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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2018

Western Michigan University

Master's Theses

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Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Passive Effects Of Full-Gateway, In-Street Signs On Vehicular Speed, Dixon Dec 2018

The Passive Effects Of Full-Gateway, In-Street Signs On Vehicular Speed, Dixon

Master's Theses

Reducing motorist’s speed when approaching crosswalks is an important goal in reducing the number of collision between motorist and pedestrian in crosswalks. The current study addresses this goal. The effect of gateway installation of in-street signs (one in-street sign installed between the two travel lanes in each direction and one on both edges of the roadway in each direction) on vehicle speed was evaluated on nine roads. The results demonstrated that the Gateway in-street sign treatment produced large speed reductions as vehicles approached the crosswalk and at the crosswalk. The average speed reduction was 3.8 mph at the ...


Fat Bias And Culture Shock: Psychosocial Adjustments In Post-Obesity Life, Macpherson Dec 2018

Fat Bias And Culture Shock: Psychosocial Adjustments In Post-Obesity Life, Macpherson

Master's Theses

Obesity in the United States is unprecedented levels, affecting adults and children as well. As our society has become for sedentary since industrialization, the nation has become fatter. The escalating rate of obesity has had a negative effect on the health of millions of Americans. Health problems such as metabolic disorders and other comorbidities, for instance, hypertension, Type II diabetes, heart disease, weight related cancers etc., (Mozaffarian and Benjamin 2013). The collective cost of obesity is to the nation is staggering, weighing in at $270 billion a year, childhood obesity costs nearly $15 billion alone (Hammond and Levine 2010). This ...


Facebook Intensity Use Related To Gender Identity And Self-Esteem Among Female College Students, Zhang Aug 2018

Facebook Intensity Use Related To Gender Identity And Self-Esteem Among Female College Students, Zhang

Master's Theses

As a popular social media platform, Facebook has already become a vital part of college students’ social lives. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Facebook use, gender identity and the level of self-esteem among young female college students (from age 18 to 23). Previous studies have argued that Facebook has the ability to enhance or reshape gender identity by providing control over online self-presentation. In addition, by using Facebook intensively and frequently, users gain popularity (a larger network of Facebook friends), which also increases users’ self-esteem and the feeling of being connected with others. In ...


Contribution Of Monoaminergic Mechanisms To The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Mdpv) In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Risca Aug 2018

Contribution Of Monoaminergic Mechanisms To The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Mdpv) In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Risca

Master's Theses

3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a popular synthetic cathinone reported to have a high abuse potential and comparable pharmacological actions to those of cocaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate a variety of monoaminergic agents for substitution, potentiation, or antagonism in rats trained to discriminate MDPV. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg MDPV and a variety of monoaminergic drugs were tested for substitution and/or potentiation of the MDPV cue. In separate experiments, stimulus antagonism tests were conducted with selected dopamine antagonists or serotonin antagonists in rats trained to discriminate 1 mg/kg MDPV ...


College Self-Funding Predicting Deviant Behaviors, Darling Aug 2018

College Self-Funding Predicting Deviant Behaviors, Darling

Master's Theses

This study examines the effects of the source of college funding on student participation in four deviant behaviors: monthly binge drinking, monthly marijuana use, illicit drug use, and academic cheating. Using secondary data from a self-reported online survey conducted at a midwestern University, competing hypotheses based in general strain theory and social bond theory, were tested. Logistic regression analyses of the four deviant behaviors suggest that the source of college funding has a very limited effect. Only in the cases of marijuana use and illicit drug use were significant relationships observed; where students whose funding came from their parents were ...


Application Of A Three-Lever Drug Discrimination Method To Differentiate The Interoceptive Stimulus Effects Of 3, 4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And 4-Methylmethcathinone In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Bullock Aug 2018

Application Of A Three-Lever Drug Discrimination Method To Differentiate The Interoceptive Stimulus Effects Of 3, 4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And 4-Methylmethcathinone In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Bullock

Master's Theses

Psychoactive “bath salts” represent a continuing drug abuse problem. The synthetic cathinones, 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC) are popular constituents of “bath salts” in the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively. Addiction to these substances has proven difficult to treat, possibly requiring targeted therapeutics. Drug discrimination is a preclinical assay that may aid in treatment development. Thus far, two-lever (drug vs no drug) discrimination studies have exhibited asymmetrical substitution patterns between 4-MMC and MDPV. Therefore, a three-lever discrimination method was employed in which 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg MDPV, 2.0 ...


