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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2018

Western Michigan University

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Articles 31 - 60 of 210

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Ethical Dilemma Of Blowing The Whistle: Research Misconduct And Its Reporters, David Sottile Oct 2018

The Ethical Dilemma Of Blowing The Whistle: Research Misconduct And Its Reporters, David Sottile

The Hilltop Review

Research misconduct is a widespread issue that affects the credibility of science as a discipline. While a relatively small number of researchers engage directly in research misconduct, there is a larger number of researchers that are aware of research misconduct and do not report it. This permits falsified research to be disseminated throughout the scientific community. It is important to analyze both those engaging in research misconduct as well as those that are aware. The case example of Stephen E. Breuning is used throughout the paper. Stephen E. Breuning is a scientist that engaged in research misconduct that collaborated with ...


African American Adolescent Males' Experiences Within The Education System: Implications For School Counseling Practice, Damon D. Chambers Oct 2018

African American Adolescent Males' Experiences Within The Education System: Implications For School Counseling Practice, Damon D. Chambers

The Hilltop Review

This article examines the literature on the experiences of African American adolescent males in the education system. The primary focus of the article is to explore the following: historical accounts dating back to the transatlantic slavery era; Disciplinary Disparities within the education system Postsecondary opportunities. Implications for counselor education and practice are discussed. The author concludes with recommendations to improve the experiences of African American adolescent males within the educational system.


Problems Facing The Working Poor: Implications For Counseling, Tristan D. Mcbain Oct 2018

Problems Facing The Working Poor: Implications For Counseling, Tristan D. Mcbain

The Hilltop Review

The most recent reports from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate that 8.6 million people in the United States are among the working poor, a population whose formal employment does not provide sufficient income to remain above the poverty threshold. The problems facing the working poor are examined in this article. Labor market issues, job stress, mental health concerns, stigma, and barriers to appropriate treatment were all identified as problems facing this disadvantaged population. Implications for counselors and counseling practice are discussed including considerations for the working poor population and counselor education training programs.


Burnout Among Filipino Occupational Therapists: A Mixed Methods Analysis, Rod Charlie Delos Reyes Oct 2018

Burnout Among Filipino Occupational Therapists: A Mixed Methods Analysis, Rod Charlie Delos Reyes

The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

Background: There is a shortage of practicing occupational therapists in the Philippines, with approximately one Filipino occupational therapist per 30,000 stakeholders. One of the possible consequences is the experience of burnout among therapists.

Method: A two-phase mixed methods study using a sequential explanatory approach was used. The first phase involved the administration of the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) with a survey questionnaire that supplied demographic and work-related factors through an online platform. The results were analyzed using frequency distribution and measures of central tendency. Relationships were analyzed using Spearman’s Rho and Cramer’s V. The ...


The Socializer - Fall 2018, Department Of Sociology Oct 2018

The Socializer - Fall 2018, Department Of Sociology

The Socializer

Fall 2018 Sociology departmental newsletter.


Shared Gold: Mapping Of Community Engagement, Brian Gogan, Jennifer Harrison Sep 2018

Shared Gold: Mapping Of Community Engagement, Brian Gogan, Jennifer Harrison

Academic Leadership Academy

Engaged universities and communities are a key focus for meaningful social transformation and addressing complex educational issues including access, research ethics, and business development (Cherrington et al., 2018).

Universities throughout the nation are called not only to serve their academic community, but also the communities in which they are situated. In fact, ongoing revisions to the Higher Learning Commission’s accreditation criteria suggest that community engagement will serve as a primary means by which institutions of higher education will demonstrate their publicly oriented missions and fulfill accreditation criterion number one (Higher Learning Commission, 2018).

Community engagement can be defined as ...


Book Review Of Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Expanding Your View, Deborah Langosch Sep 2018

Book Review Of Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Expanding Your View, Deborah Langosch

GrandFamilies: The Contemporary Journal of Research, Practice and Policy

N/A for book review


Caregiving In Sub-Saharan Africa And Older, Female Caregivers In The Era Of Hiv/Aids: A Namibian Perspective, Eveline N. Kalomo, Fred H. Besthorn Sep 2018

Caregiving In Sub-Saharan Africa And Older, Female Caregivers In The Era Of Hiv/Aids: A Namibian Perspective, Eveline N. Kalomo, Fred H. Besthorn

GrandFamilies: The Contemporary Journal of Research, Practice and Policy

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have created an unprecedented ‘orphan crisis’ in sub-Saharan Africa. They have had a devastating impact on elder caregivers. Over 60% of children affected by HIV/AIDS are being care for by aging, often impoverished, grandmothers (AVERT, 2015). Yet there is a dearth of empirical work on the devastating impact of this pandemic on grandmothers. This article offers an overview of the literature with respect to what is currently known about caregivers generally and, specifically, older caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa. It addresses emerging ...


