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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Application Of A Three-Lever Drug Discrimination Method To Differentiate The Interoceptive Stimulus Effects Of 3, 4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And 4-Methylmethcathinone In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Bullock Aug 2018

Application Of A Three-Lever Drug Discrimination Method To Differentiate The Interoceptive Stimulus Effects Of 3, 4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And 4-Methylmethcathinone In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Bullock

Master's Theses

Psychoactive “bath salts” represent a continuing drug abuse problem. The synthetic cathinones, 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC) are popular constituents of “bath salts” in the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively. Addiction to these substances has proven difficult to treat, possibly requiring targeted therapeutics. Drug discrimination is a preclinical assay that may aid in treatment development. Thus far, two-lever (drug vs no drug) discrimination studies have exhibited asymmetrical substitution patterns between 4-MMC and MDPV. Therefore, a three-lever discrimination method was employed in which 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg MDPV, 2.0 ...


Evaluation Of Generalized And Specific Token Reinforcement Using A Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment And Progressive Ratio Schedules, Traxler Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Generalized And Specific Token Reinforcement Using A Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment And Progressive Ratio Schedules, Traxler

Master's Theses

Skinner (1953) stated that the effects of generalized conditioned reinforcers should maintain longer than specific conditioned reinforcers because their effects are not dependent on a particular motivating operation. Tokens easily model different levels of generality because tokens can be paired with one or more back-up reinforcers. In the current study, three types of tokens were assessed that could be exchanged for either salty snacks, food and drinks offered in a small marketplace, or money on a gift card. Token preferences were assessed using a Paired Stimulus preference assessment and a progressive ratio (PR) task. The results of the preference assessment ...


A Parametric Analysis Of Choice Under Risk, Sottile Aug 2018

A Parametric Analysis Of Choice Under Risk, Sottile

Master's Theses

Accurate assessment of risk propensity is important because risky choices underlie a broad range of behavioral problems. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) is an assessment that measures propensity to engage in risky choice. While this is a useful assessment, the BART changes two variables that affect risky choice simultaneously, probability of an undesirable outcome and stake size, which cannot be separated within the context of the BART. The goal of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of key factors that are likely to risky choice (Magnitude of payoff, probability of an undesirable outcome, and stake ...


Contribution Of Monoaminergic Mechanisms To The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Mdpv) In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Risca Aug 2018

Contribution Of Monoaminergic Mechanisms To The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Mdpv) In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Risca

Master's Theses

3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a popular synthetic cathinone reported to have a high abuse potential and comparable pharmacological actions to those of cocaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate a variety of monoaminergic agents for substitution, potentiation, or antagonism in rats trained to discriminate MDPV. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg MDPV and a variety of monoaminergic drugs were tested for substitution and/or potentiation of the MDPV cue. In separate experiments, stimulus antagonism tests were conducted with selected dopamine antagonists or serotonin antagonists in rats trained to discriminate 1 mg/kg MDPV ...


The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Hochmuth Aug 2018

The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Hochmuth

Master's Theses

The gateway in-street sign treatment has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for increasing driver yielding behavior at crosswalks. In the present study, wide and narrow gateway widths were compared at two sites to determine if there was a differential effect on driver yielding behavior. Then, the relationship between width and yielding was refined with a parametric analysis at one of these sites. Gateway width was varied in two-foot intervals from 12ft to 18ft. The results indicated an inverse relationship between gateway width and driver yielding behavior. There are likely two variables related to this effect. First, because drivers ...


Primary Care Physician Delivered Brief Behavioral Intervention For Adult Obesity And Associated Health Conditions, Julia C. Huston Aug 2018

Primary Care Physician Delivered Brief Behavioral Intervention For Adult Obesity And Associated Health Conditions, Julia C. Huston

Dissertations

Obesity is a chronic health condition with prevalence rates that have continued to rise steadily over the past 30 years to the point that it has now been declared a global epidemic and a serious public health concern. Obesity is associated with significant physical and economic costs, primarily resulting from co-occurring health conditions that increase the risk of morbidity including type II diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary heart disease, and respiratory problems. Despite the dissemination of several obesity treatments, including pharmacotherapy, lifestyle modification, and bariatric surgery, the prevalence and severity of obesity continues to rise. Federal guidelines recommend the use ...


