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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Effect Of Tribalism On Political Parties, Cyrus Lloyd Oct 2019

The Effect Of Tribalism On Political Parties, Cyrus Lloyd

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Tribalism has been the fundamental organizational unit of Middle Eastern Society for thousands of years. Recently however, modern scholars have questioned the viability of tribalism in the burgeoning democratic systems of the region. This study weighs in on this debate, focusing specifically on how tribal loyalties influence the effectiveness of political parties, considered by political science researchers to be the most effective way for the people to impose their will on the government. Focusing specifically on Jordan, this research takes into account information collected from interviews with several prominent members of Jordanian political, social, and intellectual life, including the heads ...


A Comparative Study On Mental Health Knowledge Based On Socioeconomic Status In Kisumu Kenya 2019, Mashoud Kaba Oct 2019

A Comparative Study On Mental Health Knowledge Based On Socioeconomic Status In Kisumu Kenya 2019, Mashoud Kaba

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Studies show that people who live in rural Kenya have more positive attitudes toward mental illnesses than people in urban areas. They also had more mental health knowledge. One of the differentiating factors between the two environments is the socioeconomic status of those who live in each area. People in rural areas tend to be of lower socioeconomic status, while those living in urban areas tend to be of a higher socioeconomic status. I wanted to see if the previous findings would be observed if we were looking at people in the same area (strictly urban or rural) with the ...


Bridging The Gap On Schistosomiasis: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining The Knowledge Gap And Common Attitudes And Practices Regarding S. Mansoni Infections Among Varying Education Levels In Luanda K’Otieno, Western Kenya, Kathy Zhang Oct 2019

Bridging The Gap On Schistosomiasis: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining The Knowledge Gap And Common Attitudes And Practices Regarding S. Mansoni Infections Among Varying Education Levels In Luanda K’Otieno, Western Kenya, Kathy Zhang

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Background: Schistosomiasis is considered one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases in the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the most effective strategy for schistosomiasis control is through preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ). In order to successfully control morbidity rates, the WHO recommends mass treatment targeting high risk groups, such as school-age children and adults considered to be at risk.

Methods: This cross-sectional study examined the effects of the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) on knowledge of schistosomiasis and subsequent prevalence rates and intensity. A total of 43 residents in Luanda K’Otieno were interviewed, and 34 ...


Foreign Direct Investment In Kigali’S Special Economic Zone And Its Impact On Rwanda’S Economic Reconstruction, Sabrina Roberts Oct 2019

Foreign Direct Investment In Kigali’S Special Economic Zone And Its Impact On Rwanda’S Economic Reconstruction, Sabrina Roberts

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Vision 2020 is a development strategy implemented by the Rwandan government. It aims to make Rwanda a middle-income country with a per capita income of $1240 USD. One pillar of this strategy is increasing regional and international integration. The Kigali Special Economic Zone (KSEZ) was created in direct response to this pillar.

The paper begins with an introduction to Rwanda’s post-conflict economic situation and goes on to describe and explain the role that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the KSEZ has played in reconstructing the Rwandan economy. The study focuses on the impacts of the KSEZ and the significance ...


Queer Spaces, Future Places: Conversations With 3 Black Capetonian Femmes On Embodying Liberation, Ivana Onubogu Oct 2019

Queer Spaces, Future Places: Conversations With 3 Black Capetonian Femmes On Embodying Liberation, Ivana Onubogu

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Black femme bodies face multi-axial oppressive forces resting on their racialization, gendering, sexuality and possible other factors like socioeconomic status and ability. I interviewed 3 queer-identified Black femmes between the ages of 18 and 35 that are based in or work out of the Cape Town area. Femmes is defined as trans womxn, nonbinary femmes, femme lesbians and femme bisexuals, effeminate mxn, or any other femme-identified queer person. The purpose of this project is to investigate the possibility of a liberated Black queer future as an embodied practice within the context of the Black Capetonian queer community. Participants were selected ...


Church Of The Scattered: Navigating Cultural Identity In The Protestant Churches Of Senegal, Joy Kirkland Oct 2019

Church Of The Scattered: Navigating Cultural Identity In The Protestant Churches Of Senegal, Joy Kirkland

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Senegal is a country renowned for its peaceful religious pluralism in the midst of turmoil and demographic change in neighboring West African nations. Though the vast majority of the population adheres to Sufi Islam, they seem to live in peace and cooperation with the prominent Catholic minority. Wedged between these well-established groups, Protestantism struggles to distinguish itself. Protestant missions have been planted in Senegal for over a century, but the church remains small with almost no cultural presence, and up to 80% of its members are non-Senegalese. This paper will present some preliminary basic research about this oft-ignored community in ...