Kinship Diversion In The District Of Columbia: A Review Of Local Practice To Inform National Policy, Marla P. Spindel, Beth A. Stekler, Stephanie Ridgway Mcclellan Sep 2018

Kinship Diversion In The District Of Columbia: A Review Of Local Practice To Inform National Policy, Marla P. Spindel, Beth A. Stekler, Stephanie Ridgway Mcclellan

GrandFamilies: The Contemporary Journal of Research, Practice and Policy

This article addresses a practice commonly known in the child welfare community as “kinship diversion,” where a child welfare agency informally places children with relatives as an alternative to foster care. While evidence predominantly shows that abused and neglected children have better outcomes when they are placed with relatives when they cannot remain safely at home, serious concerns about these children’s safety and well-being arise when the placement with relatives is informal. Indeed, it is often not understood that these same relatives can be approved as foster parents and can receive essential financial assistance and supportive services to help ...


“People You May (Or May Not) Know:” Usage Intensity, Status Motivation, And Intimate Self-Disclosure As Predictors Of Bridging Social Capital On Facebook, Ryan Paul Castillo 2209867 Aug 2018

“People You May (Or May Not) Know:” Usage Intensity, Status Motivation, And Intimate Self-Disclosure As Predictors Of Bridging Social Capital On Facebook, Ryan Paul Castillo 2209867

The Hilltop Review

Drawing on the concept of social capital, this study examines the impact of usage intensity, status motivations, and intimate public self-disclosure on Facebook users’ informational access and feelings of general social support. Survey data collected from a random sample of undergraduate Facebook users (n=583) were used to test several hypotheses predicting perceptions of bridging social capital. A multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model revealed significant positive associations between both Facebook usage intensity and status motivations, and perceptions of bridging social capital, while no significant relationships were found between various forms of intimate self-disclosure in public channels and perceptions ...


8.2 Conflict, Food And Water Security In Ethiopia, Desalegn Dagnew Aug 2018

8.2 Conflict, Food And Water Security In Ethiopia, Desalegn Dagnew

International Conference on African Development

Ethiopia and its people are kind and hospitable to all humanity irrespective of race, tribe, ethnicity, religion or creed. It has been, and still is, a refuge to hundreds of thousands of people who seek shelter and safety. The world knows Ethiopians as people who love their country and who do not hesitate to defend it by giving their dear lives, as was the case during the fascist Italian invasions of 1895 and 1936 where thousands of Ethiopians died fighting to preserve Ethiopia’s identity as the only country in Africa that has never been ruled by a European colonial ...


Emerging Issues On Research On Conflict, Terrorism And Development, Adesoji Adelaja Aug 2018

Emerging Issues On Research On Conflict, Terrorism And Development, Adesoji Adelaja

International Conference on African Development

No abstract provided.


5.2 Sources Of Women Empowerment Information And The Role Of Language Policy And Practice In The Process: The Case Of The Sidama Zone, Ethiopia, Mekdes Tegegnework Aug 2018

5.2 Sources Of Women Empowerment Information And The Role Of Language Policy And Practice In The Process: The Case Of The Sidama Zone, Ethiopia, Mekdes Tegegnework

International Conference on African Development

The population in Ethiopia consists of more than 50% women. Gender equality and women empowerment have been a fashion in Ethiopia’s governance discourse and by most of the NGOs functioning in the country for decades. Even though efforts by national and international agencies and the government have brought some changes in women empowerment to the country, significant numbers of women are still suffering from gender inequality. The fact that women empowerment is one of the key priorities in the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda; calls have come for the importance of revisiting the subject from different angles. Women empowerment is ...


