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Drought

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Utah County Level Drought Effect On Cattle Inventories 1981-2016, Fred Openshaw May 2020

Utah County Level Drought Effect On Cattle Inventories 1981-2016, Fred Openshaw

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Utah cattle industry generates 20.6% of sales value for the agricultural sector. As well, this industry encompasses about 34.4% of Utah farms. Besides these figures, Utah cattle ranchers depend heavily upon both public and private lands for grazing as a primary source of feed for their herds. The soil moisture levels of pasturelands impacts the forage yield for a particular year. As a result, the primary purpose of this research is to determine if drought impacts Utah county cattle inventory numbers and what the magnitude of the impact is by analyzing data from 1981 to 2016. A ...


Impact Of Saturated Thickness To Protect Farmers From Drought In High Plains Aquifer, Olivier Tuyizere, Taro Mieno Apr 2020

Impact Of Saturated Thickness To Protect Farmers From Drought In High Plains Aquifer, Olivier Tuyizere, Taro Mieno

UCARE Research Products

●The High Plains aquifer is the primary source of water supply for irrigating major crops in the region including corn and soybeans ●Climate change is expected to reduce groundwater availability in High Plains Aquifer and increase extreme climatic events such as droughts. ●Aquifer depletion leads to lower well yields, which in turn diminish the effectiveness of irrigation against drought.

●Estimate the effect of saturated thickness to protect irrigated corn and soybeans production against severe drought in the High Plains Aquifer. ●Calculate the impact of aquifer depletion on farmers’ ability to protect against severe droughts based on the regression results.


Rangeland Management During Drought: Assessing Social-Ecological And Cognitive Indicators Of Ranchers’ Adaptive Capacity, Tonya Haigh Oct 2019

Rangeland Management During Drought: Assessing Social-Ecological And Cognitive Indicators Of Ranchers’ Adaptive Capacity, Tonya Haigh

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Rangeland managers face challenges to adapt to climate extremes, and research is needed on how to support their adaptive capacity for managing climate risk. This study evaluates adaptive capacity using an integrated vulnerability and resilience conceptual model and three cognitive behavioral models. Overarching research questions focus on the relationship between protective action and impacts and the best predictors of taking action in response to drought. Three studies address these questions, using quantitative data collected from two post-drought surveys of rangeland-based livestock managers in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. The studies find evidence of the roles of social-ecological ...


The Most Critical Resource: How Climate Change Fuels The Crisis In Syria And The Implications For The World At Large, Edward Medeiros Apr 2019

The Most Critical Resource: How Climate Change Fuels The Crisis In Syria And The Implications For The World At Large, Edward Medeiros

Honors College

The Syrian crisis, both domestic and international in scope, may well be the defining geopolitical challenge of the generation. Climate change may be the single greatest challenge to face humanity in the entirety of our species’ life history. The dramatic effects of climate change can be seen in the origins of the Syrian crisis when one looks to humanity’s single most critical resource: water. We take the word critical to have two meanings in this context: first, that water is essential to human survival and second that water is a resource in critical condition. Syria’s water crisis pre-dates ...


1993 - Lessons Learned From The California Drought (1987-1992) - National Study Of Water Management During Drought Jan 2019

1993 - Lessons Learned From The California Drought (1987-1992) - National Study Of Water Management During Drought

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

The 1987-92 drought in California put the long-term strategy of drought protection as well as short-term drought response measures to a severe test. The report provides background information and data on California's economy and water resources, the existing water management system. , a chronology of major drought events and significant drought response actions during the droughts.

The report summarizes the contents of the interviews pertaining to four general aspects of the drought: (1) critical drought impacts, (2) communication and cooperation, (3) the role and responsibilities of the media, and (4) response to the drought of the general public and water ...


