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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2019

Selected Works

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Articles 1 - 30 of 3842

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

“Find That Balance:” The Impact Of Cultural Consonance And Dissonance On Mental Health Among Utah And Mormon Women, Francois Dengah Dec 2019

“Find That Balance:” The Impact Of Cultural Consonance And Dissonance On Mental Health Among Utah And Mormon Women, Francois Dengah

Francois Dengah

Cultural consonance and religious participation are both associatedwith salutogenic
mental health outcomes. Yet studies of religious and other cultural models must take
into account multiple and conflicting cultural norms. In this article, we explore the
consequences of trying to adhere to the oppositional cultural models of religious
(Latter-day Saint or Mormon) and secular American gender roles as perceived by
college-aged women at a Utah university. Using cultural consensus and cultural
consonance analysis, we demonstrate that while conforming with one model may
provide social and mental health benefits, striving for consonance with both results
in increased perceived stress levels for Latter-day ...


Camera Wifi, Lam Lam, Camera Huzz Dec 2019

Camera Wifi, Lam Lam, Camera Huzz

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Hunting Unicorns, Aaron Edlin Dec 2019

Hunting Unicorns, Aaron Edlin

Aaron Edlin

We study the effects of above-cost exclusionary pricing and the efficacy of three policy responses by running experiments involving a monopoly incumbent and a potential entrant. Our experiments show that under a laissez-faire regime, the threat of post-entry price cuts discourages entry, and allows incumbents to charge monopoly prices. Current U.S. policy (Brooke Group) does not help. In contrast, a policy suggested by Baumol (1979) lowers post-exit prices, while Edlin’s (2002) proposal reduces pre-entry prices and encourages entry. While both policies have less competitive outcomes after entry than laissez-faire does, they nevertheless both increase consumer welfare. For Edlin ...


Trauma And Biological Indicators, Robin Switzer Nov 2019

Trauma And Biological Indicators, Robin Switzer

Robin Switzer

Background Information: The purpose of this study is determine if biological indicators such as bio
dot, pulse rate and blood oxygen levels have a relationship with trauma recovery.
Procedures: If you agree to be in this study, I would ask you to do the following things:
1. Complete an assessment (Trauma Recovery Scale) in session, in five different sessions (total of
5 assessments taken at approximately 4 minutes each)
2. Place a bio dot (a dot placed on the skin that changes color based on measured stress levels) on
self and report color in session, in five different sessions (total ...


Creative Manifestations Of The Unconcious In Traumatized Children, Robin Switzer Nov 2019

Creative Manifestations Of The Unconcious In Traumatized Children, Robin Switzer

Robin Switzer

A look into the theoretical foundations and practical applications of unconscious manifestation work with traumatized children. Children affected by trauma can become stuck in stages and cycles of dysfunction and creative modalities have long been the natural language of childhood processing.  Review of creative modalities with passive and active engagement techniques will occur, integrated with real practice experiences and targeted to assist in the healing process for children with trauma.


Acculturative Stress Among Chinese International Students, Jenny Liang, Esther Malm Nov 2019

Acculturative Stress Among Chinese International Students, Jenny Liang, Esther Malm

Jenny Liang


As the world increasingly connects, people from different countries interact for mutual reasons including commerce and education. Relocating to other counties and cultures different from one’s own comes with benefits and challenges linked to cultural differences, adjustment and stress. Acculturative stress is the physical, mental, emotional and physiological tension brought about by culture shock or other related factors that influences the adjustment process one goes through as they transition from ones original culture to a new culture/environment (Berry, 1992)  Several empirical findings show that International students rank high in experiences of Culture shock and acculturative stress.  Acculturative stress ...


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Selling Your Soul On The Information Superhighway: Consenting To Services In Direct To Consumer Tele-Mental Health, Lauri Goldkind, Lea Wolf Nov 2019

Selling Your Soul On The Information Superhighway: Consenting To Services In Direct To Consumer Tele-Mental Health, Lauri Goldkind, Lea Wolf

Lauri Goldkind

 Direct to consumer tele-mental health services--therapy delivered by video conference, email and text message--is a burgeoning model of service delivery. The practice of on-demand digital psychotherapy presents ethical questions, as new economic models, service delivery systems, and therapeutic models are introduced. Virtual therapy, now offered on a subscription basis by third-party providers, requires users to accept Terms of Service (ToS) agreements in order to access services. This article describes the results of a survey in which participants (n = 579) were asked to compare the values of the Human Rights Framework to the language of one tele-mental health platform’s Terms ...