2.2 Household Shocks And Child Labor: Evidence From A Panel Survey Of Nigerian Households, Wei-Chiao Huang, Kofi Acheampong Aug 2018

2.2 Household Shocks And Child Labor: Evidence From A Panel Survey Of Nigerian Households, Wei-Chiao Huang, Kofi Acheampong

International Conference on African Development

This paper studies the effects of household shocks on child labor and school enrollment. We used data from a two-year panel data set of Nigerian households surveyed between 2010/2011 and 2012/2013. We found that agricultural shocks, measured as crop and livestock losses, increase child labor hours and decrease the probability that a child will enroll in school. We also found that health shocks to men increase child labor hours. In contrast, health shocks to women have no impact on child labor hours and school enrollment.


How To Help Kids Succeed - School-Based Programs And Social Mobility, Theresa Bell Aug 2018

How To Help Kids Succeed - School-Based Programs And Social Mobility, Theresa Bell

Honors Theses

Education is the key to Social Mobility and unless children from poor families get a college degree, their economic mobility is severely restricted (Tough, 2016 pg 2). In November of 2005, the City unveiled a college tuition incentive to Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS) graduates, The Kalamazoo Promise. According to the Kalamazoo Promise website (2017), the purpose of the Promise is to, “provide a real meaningful and tangible opportunity for all students,” as “education is an important key to financial wellbeing.” Though access to an affordable college education is possible for Kalamazoo students eligible for The Promise, the numbers show that ...


College Self-Funding Predicting Deviant Behaviors, Darling Aug 2018

College Self-Funding Predicting Deviant Behaviors, Darling

Master's Theses

This study examines the effects of the source of college funding on student participation in four deviant behaviors: monthly binge drinking, monthly marijuana use, illicit drug use, and academic cheating. Using secondary data from a self-reported online survey conducted at a midwestern University, competing hypotheses based in general strain theory and social bond theory, were tested. Logistic regression analyses of the four deviant behaviors suggest that the source of college funding has a very limited effect. Only in the cases of marijuana use and illicit drug use were significant relationships observed; where students whose funding came from their parents were ...


Application Of A Three-Lever Drug Discrimination Method To Differentiate The Interoceptive Stimulus Effects Of 3, 4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And 4-Methylmethcathinone In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Bullock Aug 2018

Application Of A Three-Lever Drug Discrimination Method To Differentiate The Interoceptive Stimulus Effects Of 3, 4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And 4-Methylmethcathinone In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Bullock

Master's Theses

Psychoactive “bath salts” represent a continuing drug abuse problem. The synthetic cathinones, 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC) are popular constituents of “bath salts” in the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively. Addiction to these substances has proven difficult to treat, possibly requiring targeted therapeutics. Drug discrimination is a preclinical assay that may aid in treatment development. Thus far, two-lever (drug vs no drug) discrimination studies have exhibited asymmetrical substitution patterns between 4-MMC and MDPV. Therefore, a three-lever discrimination method was employed in which 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg MDPV, 2.0 ...


Evaluating The Efficacy Of Convolution Neural Networks In Age At Deat Estimation Using 3d Scans Of The Pubic Symphyseal Face, Brown Aug 2018

Evaluating The Efficacy Of Convolution Neural Networks In Age At Deat Estimation Using 3d Scans Of The Pubic Symphyseal Face, Brown

Master's Theses

The research presented assesses the utility of machine learning approaches, specifically convolutional neural networks (CNNs), to the estimation of age at death in adult decedents by analysis of the pubic symphyseal face of the os coxa rendered as a 3D image. Age at death estimation is an important duty of forensic anthropologists working in medico-legal contexts, as well as bioarcheological researchers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a CNN relative to the performance of human observers using traditional methods of age estimation. To accomplish this, a CNN created for this project and expert anthropologists were ...


Facebook Intensity Use Related To Gender Identity And Self-Esteem Among Female College Students, Zhang Aug 2018

Facebook Intensity Use Related To Gender Identity And Self-Esteem Among Female College Students, Zhang

Master's Theses

As a popular social media platform, Facebook has already become a vital part of college students’ social lives. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Facebook use, gender identity and the level of self-esteem among young female college students (from age 18 to 23). Previous studies have argued that Facebook has the ability to enhance or reshape gender identity by providing control over online self-presentation. In addition, by using Facebook intensively and frequently, users gain popularity (a larger network of Facebook friends), which also increases users’ self-esteem and the feeling of being connected with others. In ...