Treatment Preference, Changes In Preference, And Quality Of Life, Chelsea Sage-Germain Aug 2018

Treatment Preference, Changes In Preference, And Quality Of Life, Chelsea Sage-Germain

Dissertations

The current study investigates whether treatment preferences prior to beginning treatment are different from treatment preferences at later points in treatment, and whether preferences are related to treatment outcome. While research to date supports the notion that matching clients to treatment in line with their preferences can improve retention and outcomes, results have been equivocal. Further, this research is typically conducted by measuring preferences just one time, prior to starting treatment. It is conceivable that preferences for treatment change over time as patients become more knowledgeable about their presenting problems and about the therapy process. A total of 969 participants ...


Effects Of Multi-Day Music Enrichment On Salivary Cortisol And Cage Behavior In Shelter Dogs, Stacy D. Engerbretson Jun 2018

Effects Of Multi-Day Music Enrichment On Salivary Cortisol And Cage Behavior In Shelter Dogs, Stacy D. Engerbretson

Dissertations

Rehoming shelters provide their animals with environmental enrichment with the expectation that modifying the physical space will improve kennel-related stress and subsequently abate undesirable behaviors. Although enrichment has shown moderate success at improving in-kennel behavior, increased use of physiological measurements of stress, such as cortisol, has garnered doubt as to which canine behaviors are truly elicited by a biological state of distress. Consequently, it is unknown if past examples of successful kennel enrichment decreased biological stress in addition to affecting behavior. This study explored music’s effect on salivary cortisol and music’s potential as a long-term, kennel enrichment strategy ...


Behavioral Contrast Using A Simulated Organizational Task, Brandon M. Ring Jun 2018

Behavioral Contrast Using A Simulated Organizational Task, Brandon M. Ring

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to bridge a gap between Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) and the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB). Although OBM’s historical and scientific roots are nested within EAB, OBM research does not always strictly follow or adhere to basic research definitions or procedures. That is, terms that have specific operational definitions in EAB and Applied Behavior Analysis are sometimes used incorrectly in OBM research. Similarly, these terms are often associated with specific experimental procedures in basic literature, yet OBM research procedures may not follow the strict procedural guidelines. The purpose of the present study ...


The Effects Of Peer Observation On Teacher Intervention Integrity, Garrett D. Warrilow Jun 2018

The Effects Of Peer Observation On Teacher Intervention Integrity, Garrett D. Warrilow

Dissertations

The observer effect is a term used to describe a process during which an observer's behavior changes as they measure the behavior of another individual. The observer effect has been widely studied in organizational behavior management but has limited research with teachers in schools. The current study sought to use the observer effect as part of a teacher training package by evaluating the effects of peer observations on an observing teacher's implementation integrity of components of a Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) system. Participants were four middle school teachers of students in general education classrooms. The primary ...


Mixing Matching And Sabermetrics: Combining Advanced Analytics And The Generalized Matching Law In Nfl Football Play-Calling, Jacob Bradley Apr 2018

Mixing Matching And Sabermetrics: Combining Advanced Analytics And The Generalized Matching Law In Nfl Football Play-Calling, Jacob Bradley

Dissertations

The fields of advanced analytics in sports and quantitative analysis of behavior as it applies to sports have developed independently over the last several decades. Both fields share the common goal of using a quantitative approach to describe and predict behavior within sports beyond the common traditional verbal accounts. To date, the two fields have not directly intersected. The current study provides an overview of advanced analytics and quantitative analysis of behavior in sports, demonstrates how the two fields can be combined to better account for the behavioral processes involved in decision-making in sports, and identifies several possible ways the ...