The Importance Of Informal Work In Supplementing Household Income, Katharine G. Abraham, Susan N. Houseman Nov 2019

The Importance Of Informal Work In Supplementing Household Income, Katharine G. Abraham, Susan N. Houseman

Susan N. Houseman

No abstract provided.


Decreased Births Among Black Female Adolescents Following School Desegregation, Sze Yan Liu, Crystal D. Linkletter, Eric B. Loucks, M. Maria Glymour, Stephen L. Buka Nov 2019

Decreased Births Among Black Female Adolescents Following School Desegregation, Sze Yan Liu, Crystal D. Linkletter, Eric B. Loucks, M. Maria Glymour, Stephen L. Buka

Sze Yan Liu

Although the socioeconomic impact of school desegregation in the U.S. has been well documented, little is known about the health consequences of this policy. The purpose of this study was to quantify the associations between school desegregation and adolescent births among black and white females. We compared the change in prevalence of adolescent births in areas that implemented school desegregation plans in the 1970s with areas that implemented school desegregation plans in other decades, using difference-in-difference methods with 1970 and 1980 Census microdata. School desegregation policy in the U.S. in the 1970s was associated with a significant reduction ...


Exploring Data Literacy Via A Librarian-Faculty Learning Community: A Case Study, Theresa G. Burress, Emily Z. Mann, Tina Neville Nov 2019

Exploring Data Literacy Via A Librarian-Faculty Learning Community: A Case Study, Theresa G. Burress, Emily Z. Mann, Tina Neville

Theresa Burress

Faculty learning communities (FLCs) are year-long professional development opportunities available at many higher education institutions in the United States. While the literature reflects some librarian engagement with FLCs, it seems limited primarily to areas of traditional librarian expertise such as information literacy and outreach. This article describes a case study of a librarian-facilitated FLC focused on data literacy, which resulted in the development of a teaching toolkit, library-led data literacy instruction, and ongoing collaborations between librarians and faculty. The FLC structure proved to be a valuable framework that facilitated collaborative learning in topics relevant to both disciplinary faculty and librarians ...


Empowering Your Staff To Solve Problems: Evidence-Based Training For Strategic Thinking, Rebecca B. French, Jennifer A. Keach Nov 2019

Empowering Your Staff To Solve Problems: Evidence-Based Training For Strategic Thinking, Rebecca B. French, Jennifer A. Keach

Rebecca B. French

Are you teaching procedures or are you teaching problem solving? Discover an approach to help develop your staff’s strategic thinking skills to meet the needs of the 21st-century library workplace. Explore how to apply learning theory and walk away with actionable steps for training independent problem solving.


Spaceport: A Finding Aid Launchpad, Rebecca B. French Nov 2019

Spaceport: A Finding Aid Launchpad, Rebecca B. French

Rebecca B. French

JMU Libraries distributes its Special Collections finding aids to a number of discovery platforms, a process which historically has involved a significant amount of hand-encoding and manual data entry. We recently developed and implemented Spaceport, a Python app that has revolutionized this workflow. This presentation provides an overview of the app's functionality, which includes generating EADs for Virginia Heritage, HTML files for upload to the Libraries website, and MARCXML records for our catalog and OCLC. It also describes the efficiencies and other benefits we have observed from Spaceport's use.


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Perceptions Of The Cognitive, Social, And Physical Competence Of Speech Impaired Individuals, Sherri Scofield Nov 2019

Perceptions Of The Cognitive, Social, And Physical Competence Of Speech Impaired Individuals, Sherri Scofield

Sherri Scofield

Listeners' perceptions of the cognitive, social, and physical competence of a speech impaired individual were investigated. Thirty-eight adults (31 female and 7 male) between 19 and 51 years of age listened to prerecorded audiotape interviews; one with a speech impaired speaker, or one with a normally speaking peer. Listeners rated the perceived cognitive, social, and physical competence of both a speech impaired speaker and a normal speaker using a modified version of the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Competence. An independent two-sample t-test statistic resulted in significant difference between the groups in cognitive, social, and physical competence ...


