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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Sexual Harassment Of Biology And Biomedical Sciences Undergraduates: A Study On The Effects Of Larry Nassar And William Strampel, Kathleen Ryan Dec 2018

Sexual Harassment Of Biology And Biomedical Sciences Undergraduates: A Study On The Effects Of Larry Nassar And William Strampel, Kathleen Ryan

Honors Theses

Sexual harassment amongst undergraduate women of science is a prominent issue, gaining much media attention. The goal of this study is to determine if, and how, major sexual harassment cases impact women pursuing science-related careers, and what the sexual harassment climate is like for these individuals. The study will examine prevalence of harassment, common types of sexual misconduct, perpetrators, and severity through an anonymous survey. Additionally, this study will look into the effects of the Nassar and Strampel cases regarding desire to report harassment, and students’ fear of experiencing harassment in their future educations and careers. It is hypothesized that ...


The Ethical Dilemma Of Blowing The Whistle: Research Misconduct And Its Reporters, David Sottile Oct 2018

The Ethical Dilemma Of Blowing The Whistle: Research Misconduct And Its Reporters, David Sottile

The Hilltop Review

Research misconduct is a widespread issue that affects the credibility of science as a discipline. While a relatively small number of researchers engage directly in research misconduct, there is a larger number of researchers that are aware of research misconduct and do not report it. This permits falsified research to be disseminated throughout the scientific community. It is important to analyze both those engaging in research misconduct as well as those that are aware. The case example of Stephen E. Breuning is used throughout the paper. Stephen E. Breuning is a scientist that engaged in research misconduct that collaborated with ...


Burnout Among Filipino Occupational Therapists: A Mixed Methods Analysis, Rod Charlie Delos Reyes Oct 2018

Burnout Among Filipino Occupational Therapists: A Mixed Methods Analysis, Rod Charlie Delos Reyes

The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

Background: There is a shortage of practicing occupational therapists in the Philippines, with approximately one Filipino occupational therapist per 30,000 stakeholders. One of the possible consequences is the experience of burnout among therapists.

Method: A two-phase mixed methods study using a sequential explanatory approach was used. The first phase involved the administration of the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) with a survey questionnaire that supplied demographic and work-related factors through an online platform. The results were analyzed using frequency distribution and measures of central tendency. Relationships were analyzed using Spearman’s Rho and Cramer’s V. The ...


Kinship Diversion In The District Of Columbia: A Review Of Local Practice To Inform National Policy, Marla P. Spindel, Beth A. Stekler, Stephanie Ridgway Mcclellan Sep 2018

Kinship Diversion In The District Of Columbia: A Review Of Local Practice To Inform National Policy, Marla P. Spindel, Beth A. Stekler, Stephanie Ridgway Mcclellan

GrandFamilies: The Contemporary Journal of Research, Practice and Policy

This article addresses a practice commonly known in the child welfare community as “kinship diversion,” where a child welfare agency informally places children with relatives as an alternative to foster care. While evidence predominantly shows that abused and neglected children have better outcomes when they are placed with relatives when they cannot remain safely at home, serious concerns about these children’s safety and well-being arise when the placement with relatives is informal. Indeed, it is often not understood that these same relatives can be approved as foster parents and can receive essential financial assistance and supportive services to help ...


Primary Care Physician Delivered Brief Behavioral Intervention For Adult Obesity And Associated Health Conditions, Julia C. Huston Aug 2018

Primary Care Physician Delivered Brief Behavioral Intervention For Adult Obesity And Associated Health Conditions, Julia C. Huston

Dissertations

Obesity is a chronic health condition with prevalence rates that have continued to rise steadily over the past 30 years to the point that it has now been declared a global epidemic and a serious public health concern. Obesity is associated with significant physical and economic costs, primarily resulting from co-occurring health conditions that increase the risk of morbidity including type II diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary heart disease, and respiratory problems. Despite the dissemination of several obesity treatments, including pharmacotherapy, lifestyle modification, and bariatric surgery, the prevalence and severity of obesity continues to rise. Federal guidelines recommend the use ...


Demonstrating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy As An Independent Variable In Efficacy Research: A New Measure Of Treatment Fidelity, Lindsey E. Knott Aug 2018

Demonstrating Functional Analytic Psychotherapy As An Independent Variable In Efficacy Research: A New Measure Of Treatment Fidelity, Lindsey E. Knott

Dissertations

Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a contextual behavior therapy that takes an in session, in vivo focus to improve client outcomes. This in vivo (IV) focus is distinctive of FAP and involves the therapist utilization of contingencies in session to decrease problematic response classes and increase more adaptive response classes (i.e., a differential reinforcement procedure). This contingent responding is proposed to be FAP’s mechanism of action leading to client change. FAP efficacy research mainly consists of small n single-case studies or group designs combing FAP with another CBT intervention. Maitland & Gaynor (2012) offered recommendations for increasing FAP efficacy research, including the development of a reliable measure to determine whether a therapist implemented the distinguishing features of FAP. Maitland and Gaynor (2016) developed a 10-item fidelity measure, called the FAP Adherence Form (FAP-AF), to assess for aspects of FAP across 5 items and distinguish it from supportive listening (SL) assessed over 4 items. The measure was used in two FAP outcome studies (Maitland & Gaynor, 2016; Maitland et al., 2016) and it distinguished FAP ...