The Transformative Potential Of High-Level Gender Equality: The Relationship Between Gendered Laws And Perceptions In Rwanda, Elena Ortiz Oct 2019

The Transformative Potential Of High-Level Gender Equality: The Relationship Between Gendered Laws And Perceptions In Rwanda, Elena Ortiz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As part of its reconstruction process following the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, Rwanda introduced several laws and policies protecting gender equality, which stood it stark contrast to traditional patriarchal norms and structures. This study focuses on the relationship between institutional gender reform and local perceptions. Specifically, it seeks to explore the extent to which perceptions around gender have caught up to legal changes and identify where the greatest gaps exist across political, social, and economic dimensions. Data collection occurred in two parts: quantitatively, a multiple-choice survey was distributed to 76 Rwandan adults investigating their perceptions of gender in political ...


How Is Disability Seen? An Auto-Ethnographic Exploration Of Disability In Urban Townships In Ethekwini, South Africa, Connie Chao Oct 2019

How Is Disability Seen? An Auto-Ethnographic Exploration Of Disability In Urban Townships In Ethekwini, South Africa, Connie Chao

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Disability is a topic that is often overlooked and not seen in day to day life. Disability may be visible or invisible to others, and individuals may have varying attitudes and opinions towards people with disabilities. Disability can also be conceptualized in different ways depending on if one takes on a bio-medical model or a social model of disability. In this study, I explored how disability is seen, both literally and metaphorically in urban townships in the eThekwini Municipality in South Africa. I conducted semi-structured interviews with individuals with disabilities and community members at large to understand people’s perspectives ...


The Effect Of Stray Dogs On Urban Arusha Residents And Existing Preventative Measures, Brooke Magliabatista Oct 2019

The Effect Of Stray Dogs On Urban Arusha Residents And Existing Preventative Measures, Brooke Magliabatista

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The study at hand encompasses interviews and observations conducted in three areas of Urban Arusha. The areas of choice are Njiro Complex, Sinoni, and Kaloleni areas, in addition to interviews with individuals situated at Clocktower, input from a veterinary practitioner and information gathered from the organization Mbwa Wa Africa situated next to the Arusha National Park. The study took place from Nov. 7-Nov 26, 2019. The interviews include random sampling of local populations and encompassed pre-formed survey questions for each level of person interviewed. The question being addressed ask: what is the dynamic between Arusha residents and stray dogs, and ...


The Relationship Between Forest Management And Stream Discharge In Mazumbai And Baga Ii Forest Reserves, Tanga Region, Tanzania, Shannon Duffy Oct 2019

The Relationship Between Forest Management And Stream Discharge In Mazumbai And Baga Ii Forest Reserves, Tanga Region, Tanzania, Shannon Duffy

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Deforestation is known to alter hydrology by reducing interception, transpiration and infiltration capacity, and increasing runoff which all leads to higher stream discharge. For rural Tanzanian communities, surface water resources are crucial for meeting basic needs, so the integrity of headwater catchments need to be maintained to ensure their reliability. The objectives of this study were to a) map the streams in the two forests because none currently exist and b) determine the effect of deforestation on discharge variability. Over fifteen days of data collection, this study analyzed variability of discharge and the degree of correlation between discharge and rainfall ...


Coastal Stream Salinity And Its Impacts On Pemba Agriculture, Sara Mccormack Oct 2019

Coastal Stream Salinity And Its Impacts On Pemba Agriculture, Sara Mccormack

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The extent of saltwater inundation of coastal streams was assessed on Pemba Island near agricultural areas in northeastern and northwestern regions of the island. Conductivity and pH were measured from water samples collected at various distances along the stream to determine the extent of salinity at different points in the tidal cycle. This salinity data, as well as the context of recent weather events, runoff, and geological characteristics of the region were used to determine the primary factors that influence changes in surface water salinity. The primary factor that influences surface water salinity was determined to be changes in stream ...