Evaluating The Efficacy Of Convolution Neural Networks In Age At Deat Estimation Using 3d Scans Of The Pubic Symphyseal Face, Brown Aug 2018

Evaluating The Efficacy Of Convolution Neural Networks In Age At Deat Estimation Using 3d Scans Of The Pubic Symphyseal Face, Brown

Master's Theses

The research presented assesses the utility of machine learning approaches, specifically convolutional neural networks (CNNs), to the estimation of age at death in adult decedents by analysis of the pubic symphyseal face of the os coxa rendered as a 3D image. Age at death estimation is an important duty of forensic anthropologists working in medico-legal contexts, as well as bioarcheological researchers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a CNN relative to the performance of human observers using traditional methods of age estimation. To accomplish this, a CNN created for this project and expert anthropologists were ...


Evaluation Of Generalized And Specific Token Reinforcement Using A Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment And Progressive Ratio Schedules, Traxler Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Generalized And Specific Token Reinforcement Using A Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment And Progressive Ratio Schedules, Traxler

Master's Theses

Skinner (1953) stated that the effects of generalized conditioned reinforcers should maintain longer than specific conditioned reinforcers because their effects are not dependent on a particular motivating operation. Tokens easily model different levels of generality because tokens can be paired with one or more back-up reinforcers. In the current study, three types of tokens were assessed that could be exchanged for either salty snacks, food and drinks offered in a small marketplace, or money on a gift card. Token preferences were assessed using a Paired Stimulus preference assessment and a progressive ratio (PR) task. The results of the preference assessment ...


A Parametric Analysis Of Choice Under Risk, Sottile Aug 2018

A Parametric Analysis Of Choice Under Risk, Sottile

Master's Theses

Accurate assessment of risk propensity is important because risky choices underlie a broad range of behavioral problems. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) is an assessment that measures propensity to engage in risky choice. While this is a useful assessment, the BART changes two variables that affect risky choice simultaneously, probability of an undesirable outcome and stake size, which cannot be separated within the context of the BART. The goal of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of key factors that are likely to risky choice (Magnitude of payoff, probability of an undesirable outcome, and stake ...


What Provides For Me As I Provide For Others? A Study Of Homeless Shelters Employees Within Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jezior Aug 2018

What Provides For Me As I Provide For Others? A Study Of Homeless Shelters Employees Within Kalamazoo, Michigan, Jezior

Master's Theses

Homeless shelters run on one thing: workers. Without workers there is no supportive aid for the homeless. A daunting and emotional job that is taken on by thousands, but why? Is the goal in entering this line of work to make an impact on homeless populations, a lasting difference? Everyone has their own personal reasons, however what are the main reasons for people going into a job like shelter work? What is it that motivates these workers to continue this line of work or motivates them to leave? It is a job that offers low pay, and emotional settings. A ...


The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Hochmuth Aug 2018

The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Hochmuth

Master's Theses

The gateway in-street sign treatment has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for increasing driver yielding behavior at crosswalks. In the present study, wide and narrow gateway widths were compared at two sites to determine if there was a differential effect on driver yielding behavior. Then, the relationship between width and yielding was refined with a parametric analysis at one of these sites. Gateway width was varied in two-foot intervals from 12ft to 18ft. The results indicated an inverse relationship between gateway width and driver yielding behavior. There are likely two variables related to this effect. First, because drivers ...


Interannual Variations Of Snowfall In The Lower Peninsula Of Michigan And Impacts Of Local And Remote Meteorological Conditions, Koirala Apr 2018

Interannual Variations Of Snowfall In The Lower Peninsula Of Michigan And Impacts Of Local And Remote Meteorological Conditions, Koirala

Master's Theses

Inter-annual variation of snowfall and its relation to climate indices will help clarify and improve the prediction of total snowfall in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan (LPM). This study examines the trend and variability of annual snowfall (November- March) using 8 homogeneous weather stations in the LPM. The statistical relationship between snowfall and air temperature, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Maximum Ice Coverage(MIC) of Lake Michigan is calculated. The long-term trend in the snowfall data set from 1950 to 2015 is removed before any statistical correlation analysis is conducted. My analysis ...