2014 - State Of The Salinas River Groundwater Basin Report, Executive Summary Jan 2019

2014 - State Of The Salinas River Groundwater Basin Report, Executive Summary

Miscellaneous Monterey and San Luis Obispo County Documents and Reports

An examination of the state of the Salinas River Groundwater Basin (Basin) was conducted in the last half of 2014 as part of the larger Basin Investigation. This Executive Summary of the State of the Basin Report addresses the ramifications of prolonged drought by considering likely changes in groundwater head elevations, groundwater storage, and seawater intrusion in the event that the current drought continues. In addition, some steps are presented that could be taken to help alleviate the consequences of further depleting groundwater storage.


Local Knowledge And Climate Information: The Role Of Trust And Risk In Agricultural Decisions About Drought, Adam J. Snitker Jan 2019

Local Knowledge And Climate Information: The Role Of Trust And Risk In Agricultural Decisions About Drought, Adam J. Snitker

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Climate change is projected to dramatically impact agricultural production across the world. Agricultural producers must adapt to changing conditions by implementing practices and utilizing knowledge that creates resilient operations. This study explores how Montana farmers and ranchers use of different types of knowledge during periods of drought and how risk perceptions and trust influence the use of knowledge. To understand the role trust and risk in producers’ use of local knowledge and climate information, I conducted five focus groups with 34 Montana agricultural producers. Producers explained that they encounter many agriculture-related risks, including uncertain forecasts, financial losses, and adverse weather ...


The Amukura Water Project: Utilization Of Photovoice To Examine Water Use And Needs In Western Kenya, Cecilia Martin Jan 2019

The Amukura Water Project: Utilization Of Photovoice To Examine Water Use And Needs In Western Kenya, Cecilia Martin

WWU Graduate School Collection

This participatory action research (PAR) thesis project explores the implications of limited water access in the daily lives of members of the Teso tribe (Iteso) living in Amukura, a small rural village located in Busia County in western Kenya, and seeks to provide actionable recommendations to their water access challenges. Access to clean water is a critical issue in Kenya, examined by global aid and development practitioners as well as anthropologists. One in five people in Kenya do not have access to improved water (WHO 2012). In Amukura, the Iteso’s access to water is worse, due to the village ...


Pursuing Resilience Of Coastal Communities Through Sustainable And Integrated Urban Water Management, Pacia Díaz Nov 2018

Pursuing Resilience Of Coastal Communities Through Sustainable And Integrated Urban Water Management, Pacia Díaz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reliability of water supply in the urban setting has become essential for communities to function and thrive. It is needed for more than mere human consumption and well-being. Although modern cities have water treatment and distribution systems, pressures from urbanization, population growth and the anticipated pressures of climate change are affecting the quality of water supply and the reliability of treatment and distribution systems. There is therefore an urgent need to take appropriate measures to improve the resilience of water supply systems before the impacts are irreversible.

Improving the resilience of water supply systems can be a challenge. In the ...


Self-Organization And Crop Insurance To Enhance Livelihood Resilience: A Case Of Rice Farmers In Cirebon Regency, Indonesia, Nila Pratiwi, Mahawan Karuniasa, Djoko Suroso Jul 2018

Self-Organization And Crop Insurance To Enhance Livelihood Resilience: A Case Of Rice Farmers In Cirebon Regency, Indonesia, Nila Pratiwi, Mahawan Karuniasa, Djoko Suroso

ASEAN Journal of Community Engagement

Climate variability and change that affect extreme weather events has resulted long dry season and drought in Indonesia. Farmers become a vulnerable group since drought has damaged rice fields and as consequence losing their income. Therefore, rice farmers’ livelihood resilience needs to be enhanced in order to cope with those impacts. Crop insurance as financial capital could contribute to famers’ income stability from drought. Moreover, self-organization helps the farmers to understand agricultural risks and increase their adaptive capacity in times of extreme weather events. Accordingly, this paper investigate the impact of drought on rice production and farmers’ income, analyze the ...