Sex Differences In Gains Among Hispanic Pre-Kindergartners’ Mental Rotation Skills, Carla Abad, Rosalie Odean, Shannon M. Pruden Nov 2019

Sex Differences In Gains Among Hispanic Pre-Kindergartners’ Mental Rotation Skills, Carla Abad, Rosalie Odean, Shannon M. Pruden

Carla Abad

The current study explores change in mental rotation skills throughout the pre-kindergarten year in a Hispanic population to better understand the development of early sex differences in mental rotation. Ninety-six Hispanic children (M = 4 years 8 months) completed a mental rotation task at the beginning and end of pre-kindergarten. Results suggest Hispanic boys and girls differed in gains on mental rotation ability, with boys improving significantly more than girls during pre-kindergarten on a mental rotation task. This study highlights the significance of studying mental rotation abilities in a Hispanic population of pre-kindergarten aged children and suggests the importance of examining ...


Do Storybooks Really Break Children's Gender Stereotypes?, Carla Abad, Shannon M. Pruden Nov 2019

Do Storybooks Really Break Children's Gender Stereotypes?, Carla Abad, Shannon M. Pruden

Carla Abad

A book review on An open book: What and how young children learn from picture and storybooks. Special Issue of Frontiers in Developmental Psychology.

Edited by J.S. Horst and C. Houston-Price


The Development Of Early Spatial Thinking, Carla Abad Nov 2019

The Development Of Early Spatial Thinking, Carla Abad

Carla Abad

The different spatial experiences in the lives of young boys and girls may partly explain sex differences in spatial skills (Baenninger & Newcombe, 1995; Nazareth et al., 2013; Newcombe, Bandura & Taylor, 1983). While several studies have examined the influence of spatial activities on the development of spatial skills (e.g., Nazareth et al., 2013) there currently exists no widely used comprehensive measure to assess children’s concurrent participation in spatial activities and engagement with spatial toys. Study 1 of the current dissertation filled this gap in the field of spatial research through the creation of the Spatial Activity Questionnaire, a comprehensive survey designed ...


Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda Of Naming And Necessity, By Scott Soames, Heimir Geirsson Nov 2019

Beyond Rigidity: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda Of Naming And Necessity, By Scott Soames, Heimir Geirsson

Heimir Geirsson

n Naming and Necessity Saul Kripke criticized descriptivist theories of proper names and suggested a ‘better picture’ as a replacement. But while the ‘better picture’ that Kripke provided was very interesting and stimulating, it was little more than a sketch of a theory that needed much work and refinement. While Kripke argued that proper names are not synonymous with definite descriptions or clusters of definite descriptions, he was silent on what the semantic contents of names might be. Further, he even speculated in the introduction to his book that the apparatus of propositions might break down given his arguments, thus ...


Youth Activism, Art And Transitional Justice: Emerging Spaces Of Memory After The Jasmine Revolution, Arnaud Kurze Oct 2019

Youth Activism, Art And Transitional Justice: Emerging Spaces Of Memory After The Jasmine Revolution, Arnaud Kurze

Arnaud Kurze

This chapter explores the creation of alternative transitional justice spaces in post-conflict contexts, particularly concentrating on the role of art and the impact of social movements to address human rights abuses. Drawing from post-authoritarian Tunisia, it scrutinizes the work of contemporary youth activists and artists to deal with the past and foster sociopolitical change. Although these vanguard protesters provoked the overthrow of President Zine El Abdine Ben Ali in 2011, the power vacuum was quickly filled by old elites. The exclusion of young revolutionaries from political decision-making led to unprecedented forms of mobilization to account for repression and injustice under ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Drug And Alcohol Treatment Facilities And Violent And Property Crime: A Socioeconomic Contingent Relationship, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi Oct 2019

Exploring The Relationship Between Drug And Alcohol Treatment Facilities And Violent And Property Crime: A Socioeconomic Contingent Relationship, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi

Christopher Salvatore

Siting of drug and alcohol treatment facilities is often met with negative reactions because of the assumption that these facilities increase crime by attracting drug users (and possibly dealers) to an area. This assumption, however, rests on weak empirical footings that have not been subjected to strong empirical analyses. Using census block groups from Philadelphia, PA, it was found that the criminogenic impact of treatment facilities in and near a neighborhood on its violent and property crime rates may be contingent on the socioeconomic status (SES) of the neighborhood. Paying attention to both the density and proximity of facilities in ...