Punks In The Church: The Relationship Between The Punk Subculture And Church In East Germany, Aardsma Benton Apr 2018

Punks In The Church: The Relationship Between The Punk Subculture And Church In East Germany, Aardsma Benton

Master's Theses

A punk subculture emerged in East Germany during the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was an expression of their disillusionment with life, their frustrations with the government, and their pessimistic view of a future that seemed pre-planned. The subculture refused to conform, disengaged from the established system, and expressed their views through song lyrics and other acts of defiance. In the eyes of the state, punks were a threat. The subculture turned to the East German Protestant churches for shelter. The churches occupied a unique place within East German society because the government had granted the churches limited free ...


Spatial And Temporal Changes In Halal Food Sales And Consumption A Case Study Of The City Of Dearborn, Michigan, Roodbar Apr 2018

Spatial And Temporal Changes In Halal Food Sales And Consumption A Case Study Of The City Of Dearborn, Michigan, Roodbar

Master's Theses

With a population of 3.2 million and growing in the US, Arab Americans are an integral part of the economy and culture of the United States and the world. The southeast portion of the state of Michigan is home to more than 300,000 Arab Americans. One of the main agents of cultural maintenance and support for the Arab American community are their ethnic food traditions, specifically Halal food. Since the introduction of Halal food in the United States, the sales and consumption of Halal products has increased immensely. This research seeks to answer four related questions focused on ...


Determinants Of Household Water Use In The City Of Kalamazoo, Michigan: The Role Of Climate And Socioeconomic Factors, Molenaar Apr 2018

Determinants Of Household Water Use In The City Of Kalamazoo, Michigan: The Role Of Climate And Socioeconomic Factors, Molenaar

Master's Theses

Located in the Great Lakes Watershed, the City of Kalamazoo can be considered “water rich”. Therefore, the area has been absent from water use studies. Water use studies are beneficial in all locations; as they can aid city planners, water resource managers, and utility companies. This study examines how household monthly water use in the City of Kalamazoo is impacted by both climate and socioeconomic variables over the period 2006-2016. Household level data were aggregated into census tracts to obtain monthly tract averages for the eleven-year period. Ordinary least squares regression (OLS) was used to determine which variables impact the ...


Deviance Fluidity On The Urban Landscape: Graffiti And Street Art As Non-Normative Placemaking, Mabie Apr 2018

Deviance Fluidity On The Urban Landscape: Graffiti And Street Art As Non-Normative Placemaking, Mabie

Master's Theses

Graffiti is recognized as an illegal deviant act. Sociologically, deviance is defined by the audience perceiving the act, rather than inherent in the act itself. In this context, deviance is subjective and fluid. This paper explores the spectrum of graffiti from criminal vandalism to celebrated art form in the context of its placement on the urban landscape. The fluidity of deviance is reflected in the concentration of different types of graffiti in different locations. The spatial distribution of graffiti writing, street art, and the equally illegal guerrilla marketing stickers, which mimic graffiti placement and street art styles, were collected in ...


Spatial Effects Of Foreign Direct Investment (Fdi) On Poverty Reduction In Colombia: A Mixed Methods Approach, Aguilar Apr 2018

Spatial Effects Of Foreign Direct Investment (Fdi) On Poverty Reduction In Colombia: A Mixed Methods Approach, Aguilar

Master's Theses

Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been identified as an important factor in stimulating economic growth and decreasing poverty. In particular, the relationship between FDI and economic growth has been extensively debated in the academic literature but with mixed results. Meanwhile, considerably less work has been done towards investigating the effects of FDI on poverty reduction. Evidence from the limited research linking on FDI and poverty levels is also mixed. Through a more comprehensive survey-based multi-scale method of assessing poverty, this empirical study investigates the contribution of FDI with respect to concurrent quantitative and qualitative assessment of changes in living standards ...