Water Shortage And Water Law: The Impending Crisis In Semi-Arid Climates, Bonnie Persons Jun 2018

Water Shortage And Water Law: The Impending Crisis In Semi-Arid Climates, Bonnie Persons

Journal of Comparative Urban Law and Policy

Water is a business driver and a substantial source of both wealth and risk. Water is also under increasing statutory and legislative pressure as jurisdictions strive to manage water resources more holistically by addressing both surface and groundwater together, but on a more decentralized and sustainable basis. The potential collapse of the municipal water system in Cape Town, South Africa serves as a stark alarm for cities in arid and semi-arid, Mediterranean-like environments. This risk is especially true of cities like Marseilles, France and regions like California. By comparing the impacts of the water law in these different jurisdictions, this ...


Trans-Boundary Variations Of Urban Drought Vulnerability And Its Impact On Water Resource Management In Singapore And Johor, Malaysia, Joon Chuah, Beatrice H. Ho, Winston T. L. Chow Jun 2018

Trans-Boundary Variations Of Urban Drought Vulnerability And Its Impact On Water Resource Management In Singapore And Johor, Malaysia, Joon Chuah, Beatrice H. Ho, Winston T. L. Chow

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Low-latitude areas generally experience relatively large precipitation totals, but droughts/dry spells do occur periodically and are potentially hazardous in these regions - especially within rapidly developing urban settlements. These areas typically have high water demand and therefore may potentially be subjected to water scarcity. Effective local water resource management lowering risks and vulnerabilities to drought is thus paramount, and these policies may be affected in regions with national borders sharing a common transboundary water resource. In this study, we (a) quantify and identify drought episodes using the Palmer Drought Severity Index in the neighbouring equatorial regions of Singapore and Johor ...


Clearing Safe Spaces For Drought Affected Communities In Somaliland, Edward Lajoie, Megan Dwyer May 2018

Clearing Safe Spaces For Drought Affected Communities In Somaliland, Edward Lajoie, Megan Dwyer

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) working in the Horn of Africa consistently identify conflict and climate change as two primary drivers of insecurity in the region. The HALO Trust’s landmine and explosive remnants of war (ERW) clearance in the Republic of Somaliland over the last 19 years has been at the intersection of these two issues.


1994 - Managing Water For Drought, U.S. Army Corps Of Engineers And Institute For Water Resources Apr 2018

1994 - Managing Water For Drought, U.S. Army Corps Of Engineers And Institute For Water Resources

Miscellaneous Federal Documents & Reports

The purpose of the report was to explain the procedure for cooperative federal-state drought preparedness studies, to indicate how the studies related to the longstanding principles and guidance for federal water resources investigations, and to indicate the means of implementing conclusions arrived at in any given region. This 1994 report, developed during a four-year National Study of Water Management, summarizes the method of improving water management during drought. The method was tested and refined in four field studies in different parts of the country, in which teams of water managers and users worked together to reduce drought impacts. In each ...


Rain Rituals As A Barometer Of Vulnerability In An Uncertain Climate, L. Jen Shaffer Mar 2018

Rain Rituals As A Barometer Of Vulnerability In An Uncertain Climate, L. Jen Shaffer

Journal of Ecological Anthropology

Researchers and aid agencies, seeking to improve their understanding of local climate change responses, adaptation, and vulnerability, frequently interact with communities around the world who strongly emphasize their religious beliefs and practices. Dismissal and misunderstandings of these local perspectives can slow assessments of local climate vulnerability and development of adaptive capacity. In this paper, I show how analysis of rain ritual failure exposes the multiple stressors Ronga communities in southern Mozambique face, and as such, serves as a proxy measure for climate vulnerability at the local level. Oral histories and targeted interviews with participating elders, local chiefs, and community members ...