Evaluation Of Generalized And Specific Token Reinforcement Using A Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment And Progressive Ratio Schedules, Traxler Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Generalized And Specific Token Reinforcement Using A Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment And Progressive Ratio Schedules, Traxler

Master's Theses

Skinner (1953) stated that the effects of generalized conditioned reinforcers should maintain longer than specific conditioned reinforcers because their effects are not dependent on a particular motivating operation. Tokens easily model different levels of generality because tokens can be paired with one or more back-up reinforcers. In the current study, three types of tokens were assessed that could be exchanged for either salty snacks, food and drinks offered in a small marketplace, or money on a gift card. Token preferences were assessed using a Paired Stimulus preference assessment and a progressive ratio (PR) task. The results of the preference assessment ...


A Parametric Analysis Of Choice Under Risk, Sottile Aug 2018

A Parametric Analysis Of Choice Under Risk, Sottile

Master's Theses

Accurate assessment of risk propensity is important because risky choices underlie a broad range of behavioral problems. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) is an assessment that measures propensity to engage in risky choice. While this is a useful assessment, the BART changes two variables that affect risky choice simultaneously, probability of an undesirable outcome and stake size, which cannot be separated within the context of the BART. The goal of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of key factors that are likely to risky choice (Magnitude of payoff, probability of an undesirable outcome, and stake ...


Contribution Of Monoaminergic Mechanisms To The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Mdpv) In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Risca Aug 2018

Contribution Of Monoaminergic Mechanisms To The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Mdpv) In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Risca

Master's Theses

3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a popular synthetic cathinone reported to have a high abuse potential and comparable pharmacological actions to those of cocaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate a variety of monoaminergic agents for substitution, potentiation, or antagonism in rats trained to discriminate MDPV. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg MDPV and a variety of monoaminergic drugs were tested for substitution and/or potentiation of the MDPV cue. In separate experiments, stimulus antagonism tests were conducted with selected dopamine antagonists or serotonin antagonists in rats trained to discriminate 1 mg/kg MDPV ...


What Provides For Me As I Provide For Others? A Study Of Homeless Shelters Employees Within Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jezior Aug 2018

What Provides For Me As I Provide For Others? A Study Of Homeless Shelters Employees Within Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jezior

Master's Theses

Homeless shelters run on one thing: workers. Without workers there is no supportive aid for the homeless. A daunting and emotional job that is taken on by thousands, but why? Is the goal in entering this line of work to make an impact on homeless populations, a lasting difference? Everyone has their own personal reasons, however what are the main reasons for people going into a job like shelter work? What is it that motivates these workers to continue this line of work or motivates them to leave? It is a job that offers low pay, and emotional settings. A ...


The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Hochmuth Aug 2018

The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Hochmuth

Master's Theses

The gateway in-street sign treatment has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for increasing driver yielding behavior at crosswalks. In the present study, wide and narrow gateway widths were compared at two sites to determine if there was a differential effect on driver yielding behavior. Then, the relationship between width and yielding was refined with a parametric analysis at one of these sites. Gateway width was varied in two-foot intervals from 12ft to 18ft. The results indicated an inverse relationship between gateway width and driver yielding behavior. There are likely two variables related to this effect. First, because drivers ...


Black Graduate Students’ Experiences Of Stress And Coping, Shealyn J. Blanchard Aug 2018

Black Graduate Students’ Experiences Of Stress And Coping, Shealyn J. Blanchard

Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of Black graduate students related to stress and coping. Specifically, this study seeks to further examine the concept of cognitive appraisal and help-seeking intentions among Black graduate students. Research has indicated that Black graduate students face unique stressors related to race, in addition to general stress demands that can be experienced in graduate education programs. Regarding help-seeking, the literature has tended to focus on psychological help-seeking attitudes with African American populations and undergraduate students. This present study utilizes theories from stress and coping, as well as help-seeking and planned behavior ...


Primary Care Physician Delivered Brief Behavioral Intervention For Adult Obesity And Associated Health Conditions, Julia C. Huston Aug 2018

Primary Care Physician Delivered Brief Behavioral Intervention For Adult Obesity And Associated Health Conditions, Julia C. Huston

Dissertations

Obesity is a chronic health condition with prevalence rates that have continued to rise steadily over the past 30 years to the point that it has now been declared a global epidemic and a serious public health concern. Obesity is associated with significant physical and economic costs, primarily resulting from co-occurring health conditions that increase the risk of morbidity including type II diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary heart disease, and respiratory problems. Despite the dissemination of several obesity treatments, including pharmacotherapy, lifestyle modification, and bariatric surgery, the prevalence and severity of obesity continues to rise. Federal guidelines recommend the use ...


