertations

Both scholars and the public have been intrigued by the question of whether parents experience higher levels of emotional wellbeing than adults who are not raising children. Yet despite decades of research on the topic, the answer to this question remains unclear. Using a novel source of nationally representative data, the Wellbeing Module of the American Time Use Survey (2010, 2012, 2013), this dissertation aims to unpack and extend prior understanding of the parenting wellbeing gap by pursing two studies. The first investigates whether parenthood may have both positive and negative links to adults’ emotional wellbeing; whether the gap varies ...