Impact Of Drought On Land Cover Changes In Diné Bikéyah – A Study Through Remote Sensing, Anjanette A.J. Hawk Jan 2018

Impact Of Drought On Land Cover Changes In Diné Bikéyah – A Study Through Remote Sensing, Anjanette A.J. Hawk

Geography ETDs

This study identifies land cover changes associated with a ten-year drought period and discusses the importance of vegetation change in Diné Bikéyah, a semi-arid land located in a remote part of the southwestern United States (US). This study concludes that drought produced slight changes in vegetation within a 540 km2 study area in the Tselani-Cottonwood Chapter (TCC) in Diné Bikéyah. The data for this study consist of three Landsat images for the years 1998, 2002, and 2009. The methods used to analyze these Landsat images included image pre-processing, calculation of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images, and supervised (maximum ...


Three Essays On The Economics Of U.S. Water Policy, Xianjun Qiu Jan 2018

Three Essays On The Economics Of U.S. Water Policy, Xianjun Qiu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The complicated relationship between human activities and water quality/quantity has interested many researchers. My primary research interest lies in environmental economics and water resource policy. This dissertation studies water quality and water quantity in the United States, especially groundwater. In particular, the first chapter, “The Conservation Reserve Program and Nutrient Pollution in Groundwater”, studies how the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) affects groundwater quality in the United States. The second chapter of my dissertation, “Reliable Drinking Water Supply and Cities’ Resilience to Drought” (joint with Dr. David Keiser, Dr. Gabriel Lade, and Dr. Ivan Rudik), studies how differences in drinking ...


Understanding The Food Water Nexus: Characterizing The Impact Of Climatological Anomalies On Agrosystems, Patrick M. Wurster Jr. Jan 2018

Understanding The Food Water Nexus: Characterizing The Impact Of Climatological Anomalies On Agrosystems, Patrick M. Wurster Jr.

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Climate variability at global and regional scales is escalating with increased atmospheric carbon and is expected to magnify the intensity and duration of meteorological extremes, especially droughts. From the many environmental stresses that diminish crop production (e.g., soil salinity, frost, soil erosion) drought is one of the most prevalent. This study focuses on the sensitivity of three key crops produced in the northwestern United States to climatological anomalies, while controlling for attribution using anomalies in price. The study differs from similar studies in that we focus on variability in production which captures both yield (tonnes/ha) and cropping area ...


Protecting And Maintaining Silicon Valley’S Liquid Gold, Paul Mark Fulcher Dec 2017

Protecting And Maintaining Silicon Valley’S Liquid Gold, Paul Mark Fulcher

Master's Projects

Public sector leaders and decision makers in the California water industry have learned from previous severe drought conditions that to sustain water supplies during extremely dry seasons, there is a substantial need for behavioral changes associated with water conservation efforts among the businesses and residents of the community to maintain an adequate water supply. The intent of this study is to compare four California water agencies that have been designated as sustainable groundwater agencies (GSA), and determine what current programs and/or practices those agencies are using to meet the mandated requirements of the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act of 2014 ...


2015 - San Luis Obispo County Annual Crop Report Jul 2017

2015 - San Luis Obispo County Annual Crop Report

San Luis Obispo Crop Reports

Annual report pertaining to drought impact and agriculture in San Luis Obispo County, California.


Spatial And Temporal Intricacies Of Natural Resource Use: Studies In Water, Forests, And Hydrocarbons, Dadhi Adhikari Jul 2017

Spatial And Temporal Intricacies Of Natural Resource Use: Studies In Water, Forests, And Hydrocarbons, Dadhi Adhikari

Economics ETDs

This dissertation examines spatial and temporal impacts of natural resource use. The second chapter integrates hydrological and economic systems to examine the impact of drought on these two systems and explores the spatial impact of policies aimed to mitigate the drought impact. The systems dynamics model developed for this chapter simultaneously considers the physical hydrology in the Middle Rio Grande water basin in New Mexico, the engineered water management system, and a behavioral model of residential water demand for three cities: Albuquerque, Rio Rancho, and Santa Fe, New Mexico. The simulation results showed that droughts that occur in later periods ...