E-Waste Shouldn’T Be Waste: A Study On The Practices, Perceptions, And Policies On E-Waste In Urban Arusha, Tanzania, Melanie Mckenzie Oct 2019

E-Waste Shouldn’T Be Waste: A Study On The Practices, Perceptions, And Policies On E-Waste In Urban Arusha, Tanzania, Melanie Mckenzie

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examines the e-waste stream in urban Arusha, answer the questions of where electronics go, how people usually dispose of them, if people are aware of the impacts of e-waste, and what next steps are necessary. The study took place in November 2019 in urban Arusha, Tanzania. Through snowball and convenience sampling in 4 quotas (community members, electricians, business members, and a policy maker), the study finds that there is no place for the proper disposal of e-waste in Arusha. Many electronics are disposed of improperly by being put into the landfill or burned. Most participants were unaware of ...


Impacts Of Agricultural Practices On Soil Quality And The Resulting Soil Conservation Implication In Kizanda Village, Lushoto Region, Tanzania, Sarah Maccormick Oct 2019

Impacts Of Agricultural Practices On Soil Quality And The Resulting Soil Conservation Implication In Kizanda Village, Lushoto Region, Tanzania, Sarah Maccormick

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examined soil conservation in Kizanda Village which is in the Lushoto District, Tanga Region in the West Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. In Tanzania, and more specifically, the rural montane area, agriculture is an important part of both social and economic development. Due to a reported high rate of land degradation in Tanzania, this development is threatened though the lack of soil conservation. This study conducted structured interviews with farmers in Kizanda through snowball sampling to collect information about local agricultural practices and farmers’ perceptions on soil conservation issues. Soil samples were then collected from the corresponding farms (n ...


Queer Otherwise: Embodying A Queer Identity In Cape Town, Teak Emanuel Hodge Oct 2019

Queer Otherwise: Embodying A Queer Identity In Cape Town, Teak Emanuel Hodge

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research responds to the following question: how do LGBTQ South Africans in Cape Town come to understand and embody their queerness? Drawing on ideas of the body as a sense making agent (Meyburgh 2006) and site of socio-political contestation (Foucault 1975) this research adapts body-mapping methodologies (de Jager, Tewson, Ludlow, Boydell 2016) to excavate the ways in which LGBT South Africans negotiate their queerness. Through centering the experiences of three LGBTQ identified South African’s in conversation with the experiences of the researcher, this paper delves into how queer people make sense of and understand themselves in relation to ...


Water And War: The Potential For Perpetuation Of Conflict Due To Climate Change, Kaufman Butler Oct 2019

Water And War: The Potential For Perpetuation Of Conflict Due To Climate Change, Kaufman Butler

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change has had a dramatic impact on the world’s weather for years, scientists can only make predictions about how global climate will continue to change going forward; but in all scenarios the circumstances are quite dire. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) will see some of the most severe effects of climate change, which will permanently alter the lives of millions of people in the region. In the MENA region, climate change is projected to result in extreme drought and temperatures which will lead to increased water scarcity, in what is already the most water poor region ...


Syrian Refugee Mothers In Jordan: Perceived Social Support And Postpartum Depression, Marya Rana Oct 2019

Syrian Refugee Mothers In Jordan: Perceived Social Support And Postpartum Depression, Marya Rana

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Many women suffer from postpartum depression; migrant women experience postpartum depression at rates almost triple that of the general population. This study investigated the associations between perceived social support and postpartum depression among Syrian refugee mothers living in Amman, Jordan. Eleven mothers completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) - Shortened Version. Four of those mothers also participated in individual interviews, and four others were included in a focus group. Multiple recurring themes were identified from the interviews and focus group, including: perceived differences in child and social support in Syria ...


Understanding Residential Segregation: Community Relations And Marginalization For Migrants From South Of The Sahara In Rabat, Morocco, Ben Hickman Oct 2019

Understanding Residential Segregation: Community Relations And Marginalization For Migrants From South Of The Sahara In Rabat, Morocco, Ben Hickman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Migrants from South of the Sahara living in Rabat face violence as they attempt to navigate public space. The majority of these migrants live in the neighborhoods of Takkadoum and Yacoub al Mansour. Even within these two neighborhoods, migrants must manage and avoid racially motivated violence. This paper explores these two neighborhoods and the lives of migrants within these neighborhoods, how they find or create safe space, community relations between migrants and Moroccans, and their experience of segregation/separation. Understandings of defended neighborhoods and immigrant integration founded a theoretical basis for this paper, thus better exploring how migrants settle in ...