Qualitative Analogue Study On Student Therapist’S Reactions To Client Suicidality, Cynthia A. Beevers Aug 2018

Qualitative Analogue Study On Student Therapist’S Reactions To Client Suicidality, Cynthia A. Beevers

Dissertations

Suicidal clients are a reality for both professional and student therapists providing counseling (Chemtob et al., 1988; Dexter-Mazza & Freeman, 2003; Goodman, 1995; Howard, 2000; Jacobson, Ting, Sanders, & Harrington, 2004; Kleespies, Penk, & Forsyth, 1993; Kleespies, Smith, & Becker, 1990; Mackelprang, Karle, & Cash, 2014; McAdams & Foster, 2000). Previous research has investigated the experiences of professional therapists working with suicidal clients, but little is known about student therapists’ experiences with suicidal clients. Only two studies were found investigating the experiences of student therapists working with suicidal clients (Kleespies et al., 1993; Kleespies et al., 1990). However, in the two studies explicitly focusing on student therapists’ experiences with suicidal clients, participants were doctoral students from clinical or counseling psychology programs that were in their pre-doctoral internship. No information was found regarding the experiences of student therapists currently attending a master’s degree program. Further, both studies exploring the experiences of doctoral students working with suicidal clients used a retrospective design ...


Journey Interrupted: A Phenomenological Exploration Of Miscarriage, Marit A. Watson, Vanessa D. Jewell, Sarah L. Smith Jul 2018

Journey Interrupted: A Phenomenological Exploration Of Miscarriage, Marit A. Watson, Vanessa D. Jewell, Sarah L. Smith

The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

Background: Miscarriage is a significant life event that impacts occupational performance, identity, and competence and that influences perceptions of motherhood. Because of the lack of social rituals often attributed to the death of a loved one, miscarriages may result in disenfranchised grief, which impedes coping.

Methods: This phenomenological study explored the impact of miscarriage on relationships, perceptions of motherhood, and the meaning of occupation in the context of grief. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews (N = 4) and completion of a brief demographic questionnaire. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed to ensure accuracy. Using inductive thematic analysis ...


Normative Or Heavy Clouds? Early Indicators Of Nonverbal Learning Disability Based On Mothers’ Reports, Sara Rosenblum, Michal Piran, Sonya Meyer, Dalia Sachs Apr 2018

Normative Or Heavy Clouds? Early Indicators Of Nonverbal Learning Disability Based On Mothers’ Reports, Sara Rosenblum, Michal Piran, Sonya Meyer, Dalia Sachs

The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

Background: Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NVLD) are verbally competent and particularly weak in nonverbal, visuospatial, and social abilities. Most of the literature about NVLD discusses the all-around functioning and diagnosis process during school years. In this qualitative study, the perceptions of mothers of children with NVLD were explored in the context of their children’s daily functioning characteristics during their first 3 years. The aim was to identify early indicators and warning signs of NVLD during the developmental process.

Method: Five mothers participated in two in-depth, semi-structured retrospective interviews.

Results: Two main themes were identified: (a) “Everything was so ...


Assessment For Mild Cognitive Impairment: Striving For Best Practice, Julie Leigh Dalmasso Apr 2018

Assessment For Mild Cognitive Impairment: Striving For Best Practice, Julie Leigh Dalmasso

Dissertations

This dissertation is a series of three studies aimed at determining the best assessment practices for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that can employed by speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The first study was non-experimental and descriptive examining whether three commonly used assessment instruments yielded similar categorical results. The data were analyzed to determine whether the Eight-Item Interview to Differentiate Aging and Dementia (AD8), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Cognitive-Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT) identified the same participants from a neurotypical sample as having cognitive deficits. Very little agreement was found amongst the three tools.

Study two was modified to include two ...


Discovering Perspectives On Health And Well-Being From Parents And Teachers Of Preschool- Aged Children, Divya Sood, Delawnia Comer-Hagans, Dirk Anderson, Diana Basmajian, Ashley Bohlen, Michelle Grome, Irada Imanova, Kimberly Martin Jan 2018

Discovering Perspectives On Health And Well-Being From Parents And Teachers Of Preschool- Aged Children, Divya Sood, Delawnia Comer-Hagans, Dirk Anderson, Diana Basmajian, Ashley Bohlen, Michelle Grome, Irada Imanova, Kimberly Martin

The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

Background: This study explores the concept of health and well-being as perceived by teachers and parents of preschool-aged children in the specific context of a child day care facility. The study also identifies the barriers parents and teachers encounter and the supports they require in promoting the health and well-being of preschool-aged children.

Method: A qualitative phenomenological research design combined with a projective technique of Photovoice was used for data collection. A total of eight participants, four teachers and four parents of preschool-aged children from a child day care facility, participated in the study.

Results: Several themes were identified related ...