The Emerging Adulthood Gap: Integrating Emerging Adulthood Into Life Course Criminology, Christopher Salvatore Oct 2019

The Emerging Adulthood Gap: Integrating Emerging Adulthood Into Life Course Criminology, Christopher Salvatore

Christopher Salvatore

The aim of this study is to provide a theoretical mechanism, the ‘emerging adulthood gap,’ to integrate emerging adulthood into the life course or developmental area of criminological theory. This paper will present the ‘what’ of the emerging adulthood gap by introducing the concept and integrating it into existing theoretical paradigms, the ‘how’ by examining how social circumstances have altered the life course leading to the evolution of emerging adulthood as a distinct stage of the life course and to the ‘emerging adulthood gap,’ and the ‘why’ of the ‘emerging adulthood gap’ by discussing the decreased level of informal social ...


Gender-Based Perceptions Of The 2001 Anthrax Attacks: Implications For Outreach And Preparedness, Christopher Salvatore, Brian J. Gorman Oct 2019

Gender-Based Perceptions Of The 2001 Anthrax Attacks: Implications For Outreach And Preparedness, Christopher Salvatore, Brian J. Gorman

Christopher Salvatore

Extensive research dealing with gender-based perceptions of fear of crime has generally found that women express greater levels of fear compared to men. Further, studies have found that women engage in more self-protective behaviors in response to fear of crime, as well as have different levels of confidence in government efficacy relative to men. The majority of these studies have focused on violent and property crime; little research has focused on gender-based perceptions of the threat of bioterrorism. Using data from a national survey conducted by ABC News / Washington Post, this study contrasted perceptions of safety and fear in response ...


Is Emerging Adulthood Influencing Moffitt’S Developmental Taxonomy? Adding The “Prolonged” Adolescent Offender, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi, Wayne Welsh Oct 2019

Is Emerging Adulthood Influencing Moffitt’S Developmental Taxonomy? Adding The “Prolonged” Adolescent Offender, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi, Wayne Welsh

Christopher Salvatore

The study of offender trajectories has been a prolific area of criminological research. However, few studies have incorporated the influence of emerging adulthood, a recently identified stage of the life course, on offending trajectories. The present study addressed this shortcoming by introducing the "prolonged adolescent" offender, a low-level offender between the ages of 18 and 25 that has failed to successfully transition into adult social roles. A theoretical background based on prior research in life-course criminology and emerging adulthood is presented. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health analyses examined the relationship between indicators of traditional turning ...


Policing A Negotiated World: A Partial Test Of Klinger’S Ecological Theory Of Policing, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi Oct 2019

Policing A Negotiated World: A Partial Test Of Klinger’S Ecological Theory Of Policing, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi

Christopher Salvatore

The primary goal of the current study is to examine a portion of Klinger’s theory. Specifically, we test the influence of organizational and environmental contextual factors, guided by Klinger’s theory, on one measure of officer vigor. To date, few studies have taken this approach to examine Klinger’s theory. The study builds on prior research that has tested aspects of Klinger’s theory and adds new analytic strategies that prior studies have not used. The results of this study have implications for both theory and practice, and they add to the growing literature examining the influence of ecological ...


Virtual Life Sentences: An Exploratory Study, Jessica S. Henry, Christopher Salvatore, Bai-Eyse Pugh Oct 2019

Virtual Life Sentences: An Exploratory Study, Jessica S. Henry, Christopher Salvatore, Bai-Eyse Pugh

Christopher Salvatore

Virtual life sentences are sentences with a term of years that exceed an individual’s natural life expectancy. This exploratory study is one of the first to collect data that establish the existence, prevalence, and scope of virtual life sentences in state prisons in the United States. Initial data reveal that more than 31,000 people in 26 states are serving virtual life sentences for violent and nonviolent offenses, and suggest racial disparities in the distribution of these sentences. This study also presents potential policy implications and suggestions for future research.