Investigation Of Discrete Element Methods For Stud To Turf Interactions, Rittenhouse Apr 2018

Investigation Of Discrete Element Methods For Stud To Turf Interactions, Rittenhouse

Master's Theses

Artificial turf is frequently used in sports today and attempts to advantageously replicate a natural grass/soil playing surface. Despite numerous advantages, the technology is correlated with an increase in injuries. The concept behind this research is to create and validate a discrete element model (DEM) for the ground/foot interaction through the use of open source software. After validation, the goal is to analyze an arrangement of studs to determine what role stud geometry plays on torque [N-mm] and force [N] generation. The validation data was provided through laboratory experiments. Three football studs attached to a rigid bracket were ...


Confidential Publics: Digital Reconciliation And Queer Muslim Identities, Mustafa Apr 2018

Confidential Publics: Digital Reconciliation And Queer Muslim Identities, Mustafa

Master's Theses

In this paper, I trouble constructions of community through exploring temporal spatial configurations of support for queer-identified Muslims living in America. I assert that when community is not something one can physically access, use of the internet to create temporary spaces of community is critical in assessing identity reconciliation between intersectional conflicting identity. As it relates to queer Muslims, where there is a distinct lack of public community, the level of crisis some individuals face is explored through their use of online vehicles to establish social support systems that would otherwise not be available. My paper provides a framework in ...


A Comparison Of Alternative Route Alignments For The North Country Trail Through Calhoun County, Mi, Lambert Apr 2018

A Comparison Of Alternative Route Alignments For The North Country Trail Through Calhoun County, Mi, Lambert

Master's Theses

Recreational hiking trails are a popular destination for local residents and tourists, offering health, educational, and social benefits. The North Country Trail (NCT) provides a unique hiking experience because of the many landscapes through which it travels. Because it spans across seven states in the Midwest, a hiker can travel through the mountains of New York, the hardwood forests of upper Michigan, and the plains of South Dakota along one route. When completed, the NCT will be about 4,600 miles; however, there are currently 1,900 miles of undeveloped connector routes during which the route is often located along ...


Deer-Vehicle Collisions In Kalamazoo County, Michigan: A Study Using Gis And Statistical Modeling, Laporte Apr 2018

Deer-Vehicle Collisions In Kalamazoo County, Michigan: A Study Using Gis And Statistical Modeling, Laporte

Master's Theses

Kalamazoo County ranked 15th among 83 Michigan counties in 2015 with 917 deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs). With the white-tailed deer population on the rise, the chances of collisions are also more likely to increase. Most predictive models developed for wildlife-vehicle collisions are used for specific areas and have localized characteristics that are hard to apply to different locations and animal species. By analyzing Kalamazoo County’s specific land cover, weather, traffic, and time variables with locations of deer-vehicle collisions throughout the county, characteristics are identified distinguishing between areas of differing risk. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can locate areas with a high ...


An Evaluation Of Domestic Violence Shelter Programs And Research Best Practices, Brown Apr 2018

An Evaluation Of Domestic Violence Shelter Programs And Research Best Practices, Brown

Master's Theses

Domestic violence is a prevalent social problem occurring all over the world. The numerous ways society addresses domestic violence programs varies causing further complications. This study aims to better understand some of the domestic violence research best practices, programs, and policies available through a national study examining innovative residential shelter programs. A content analysis of interviews, tour photos, shelter pamphlets/websites, and training materials suggested four themes. The main finding, however, suggested trauma-informed care should be implemented within safe housing for survivors of domestic violence.


Spectral Discrimination Of Phragmites Australis At Different Phenological Stages In Saginaw Bay, Michigan, Benedict Apr 2018

Spectral Discrimination Of Phragmites Australis At Different Phenological Stages In Saginaw Bay, Michigan, Benedict

Master's Theses

Michigan Great Lakes wetlands are among Michigan’s most significant bio-diversified ecosystems. One threat to this ecosystem is invasive species. Phragmites australis is one of these invasive species creating problems in the wetlands. Identifying Phragmites through satellite imagery creates difficulties in discriminating Phragmites from other vegetation accurately. This study used an ASD HandHeld 2 field spectroradiometer to identify the phenological spectral properties between Phragmites and cattails. The Euclidean distance was analyzed the spectral curves from the spectroradiometer to determine the separability between Phragmites and cattails. The largest Euclidean distance determined the best month to separate the spectral signatures of Phragmites ...