Demonstrating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy As An Independent Variable In Efficacy Research: A New Measure Of Treatment Fidelity, Lindsey E. Knott Aug 2018

Demonstrating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy As An Independent Variable In Efficacy Research: A New Measure Of Treatment Fidelity, Lindsey E. Knott

Dissertations

Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a contextual behavior therapy that takes an in session, in vivo focus to improve client outcomes. This in vivo (IV) focus is distinctive of FAP and involves the therapist utilization of contingencies in session to decrease problematic response classes and increase more adaptive response classes (i.e., a differential reinforcement procedure). This contingent responding is proposed to be FAP’s mechanism of action leading to client change. FAP efficacy research mainly consists of small n single-case studies or group designs combing FAP with another CBT intervention. Maitland & Gaynor (2012) offered recommendations for increasing FAP efficacy research, including the development of a reliable measure to determine whether a therapist implemented the distinguishing features of FAP. Maitland and Gaynor (2016) developed a 10-item fidelity measure, called the FAP Adherence Form (FAP-AF), to assess for aspects of FAP across 5 items and distinguish it from supportive listening (SL) assessed over 4 items. The measure was used in two FAP outcome studies (Maitland & Gaynor, 2016; Maitland et al., 2016) and it distinguished FAP ...


Treatment Preference, Changes In Preference, And Quality Of Life, Chelsea Sage-Germain Aug 2018

Treatment Preference, Changes In Preference, And Quality Of Life, Chelsea Sage-Germain

Dissertations

The current study investigates whether treatment preferences prior to beginning treatment are different from treatment preferences at later points in treatment, and whether preferences are related to treatment outcome. While research to date supports the notion that matching clients to treatment in line with their preferences can improve retention and outcomes, results have been equivocal. Further, this research is typically conducted by measuring preferences just one time, prior to starting treatment. It is conceivable that preferences for treatment change over time as patients become more knowledgeable about their presenting problems and about the therapy process. A total of 969 participants ...


Qualitative Analogue Study On Student Therapist’S Reactions To Client Suicidality, Cynthia A. Beevers Aug 2018

Qualitative Analogue Study On Student Therapist’S Reactions To Client Suicidality, Cynthia A. Beevers

Dissertations

Suicidal clients are a reality for both professional and student therapists providing counseling (Chemtob et al., 1988; Dexter-Mazza & Freeman, 2003; Goodman, 1995; Howard, 2000; Jacobson, Ting, Sanders, & Harrington, 2004; Kleespies, Penk, & Forsyth, 1993; Kleespies, Smith, & Becker, 1990; Mackelprang, Karle, & Cash, 2014; McAdams & Foster, 2000). Previous research has investigated the experiences of professional therapists working with suicidal clients, but little is known about student therapists’ experiences with suicidal clients. Only two studies were found investigating the experiences of student therapists working with suicidal clients (Kleespies et al., 1993; Kleespies et al., 1990). However, in the two studies explicitly focusing on student therapists’ experiences with suicidal clients, participants were doctoral students from clinical or counseling psychology programs that were in their pre-doctoral internship. No information was found regarding the experiences of student therapists currently attending a master’s degree program. Further, both studies exploring the experiences of doctoral students working with suicidal clients used a retrospective design ...


The Effects Of Decoding Instruction On Oral Reading Fluency For Older Students With Reading Delays, Gaige J. Johnson Aug 2018

The Effects Of Decoding Instruction On Oral Reading Fluency For Older Students With Reading Delays, Gaige J. Johnson

Dissertations

Struggling older readers often have difficulty with early decoding skills (Tolman, 2005; Toste, Williams, & Capin, 2017). If they are unable to master decoding, they may have difficulty with more complex skills, such as passage reading fluency. The current study extends research on reading fluency for older students by evaluating the combined effects of a phonics procedure and a fluency-building strategy on their reading fluency. Participants were older students with below grade level reading performance who had deficits in oral reading fluency and decoding. Dependent variables were the number of correctly sorted word patterns and the number of correct words per ...