The Truth In Fiction: A Discussion Of Educational Agency And Hierarchical Truth In Children’S Literature, Grace Griffin Oct 2019

The Truth In Fiction: A Discussion Of Educational Agency And Hierarchical Truth In Children’S Literature, Grace Griffin

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

I wrote and created With Wings and Words, a children’s picture book based off of interview material gathered about the 1989 Velvet Revolution, in order to demonstrate the inherent multiplicity of truth around historical events and break down the construction of a “national” truth by placing personal narratives and interpretations in conversation with each other. These narratives, while present and available in the Czech Republic, are important to display and discuss in order to avoid the oversimplification of events or erasure of the emotional complexities they cause. After consulting with various relevant Czech children’s books, I completed interviews ...


Crisis In Crimea: A Case Study In Geopolitics, Jesse Clarke Oct 2019

Crisis In Crimea: A Case Study In Geopolitics, Jesse Clarke

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research project conducts an analysis of the current situation in Crimea and attempts to contribute to the literature around a possible solution. Done so with the help of geopolitical analysis, the history of the region of Crimea is examined in-depth in an attempt to shed light on strategies for a resolution and provide background information. Geopolitical analysis as a form of study is then briefly explained and its relevancy for looking at global events and predicting outcomes explained. Next, three possible strategies for a solution are then presented and their viability analyzed through a geopolitical lens. These three strategies ...


Strategic Implications For The United States Of The Belt And Road Initiative In Africa, Alec Monnie Oct 2019

Strategic Implications For The United States Of The Belt And Road Initiative In Africa, Alec Monnie

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The belt and road initiative is one of the most significant developments of the twenty-first century, which the United States will need to learn to adapt to. Much of the academic literature regarding the belt and road initiative mentions that Africa is a significant participant in this policy development, but fail to elaborate as to why that is, or what the implications for this are for the United States. This article expands upon the strategic significance of the African continent, and explains the implications thereof for the United States and China. This article argues that the belt and road initiative ...


The Inclusion Of Displaced Women In The Women, Peace, And Security Agenda, Ava Strasser Oct 2019

The Inclusion Of Displaced Women In The Women, Peace, And Security Agenda, Ava Strasser

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

On October 31, 2000, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1325, which stresses the importance of women’s involvement during times of conflict as decision-makers in peace-building processes. While this resolution and the broader Women, Peace, and Security agenda are dedicated to including women in important post-conflict reconstruction processes, the international community; comprised of states, international organizations, and civil society; has been criticized for its failure to implement this agenda. Further, it is evident that displaced women are a large population whose voices are widely left out of the post-conflict reconstruction processes. Within the discourse regarding the experience of ...


Mining’S Impact On Environmental And Human Health: A Case Study Of Ramba County’S Gold Mine, Vivika Fernes Oct 2019

Mining’S Impact On Environmental And Human Health: A Case Study Of Ramba County’S Gold Mine, Vivika Fernes

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research project aims to gain a greater understanding of the health implications that Ramba County’s goldmine has on miners, their families, and the environment. While this study observes the community-at-large, inclusive of visiting miners and extended family members of workers, it will focus on women who engage in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM). Millions of people in the developing word depend on ASGM for their livelihood, evident in this case study in Ramba County. However, while gold is associated with wealth, there is great irony in the fact that those working within the mining industry are being ...


A Study Of Scars: Narratives Of Unintentional Childhood Injuries In Cato Manor, Carolyn Fox Oct 2019

A Study Of Scars: Narratives Of Unintentional Childhood Injuries In Cato Manor, Carolyn Fox

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this study is to identify the specific types of injuries children experience growing up in Cato Manor, specifically, KwaMasxha, to understand how community members process and make meaning of their injuries over time, and to analyze the social determinants of health in Cato Manor that have been conducive to these injuries.

In order to learn about experiences of unintentional childhood injuries in Cato Manor, data was collected using a qualitative, narrative-based approach. I conducted interviews with young adult community members aged 19 to 27 years, asking about their personal experiences with childhood injuries as someone who grew ...


Health And Education: Perspectives On The Role Of Schools In Health Promotion, Miranda Powell Oct 2019

Health And Education: Perspectives On The Role Of Schools In Health Promotion, Miranda Powell

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this study was to understand learners’ perceptions of the role schools play in health promotion. Health promotion encompasses health education and can be highly effective in the school setting. Given the high rates of HIV/AIDS, teen pregnancy, early sexual debut, and abuse, health education is highly important in South African schools. All learners are required to take Life Orientation classes, which cover many topics including health education. Comparing the views of what learners expect, experience, and the curriculum, my study addressed the gaps in Life Orientation classes with regards to health promotion education.

For this study ...