2014, February 26 – Proposal To Abolish Or Limit Water Data Confidentiality To 1-5 Years: Improving Water Resource Management And Increasing Net Water Benefits In The State Of California Jun 2017

2014, February 26 – Proposal To Abolish Or Limit Water Data Confidentiality To 1-5 Years: Improving Water Resource Management And Increasing Net Water Benefits In The State Of California

Related Research and Documents

A February 26, 2014, submission by Dr. Peter Reinelt to the California State Water Resources Control Board his Proposal to Abolish or Limit Water Data Confidentiality. This proposal provided a conceptual economic framework for a comprehensive review of the economics of water data confidentiality with the goal, in furtherance of both public and private interest, of improving water resource management and increasing net water benefits in the State of California.


Measuring The Adaptive Response To Drought, Kyle Eagar May 2017

Measuring The Adaptive Response To Drought, Kyle Eagar

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Scientific evidence suggests that future climate change has the potential to bring about an increase in both the frequency and duration of drought in some regions of the world (United Nations, 2012). Economists have theorized that at least some of the adverse effects of these droughts will be mitigated through various adaptive responses by agricultural producers. The effectiveness of any adaptive response to climate change will depend on how quickly producers can recognize a change in climatic patterns and respond accordingly. The following paper investigates the relationship between a specific climate signal (prolonged drought) and the land use decision of ...


Disasters In The United States : Frequency, Costs, And Compensation, Vera Brusentsev, Wayne Vroman Jan 2017

Disasters In The United States : Frequency, Costs, And Compensation, Vera Brusentsev, Wayne Vroman

Upjohn Press

Disasters are increasing in both frequency and financial costs. Analysis presented here deals with what we know about disasters in the United States including their increasing frequency of occurrence and associated financial costs, compensation available to survivors, where particular types of disasters are most likely to occur, and how disasters can be mitigated.


Agricultural Adaptation To Climate Change: How Risk Influences Decision-Making, Brandon Araujo Jan 2017

Agricultural Adaptation To Climate Change: How Risk Influences Decision-Making, Brandon Araujo

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is currently threatening the livelihoods of farmers in developing countries. Psychological models have been developed to identify factors associated with adapting to climate change; however, little work has investigated the role of farmers’ risk attitudes in these models. We assessed perceptions of adaptation cost and adaptation intentions for five drought- specific adaptive behaviors among 550 farmers from 12 villages in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, as well as their attitudes toward risk. Results suggest that perceived adaptation cost and risk attitude are negatively associated with adaptation intentions. The conditional effect of adaptation cost on adaptation intention as ...


Sequias En El Sur De La Peninsula De Yucatan: Analisis De La Variabilidad Anual Y Estacional De La Precipitacion (Droughts In The Southern Yucatan Peninsula: Analysis Of The Annual And Seasonal Precipitation Variability), Sofia Mardero, Elsa Nickl, Birgit Schmook, Laura Schneider, John Rogan, Zachary Christman, Deborah Lawrence Dec 2016

Sequias En El Sur De La Peninsula De Yucatan: Analisis De La Variabilidad Anual Y Estacional De La Precipitacion (Droughts In The Southern Yucatan Peninsula: Analysis Of The Annual And Seasonal Precipitation Variability), Sofia Mardero, Elsa Nickl, Birgit Schmook, Laura Schneider, John Rogan, Zachary Christman, Deborah Lawrence

Zachary Christman

Paper is in Spanish. English abstract: This study analyzes the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation across the Southern Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, addressing the anomalies and trends of annual and seasonal precipitation as well as the occurrence of meteorological droughts, using rainfall data from nine weather stations during the period 1953-2007. Linear regression in the annual and seasonal rainfall were used to analyze the increase or decrease in precipitation trends over this period. Precipitation anomalies enabled the evaluation of the stability, deficit, or surplus of precipitation for each year or season, and a quintile method was used to classify ...


1978 - January – Drought 77 Dry Year Program Report Nov 2016

1978 - January – Drought 77 Dry Year Program Report

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

The objectives of the Drought 77 Dry Year Program were to identify critical drought impacted areas in Northern and Central California, to provide information to water users in these areas in regard to water conservation, to assure that the limited supply available was used in accordance with lawful rights, and to take enforcement action against violations of permit and license conditions, illegal diversions and waste or unreasonable use of water.