The Practice Of Dhikr Among Senegalese Taalibe Baay Women: Individual Devotion, Communal Well-Being, Natalie Marsh Oct 2019

The Practice Of Dhikr Among Senegalese Taalibe Baay Women: Individual Devotion, Communal Well-Being, Natalie Marsh

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

For Sufis, dhikr—the practice of invoking the Name of God—pervades the fabric of everyday life. For Taalibe Baay (disciples of Ibrahim Niasse) living in Senegal, dhikr takes on particular significance in relation to the experience of tarbiya, an intense spiritual initiation aimed at achieving a vision of God. If tarbiya is the door to the spiritual path, some Taalibe Baay say, then dhikr is a tool by which disciples can continue to progress along this path, purifying themselves internally and reaffirming their connection to God each time they perform these prayers. But for some Senegalese Taalibe Baay women ...


Which Factors Influence The Usage And Perceptions Of Medicinal Plants In Kizanda Village (Lushoto District) And Ushongo Village (Tanga District)?, Callie Smith Oct 2019

Which Factors Influence The Usage And Perceptions Of Medicinal Plants In Kizanda Village (Lushoto District) And Ushongo Village (Tanga District)?, Callie Smith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The objective of this study was to compare and examine which factors impact usage and perceptions of traditional medicine in Ushongo Mtoni and Kizanda villages. More specifically, this study aimed to gain an understanding of the usages, with a specific focus on gendered usages of medicinal plants in Kizanda village and Ushongo Mtoni village and to try to examine the differences in perceptions towards traditional medicine usage in Kizanda and Ushongo. Additionally, this study aimed to determine if there are any major themes that are constant with medicinal plants in both Ushongo and Kizanda. In order to conduct this study ...


Activity, Distribution, And Density Of Brown Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) On Misali Island, Pemba Island, Tanzania, Raegan Hasselbring Oct 2019

Activity, Distribution, And Density Of Brown Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) On Misali Island, Pemba Island, Tanzania, Raegan Hasselbring

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This project investigated the activity, distribution, and density of brown rats (R. norvegicus) on Misali Island, Pemba. These factors were studied through field observations conducted over a 21-day observation period. Brown rats were highest in density around areas of human activity, attracted to the detritus, an ample food source. Although highest in density in these areas, a greater total population of brown rats was distributed in the coastal forest due to its proportion of area on the overall island. In the forest, the rats were most active along the coastal sections for unknown and unexplored reasons – possibly due to regular ...


Vulnerability And Adaptability Of Mangrove Forests On Misali Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania, Samantha A. Smith Oct 2019

Vulnerability And Adaptability Of Mangrove Forests On Misali Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania, Samantha A. Smith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As climate change threatens to cause heightened sea levels and decreased rainfall patterns in the Indian Ocean, mangrove forests are forced to adapt or suffer. This study aims to analyze the persistence of four prominent mangrove forests on Misali Island based on vulnerability and adaptability. The study focuses on three types of forests: overwash, coastal fringing, and scrub. Forest A, an overwash forest, was the main site of study and was surveyed for species type and seedling/sapling counts using ten transects which ranged from 40 to 91.7 meters in length. Data was analyzed in order to determine biodiversity ...


The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith Oct 2019

The Role Of Local Communities In Preventing And Countering Violent Extremism (P/Cve) In Jordan, Anna Fraher Klingensmith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bordering Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Israel/Palestine, with Lebanon not too far away, Jordan’s location makes it at high risk for violent extremism. Although Jordan is considered one of the safest countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the country is known for having one of the highest numbers of foreign fighters in the world, and for being the homeland of the father of ISIS (Abu Musab al-Zarqawi). Also worrisome is the increasing number of desperate people turning to extremist ideologies due to the country’s economic crisis and lack of opportunities for political engagement ...


Disability And Migration: How Systems Of Violence Intersect With The Production And Experience Of Disability For Migrants In Morocco, Frances Condon Oct 2019

Disability And Migration: How Systems Of Violence Intersect With The Production And Experience Of Disability For Migrants In Morocco, Frances Condon

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This project investigates the perspectives and experiences of physically disabled, chronically ill, or bodily-impaired migrants from south of the Sahara living in Rabat, Morocco. Increasing interest in disabled migrants’ rights from international organizations risks erasing those being ‘protected’ if it does not attend to the intersections of race, class, citizenship, and gender as they relate to the production and experience of disability for migrants. Produced by and for the (white) global North, I argue that traditional Euro-American disability studies scholarship is ill-equipped to address the issues faced by disabled migrants in post-colonial contexts. In addition to being ineffective, the uncritical ...