Reanalysis Data Underestimate Significant Changes In Growing Season Weather In Kazakhstan, C. K. Wright, K. M. De Beurs, Z. K. Akhmadiyeva, P. Y. Groisman, G. M. Henebry Oct 2016

Reanalysis Data Underestimate Significant Changes In Growing Season Weather In Kazakhstan, C. K. Wright, K. M. De Beurs, Z. K. Akhmadiyeva, P. Y. Groisman, G. M. Henebry

Geoffrey Henebry

We present time series analyses of recently compiled climate station data which allowed us to assess contemporary trends in growing season weather across Kazakhstan as drivers of a significant decline in growing season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) recently observed by satellite remote sensing across much of Central Asia. We used a robust nonparametric time series analysis method, the seasonal Kendall trend test to analyze georeferenced time series of accumulated growing season precipitation (APPT) and accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD). Over the period 2000–2006 we found geographically extensive, statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreasing trends in APPT and increasing trends in AGDD. The temperature trends were especially apparent during the warm season and coincided with precipitation decreases in northwest Kazakhstan, indicating that pervasive drought conditions and higher temperature excursions were the likely drivers of NDVI declines observed in Kazakhstan over the same period. We also compared the APPT and AGDD trends at individual stations with results from trend analysis of gridded monthly precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Full Data Reanalysis v4 and gridded daily near surface air temperature from the National Centers for Climate Prediction Reanalysis v2 (NCEP R2). We found substantial deviation between the station and the reanalysis trends, suggesting that GPCC and NCEP data substantially underestimate the geographic extent of recent drought in Kazakhstan. Although gridded climate products offer many advantages in ease of use and complete coverage, our findings for Kazakhstan should serve as a caveat against uncritical use of GPCC and NCEP reanalysis data and demonstrate the importance of compiling and standardizing daily climate data from data-sparse regions like Central Asia.


Dual Scale Trend Analysis Distinguishes Climatic From Anthropogenic Effects On The Vegetated Land Surface, K. M. De Beurs, C. K. Wright, G. M. Henebry Oct 2016

Dual Scale Trend Analysis Distinguishes Climatic From Anthropogenic Effects On The Vegetated Land Surface, K. M. De Beurs, C. K. Wright, G. M. Henebry

Geoffrey Henebry

We present a dual scale trend analysis for characterizing and comparing two contrasting areas of change in Russia and Kazakhstan that lie less than 800 km apart. We selected a global NASA MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) product (MCD43C4 and MCD43A4) at a 0.05◦ (∼5.6 km) and 500 m spatial resolution and a 16-day temporal resolution from 2000 to 2008. We applied a refinement of the seasonal Kendall trend method to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image series at both scales. We only incorporated composites during the vegetative growing season which was delineated by start of season ...


Wildfire, Climate, And Perceptions In Northeast Oregon, Lawrence C. Hamilton, Joel N. Hartter, Barry D. Keim, Angela E. Boag, Michael W. Palace, Forrest R. Stevens, Mark J. Ducey Aug 2016

Wildfire, Climate, And Perceptions In Northeast Oregon, Lawrence C. Hamilton, Joel N. Hartter, Barry D. Keim, Angela E. Boag, Michael W. Palace, Forrest R. Stevens, Mark J. Ducey

Sociology Scholarship

Wildfire poses a rising threat in the western USA, fueled by synergies between historical fire suppression, changing land use, insects and disease, and shifts toward a drier, warmer climate. The rugged landscapes of northeast Oregon, with their historically forest- and resource-based economies, have been one of the areas affected. A 2011 survey found area residents highly concerned about fire and insect threats, but not about climate change. In 2014 we conducted a second survey that, to explore this apparent disconnect, included questions about past and future summertime (fire season) temperatures. Although regional temperatures have warmed in recent decades at twice ...